Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes

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Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S.A.
IATA ICAO Callsign
Founded2000; 23 years ago (2000)
Commenced operations2001; 22 years ago (2001)
AOC #156 - November 5, 2019[1]
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer programSmiles
SubsidiariesMAP Linhas Aéreas
Fleet size146
Parent companyAbra Group
Traded asB3GOLL4
HeadquartersRio de Janeiro, Brazil[2]
Key people
RevenueIncrease R$ 7.4 billion (2021)[3]
Net incomeDecrease US$ -200.8 million (2018)
Employees13,969 (2021)[3]
The airline's previous logo used from 2001-2015

Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S.A ("Gol Intelligent Airlines S.A." also known as VRG Linhas Aéreas S/A) is a Brazilian low-cost airline based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[4] According to the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil (ANAC), between January and December 2019 Gol had 37.7% of the domestic and 3.8% of the international market shares in terms of passengers per kilometer flown, making it the largest domestic and third largest international airline in Brazil.[5][6]

Gol competes in Brazil and other South American countries primarily with LATAM Brasil, and Azul. It also owns the brand Varig, although now that name refers to what is informally known as the "new" Varig, founded in 2006, not to the extinct "old" Varig airline, founded in 1927.

Gol operates a growing domestic and international scheduled network. Its main hubs are São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport and Tancredo Neves International Airport near Belo Horizonte. Gol also has focus operations at Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont Airport, São Paulo-Congonhas Airport, Salgado Filho International Airport in Porto Alegre. Gol refers to itself as GOL Intelligent Airlines (GOL Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes in Portuguese) as a slogan.[7] The company is traded on the New York Stock Exchange as "GOL Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S.A.".[8]

The company's name is a Brazilian Portuguese word borrowing from the English word "goal" from Association football.[9] The company slogan is Nova Gol. Novos tempos no ar. (in Brazilian Portuguese); New Gol, New times on air. (in English).


The Boeing 737-700 airplane used in GOL's second commercial flight, showing the company's brand.
Gol ticket counter at Brasilia International Airport

The airline was established in 2000 as Gol Transportes Aéreos S.A. and started operations on 15 January 2001 with a flight from Brasília to São Paulo.[10] It is a subsidiary of the Brazilian conglomerate Grupo Áurea, based in Minas Gerais state, which has other transportation interests, including Brazil's largest long-distance bus company. Grupo Áurea in turn is owned by the Constantino family. Constantino Júnior was responsible for building the business next to the vice president of the company, David Barioni.[11][12]

In 2007, Gol was owned by AeroPar Participações (75.5%), Venture (17.6%), American International Group (5.4%) and Air France-KLM (1.5%).[13] The growth in GOL's stock price made the Constantino family a member of the Forbes magazine billionaire list in 2005.

In 2007, Gol was supposed to begin a code-share agreement with TAP Portugal, opening the European market to the Brazilian airline, and the internal Brazilian market to the Portuguese airline (the largest foreign airline in Brazil). Instead, TAP Portugal chose to cooperate with TAM Airlines.[14]

On 24 February 2010 Gol announced it was in "advanced talks" to join the Oneworld alliance,[15] which would allow it to catch up with rival TAM, a recent member of Star Alliance. However, on 6 October 2010, the airline announced a change in position by denying any interest in joining an alliance, preferring to remain independent and to establish a "patchwork of code-sharing agreements.".[16] Following this trend, on 28 September 2011 Gol and Aerolíneas Argentinas announced the intention to implement a codeshare, feeder and frequent flyer programs agreement on a date yet to be announced and pending approval from the governments of Brazil and Argentina.[17]

On 18 March 2010 Gol unveiled the expansion of its maintenance base located at Belo Horizonte/Confins - Tancredo Neves International Airport. Originally opened in 2006 with the capacity to service 60 aircraft per year (mainly Boeing 737 and 767), the expansion allowed Gol to increase the number to 120.[18] Gol later started also using the base to service aircraft from other airlines, and as of 2013 it also serviced airplanes from Azul Brazilian Airlines and Copa Airlines.[19][20]

