Gokula

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Gokula (also known as Gokal or Gokul Singh; died 1670 AD) was a Jat zamindar of Tilpat, in what is now the state of Haryana, India.[1] The second of four sons born to Madu, his birthname was Ola.[2] Gokula provided leadership to the Jat peasants who challenged the power of the Mughal Empire.

The first serious outbreak of anti-imperial reaction took place among the Jats of Mathura district, who had been oppressed by the imperial faujdar, Abdun-Nabi. In 1669, the Jat peasantry rose under the leadership of Gokula, resulting in the death of the faujdar. The freedom of the district could not be maintained for more than a year, and they were suppressed by Hasan Ali Khan, the new faujdar, who was aided by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Gokula was put to death.[3]

Gokula left Sinsini[edit]

Around 1650-51, Madu and his uncle Singha had fought against the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I with Mughal support. During the warfare, Sindhuraj died and thus Madu's second son, Ola, became his successor. After this war, Singha along with Ola and Jat families in the fortress of Girsa, moved beyond the River Yamuna to Mahavan.[2]

Rebellion[edit]

In early 1669, Aurangzeb appointed a strong follower of Islam, Abdunnabi, as faujdar of Mathura to curb the Hindus of the area. Abdunnabi established a cantonment near Gokul Singh and conducted all his operations from there. Gokula organised the farmers to withhold taxes from the Mughals, which caused the rulers to retaliate. Meanwhile, Aurangzeb issued orders on 9 April 1669 to abolish the Hindu temples, which led to a large number of Hindu temples and ancient heritage from the period of Kushans to be damaged.[4]

Although dominated and led by Jats, the rebel forces led by Gokula included other local communities such as the Mev, Meena, Ahir, Gujjar, Naruka, and Panwar.[5] They gathered at the village of Sahora where, During May 1669, Abdunnabi was killed while attempting to seize it. Gokula and his fellow farmers moved further, attacking and destroying the Sadabad cantonment. This inspired the Hindus to fight against the Mughal rulers.[6] The fighting continued for five months.[7][8]

Battle of Tilpat[edit]

In 1669, Gokula with 20,000 followers rushed forward to face the Mughals 20 miles from Tilpat. Abdunnabi attacked them. At first he appeared to be gaining ground, but in the middle of the fighting he was killed on 12 May 1669 (21st Zil-Hijja, 1079 A.H.).[9][dead link] [10] Both sides suffered many casualties but the rebels could not cope with the trained Mughals and their artillery. They retreated to Tilpat, where Hasan Ali followed and besieged them with the reinforcement of 1000 Musketeers, 1000 Rocketmen, and 25 artillery pieces. Amanulla, the Faujdar of the environs of Agra were also sent to reinforce Hasan Ali.[citation needed] Fighting continued for three days in which muskets and bows were used by the contestants. On the fourth day, the royalists charged the besieged from all sides and having made a breach in the walls entered Tilpat.[11] Aurangzeb marched on 28 November 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat threat. The Mughals under Hasan Alikhan and Brahmdev Sisodia attacked Gokula Jat.[12]

Death[edit]

Gokula and his two associates were captured alive through the efforts of Shaikh Razi-ud-Din, the peshkar of Hassan Ali. They and other prisoners were presented to the Emperor. Being furious, he ordered Gokula and Uday Singh to be hacked to death at Agra Kotwali on 1 January 1670. Other captives either met fate of their leader or were put in chains.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Habib, Irfan (2002). "Forms of Class Struggle in Mughal India". Essays in Indian History: Towards a Marxist Perception ; With, The Economic History of Medieval India: a Survey. Anthem Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-84331-025-9.
  2. ^ a b Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 5
  3. ^ R. C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhari, Kalikinkar Datta: An Advanced History of India, 2006, p.490
  4. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 33
  5. ^ Ganga Singh, op. cit., I, p. 64-65
  6. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 34
  7. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 35
  8. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 188. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  9. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath. "Maasir-i-Alamgiri A history of emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir". AhleSunnah Library.
  10. ^ Ojha, Dhirendra Nath. Aristocracy in medieval India. Orient Publications. p. 100. Retrieved 28 Aug 2007.
  11. ^ Sharma, Gautam (1990). Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9788170231400. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  12. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 39
  13. ^ Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 50
Preceded by
--
Bharatpur ruler
? – 1670 AD
Succeeded by
Raja Ram