Gokula

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For the ancient village, see Gokul.
Gokula
Zamindar
Successor Raja Ram Jat
Died 1670

Gokula or Gokul Singh (died 1670 AD) was a Jat zamindar of Tilpat in Mathura, India.[1] Gokula's birthname was Ola; he was the second of four sons born to Madu.[2] Gokula provided leadership to the Jat peasants who challenged the Imperial power. Gokula inspired the Jats to fight the Mughals.

The first serious outbreak of anti-imperial reaction took place among the Jats of Mathura district Uttar Pradesh, where the imperial faujdar, Abdun-Nabi, had oppressed them greatly. In 1669 the Jat peasantry rose under a leader, Gokula, zamindar of Tilpat, killed the faujdar, but the freedom of the district could not be maintained for more than a year, and they were suppressed by Hasan Ali Khan, the new faujdar of Mathura aided personally by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Gokula was put to death.[3]

Gokula left Sinsini[edit]

Around 1650-51, Madu and his uncle Singha had fought against the Rajput Raja Jai Singh backed by Mughal support in which Sindhuraj died and second son of Madu Ola became the successor. After this war Singha along with other Jat families in the fortress 'Girsa' moved to Mahavan beyond River Yamuna. Ola (Gokula) also moved with Singha to this place.[2]

Rise of Gokula[edit]

Gokula came on the scene when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb attempted to convert Dar-ul-Hurb (Hindustan) to Dar-ul-Islam forcibly through persecution and dogmatic policies. The 1669 Jat uprising in India under Gokula occurred at a time when the Mughal government was by no means weak.[citation needed] This period of Aurangzeb’s reign witnessed the climax of the Mughal Empire.[4] During the early medieval period frequent breakdown of law and order often induced the Jats to adopt a refractory course.[5] But with the establishment of Mughal rule, law and order was effectively established and there were no major Jat revolts during the century and a half preceding the reign of Aurangzeb,[citation needed] though in 1638 Murshid Quli Khan, the Mughal faujdar of Mathura, was killed during an operation against Jats. During the reign of Aurangzeb, the faujdar of Mathura in 1669 was Abdunnabi, who incurred the wrath of the people.[citation needed]

In early 1669, Aurangzeb appointed a strong follower of Islam, Abdunnabi, as faujdar of Mathura to curb the Hindus of this area. Abdunnabi established a cantonment near Gokul Singh and conducted all his operations from there. Gokula organized the farmers not to give taxes to the Mughals. The Mughal soldiers retaliated, beginning the struggle of the farmers. Meanwhile, Aurangzeb issued orders on 9 April 1669 to abolish the Hindu temples. As a result, a large number of Hindu temples and ancient heritages from the period of Kushans were damaged.[6] During May 1669 the faujdar Abdunnabi seized the village Sihora. Gokula was there and there was a fight in which Abdunnabi was killed. Gokula and his fellow farmers moved further, attacked and destroyed the Sadabad cantonment. Sadullakhan had founded Sadabad during the period of Shahjahan. This incidence inspired the Hindus to fight against the Mughal rulers.[7] The fights continued for five months.[8]

Rebellion[edit]

In 1669 the Jats rebelled under the leadership of Gokula.[9] Although dominated and led by Jats, the rebel forces included other local communities such as the Mev, Meena, Ahir, Gujjar, Naruka, and Panwar.[10] The rebels gathered at the village of Sahora (about 6 miles from Mathura). Abdun Nabi, the faujdar of Mathura, attacked them. At first he appeared to be gaining ground, but in the middle of the fighting he was killed on 12 May 1669.[citation needed]