On 23 December 2010, Gol Airlines started an operational partnership with Brazilian carrier Passaredo Linhas Aéreas. The agreement was rescinded on 31 July 2014, when Passaredo established a similar interline agreement with TAM Airlines instead.[21]

On 7 December 2011, Gol announced the intention of Delta Air Lines to purchase 3% of its shares.[22] The agreement also includes the creation of mutual code-share flights, alignment of frequent flyer benefits and transfer of GOL's Boeing 767s lease agreements to Delta.[23]

On 1 October 2012, Gol confirmed a firm order of 60 Boeing 737 MAXs. References did not specify the type of MAX aircraft.[24][25]

On 6 October 2012, Gol started seasonal operations to Miami and Orlando, available for Smiles account holders and originating in Brazil only. Technically, they are considered charter flights, although they are not necessarily part of an inclusive tour package; the use of miles or miles plus money is mandatory, as well as a minimum 7-day stay at the destination.[26]

In February 2014, Air France–KLM announced it would invest $100 million in Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes in advance of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympics.[27]

Some disagreement exists as to whether Gol is a low-cost carrier. In 2014, Gol was ranked the second-best low-cost airline in South America after Azul.[28] Gol refers to itself as a low-cost carrier, but it is increasingly not regarded as such. According to UFRJ specialist Elton Fernandes, "GOL's costs are not very different from those of TAM Airlines. People are accustomed to calling Gol low-cost, but Gol is not that. It is not even low-fare anymore.".[29]

On 26 September 2019, Delta announced that it will exit its minority stake in GOL, following Delta acquiring 20% stake of LATAM Airlines Group.[30]

Celso Ferrer became the CEO of the Brazilian airline 1 July 2022.[needs update][31]

In March 2023, Gol reduced frequencies in Fortaleza as well as cancelled the Fortaleza airline's hub.[32]

Purchase of Varig[edit]

Varig Boeing 737-700

On 28 March 2007 Gol officially purchased part of the assets of VARIG - VRG Linhas Aéreas, informally known as the "new Varig," a new company that owned the Varig brand, for US$320 million from Volo Group and MatlinPatterson Global Opportunities hedge fund. At that time, the "old Varig" was under bankruptcy protection. Gol Linhas Aereas Inteligentes SA posted a first quarter loss of 3.5 million Reais (2 million US dollars) after revenues of 1.6 billion Reais (one billion US dollars).

Gol announced that the Varig brand would continue doing business operating as such, rather than its official name VRG Linhas Aéreas.[33] The transaction, via its GTI subsidiary, required a US$98 million cash payment, with the balance through the allocation of non-voting shares to VARIG Logística and Volo, which had acquired VARIG in June 2006 for US$24 million.[34] The transaction did not involve the original airline, informally known as "old Varig," which continued to exist until its own bankruptcy in mid-2010 under the name Flex Linhas Aéreas.

In 2009 Gol was merged into VRG Linhas Aéreas. VRG Linhas Aéreas thus became an airline that operates two brands: Gol and Varig, although in reality flights are operated only under Gol flight numbers. Initially, the Varig brand operated to medium-haul scheduled and charter international destinations within South America and to the Caribbean with Boeing 737-700's configured in two classes, and to long-haul charter international destinations in North America, Europe and Africa with Boeing 767-300ERs configured in economy only. The latter were also used in wet-lease operations.[35] This scheme was later dropped. The brand Gol operates most of the flights of the network, and had aircraft configured in all-economy class, used for scheduled domestic and international operations within South America.

Because of contractual obligations, between 2006 and 2009 the "new Varig" (VRG Linhas Aéreas) was obliged to purchase a minimum of 140 hours/month of services from the "old Varig" (Flex Linhas Aéreas). Therefore, at that time, some of VRG Linhas Aéreas flights operated with Gol flight numbers but were actually flown with chartered aircraft from Flex Linhas Aéreas. The agreement ceased before the bankruptcy of Flex on 20 August 2010.[36]

Purchase of Webjet Linhas Aéreas[edit]

