Goka is located in the flatlands in the very western portion of Ibaraki Prefecture, bordered by Saitama Prefecture to the west and south. The Tone River, along with the Edo River and Naka River pass through the town.
The area of present-day Goka was part of Shimosa Province and was transferred to Ibaraki Prefecture in 1875 after the start of the Meiji period. The area was organized into the village of Goka within Nishikatsuragi District, Ibaraki Prefecture with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889. The district was abolished in 1896, becoming part of Sashima District.