The turbulence spread to Agra district also whereto Radandaz Khan was sent (13 May – 22nd Zil-Hijja) with a force to put down the rebels. Aurangazeb appointed Saf Shikan Khan as the new faujdar of Mathura.[citation needed] As arms failed to prevail, diplomacy was resorted to. The Mughal government offered to forgive Gokula provided he surrendered his spoils. But Gukula spurned the offer. On the other side, as the situation was assuming serious proportions, the Emperor had to proceed (28 November 1669) in person to the Disturbed area. On his way on 4 December 1669 (20th Rajab) Aurangazeb learnt of the circumstance of rebellion in the villages of Rewara, Chandarakanta and Sarkhud. He dispatched Hasan Ali Khan to attack these places. Till noon the insurgents fought with bows and muskets. Getting desperate thereafter, many of them having performed the jauhar of their women fell upon the Khan, A fierce fight raged till the evening in which many imperialists and 300 rebels were killed. Hasan Ali Khan returned to the Emperor, taking 250 male and female prisoners. Aurangazeb was pleased with his performance. He made him the faujdar of Mathura in place of Saf Shikan Khan who had obviously failed in suppressing the rebels.[citation needed]

Under Hasan Ali Khan, were placed 2,000 barqandaztroops 1000 archers 1000 musketeers 1,000 rocketmen, and 25 pieces of cannons. Amanulla, the faujdar of the environs of Agra, was also ordered to help Hasan Ali. The latter immediately got engaged in quelling the rebellion.[citation needed]

Battle of Tilpat[edit]

In 1669, Gokula with 20,000 followers rushed forward to face the Mughals 20 miles from Tilpat. Abdul Nabi, the local Faujdar official of Mughal of Mathura region, attacked them. At first he appeared to be gaining ground, but in the middle of the fighting he was killed on 12 may, 1669 (21st Zil-Hijja, 1079 A.H.).[11][12] Both sides suffered many casualties but the rebels could not cope with the trained Mughals and their artillery. They retreated to Tilpat, where Hasan Ali followed and besieged them with the reinforcement of 1000 Musketeers, 1000 Rocketmen, and 25 artillery pieces. Amanulla, the Faujdar of the environs of Agra were also sent to reinforce Hasan Ali.[13] Fighting continued for three days in which muskets and bows were used by the contestants. On the fourth day, the royalists charged the besieged from all sides and having made a breach in the walls entered Tilpat.[14] Then ensued a bloody conflict. The experienced Mughals won the day but not before losing 4000 men. Of the vanquished, 5000 lay dead, while 7000 were arrested.[citation needed].

Aurangzeb marched on November 28, 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat threat. The Mughals under Hasan Ali Khan and Brahmdev Sisodia attacked Gokula Jat.[15]

Death[edit]

Gokula and his two associates were captured alive through the efforts of Shaikh Razi-ud-Din, the peshkar of Hassan Ali. They and other prisoners were presented to the Emperor. Being furious, he ordered Gokula and Uday Singh to be hacked to death at Agra Kotwali on 1 January 1670. Other captives either met fate of their leader or were put in chains.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Habib, Irfan (2002). "Forms of Class Struggle in Mughal India". Essays in Indian History: Towards a Marxist Perception ; With, The Economic History of Medieval India: a Survey. Anthem Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-84331-025-9. 
  2. ^ a b Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 5
  3. ^ R. C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhari, Kalikinkar Datta: An Advanced History of India, 2006, p.490
  4. ^ J.N.Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XI-XIII
  5. ^ J.N. Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XXVIII f.
  6. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 33
  7. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 34
  8. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 35
  9. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 188. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  10. ^ Ganga Singh, op. cit., I, p. 64-65
  11. ^ SARKAR, JADUNATH. "Maasir-i-Alamgiri A history of emporer Aurangzeb Alamgir". AhleSunnah Library. 
  12. ^ Ojha, Dhirendra Nath. Aristocracy in medieval India. Orient Publications. p. 100. Retrieved 28 Aug 2007. 
  13. ^ Dwivedi, Prasad, Girish Chandra, Ishwari (1989). The Jats, their role in the Mughal Empire, Quoting Maasir, p. 83; Roznamcha, also known as Ibrat Nama by Mirza Muhammad, p. 133; Kamwar (pers. Ms.). Arnold Publishers. p. 27. ISBN 8170311500. 
  14. ^ Sharma, Gautam (1990). Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9788170231400. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  15. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 39
  16. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 50
Preceded by
--
Bharatpur ruler
? – 1670 AD
Succeeded by
Raja Ram