Webjet Boeing 737-300

On 9 July 2011, VRG Linhas Aéreas, owner of the brands Gol and Varig, announced the intention to purchase full control of WebJet Linhas Aéreas.[37] The purchase contract was signed on 2 August 2011.[38] On 10 October 2012 the purchase received its final approval with some operational restrictions from the Brazilian regulatory agency.[39] Services were integrated but both companies continued to operate independently for some weeks.[40][41] Integration started on 17 October 2012 when sales requested via Webjet's web-portal started to be redirected to GOL's site.[42] However, on 23 November 2012 Webjet abruptly ceased to operate and all services were incorporated by GOL. The Webjet brand ceased to exist.[40][41] Gol also announced its intention to return all of Webjet's Boeing 737-300s to lessors until the end of the first quarter of 2013. There was no mention to the fate of Webjet's 737-800s.[43]

Partnership with TwoFlex[edit]

On 12 April 2019, Gol announced an adapted Essential Air Service partnership with TwoFlex in which the latter would operate feeder services on behalf of Gol in the States of Amazonas, Pará and Mato Grosso using the Cessna 208 Caravan. The flights are marketed by Gol in its reservation platform but operated by TwoFlex and integrated into the network of Gol. This partnership greatly increased the number of Gol destinations in these three States.[44] However, on 14 January 2020 Azul Brazilian Airlines signed an agreement to purchase Twoflex.[45] On 27 March 2020 the Brazilian regulatory bodies gave the nihil obstat to the purchase[46] and sale of flights started on 14 April 2020.[47] thus ending the partnership.

Purchase of MAP Linhas Aéreas[edit]


On 8 June 2021 Gol Linhas Aéreas announced the purchase of MAP Linhas Aéreas from Voepass Linhas Aéreas. The transaction included 26 slots at São Paulo–Congonhas Airport belonging to MAP and Voepass. MAP's Amazonian operations and much of its fleet would be transferred to Voepass.[48]

Operational agreement with VoePass[edit]

Between August 2021 and May 2023 Gol and VoePass has an operational agreement in which the latter operated certain routes for the former.[49]


As of July 2023, Gol Transportes Aéreos serves the following destinations:[50]

Country City Airport Notes Refs and Notes
Argentina Bariloche Teniente Luis Candelaria Airport Terminated
Buenos Aires Aeroparque Jorge Newbery [51]
Ministro Pistarini International Airport [52]
Córdoba Ingeniero Aeronáutico Ambrosio L.V. Taravella International Airport [53]
Mendoza Governor Francisco Gabrielli International Airport [54]
Rosario Islas Malvinas International Airport [55]
Aruba Oranjestad Queen Beatrix International Airport Terminated
Barbados Bridgetown Grantley Adams International Airport Terminated
Bolivia Santa Cruz de la Sierra Viru Viru International Airport [56]
Brazil Altamira Altamira Airport Terminated
Aracaju Santa Maria Airport
Araçatuba Araçatuba Airport
Araguaína Araguaína Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Barreiras Barreiras Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Bauru Bauru Airport Terminated
Belém Val de Cans International Airport Focus city
Belo Horizonte Pampulha – Carlos Drummond de Andrade Airport Terminated
Tancredo Neves International Airport
Boa Vista Boa Vista International Airport
Bonito Bonito Airport
Brasília Brasília International Airport Hub
Cabo Frio Cabo Frio International Airport Terminated [57]
Caldas Novas Caldas Novas Airport
Campina Grande Campina Grande Airport
Campinas Viracopos International Airport
Campo Grande Campo Grande International Airport
Carajás (Parauapebas) Carajás Airport
Cascavel Regional West Airport
Caxias do Sul Hugo Cantergiani Regional Airport
Chapecó Serafin Enoss Bertaso Airport
Cruzeiro do Sul Cruzeiro do Sul International Airport
Cuiabá Marechal Rondon International Airport
Curitiba Afonso Pena International Airport
Dourados Francisco de Matos Pereira Airport Terminated
Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha Airport Terminated [58]
Florianópolis Hercílio Luz International Airport
Fortaleza Pinto Martins – Fortaleza International Airport
Foz do Iguaçu Foz do Iguaçu International Airport
Goiânia Santa Genoveva Airport
Ilhéus Ilhéus Jorge Amado Airport
Imperatriz Imperatriz Airport Terminated
Ipatinga Vale do Aço Regional Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Jericoacoara Comte. Ariston Pessoa Regional Airport
João Pessoa Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport
Joinville Joinville-Lauro Carneiro de Loyola Airport
Juazeiro do Norte Orlando Bezerra de Menezes Airport
Juiz de Fora Zona da Mata Regional Airport
Lençóis Coronel Horácio de Mattos Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Londrina Londrina Airport
Macapá Macapá International Airport
Maceió Zumbi dos Palmares International Airport
Manaus Eduardo Gomes International Airport Focus city
Marabá Marabá Airport
Maringá Maringá Regional Airport
Montes Claros Montes Claros Airport
Natal Augusto Severo International Airport Airport Closed
Governador Aluízio Alves International Airport
Navegantes Ministro Victor Konder International Airport
Palmas Palmas Airport
Passo Fundo Lauro Kurtz Airport
Paulo Afonso Paulo Afonso Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Pelotas Pelotas International Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Petrolina Petrolina Airport
Porto Alegre Salgado Filho International Airport
Porto Seguro Porto Seguro Airport
Porto Velho Governador Jorge Teixeira de Oliveira International Airport
Presidente Prudente Presidente Prudente Airport
Recife Recife/Guararapes–Gilberto Freyre International Airport
Ribeirão Preto Leite Lopes Airport
Rio Branco Rio Branco International Airport
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport Focus city
Santos Dumont Airport Focus city
Rio Verde Gal. Leite de Castro Airport Terminated
Rondonópolis Maestro Marinho Franco Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Salvador da Bahia Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport Hub
Santa Maria Santa Maria Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Santarém Santarém-Maestro Wilson Fonseca Airport
Santo Ângelo Sepé Tiaraju Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
São José dos Campos São José dos Campos Airport Terminated
São José do Rio Preto Prof. Eribelto Manoel Reino Airport
São Luís Marechal Cunha Machado International Airport
São Paulo São Paulo–Congonhas Airport Hub
São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport Hub
Sinop Sinop Airport
Sorriso Adolino Bedin Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Teresina Teresina Airport
Teixeira de Freitas 9 de maio Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Uberaba Uberaba Airport
Uberlândia Uberlândia Airport
Uruguaiana Ruben Berta International Airport Terminated Operated by Voepass
Vitória Eurico de Aguiar Salles Airport
Vitória da Conquista Pedro Otacílio Figueiredo Airport Airport Closed
Glauber Rocha Airport
Chile Santiago Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport Terminated
Colombia Bogotá El Dorado International Airport Terminated
Curaçao Willemstad Curaçao International Airport Terminated
Dominican Republic La Romana La Romana International Airport Terminated
Punta Cana Punta Cana International Airport [59]
Santo Domingo Las Américas International Airport Terminated
Ecuador Quito Mariscal Sucre International Airport Terminated
Mexico Cancún Cancún International Airport Terminated [60]
Paraguay Asunción Silvio Pettirossi International Airport [61]
Perú Lima Jorge Chávez International Airport Terminated
Surinam Paramaribo Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport [62]
Trinidad and Tobago Scarborough Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson International Airport Terminated
United States Fort Lauderdale Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport Terminated
Miami Miami International Airport [63]
New York City John F. Kennedy International Airport Terminated
Orlando Orlando International Airport [64]
Uruguay Montevideo Carrasco/General Cesáreo L. Berisso International Airport [65]
Punta del Este Capitán de Corbeta Carlos A. Curbelo International Airport Terminated
Venezuela Caracas Simón Bolívar International Airport Terminated

Additionally, Gol operates dedicated executive bus services between São Paulo airports for its passengers and affiliate airlines:[66]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Gol has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[67]


Boeing 737-800.

Current fleet[edit]

As of September 2022, Gol operates an all-Boeing 737 fleet, consisting of the following aircraft:[71][72]

Aircraft In service Orders Passengers Notes
Y+ Y Total
Boeing 737-700 19 42 104 144
Boeing 737-800 84 36 150 186
Boeing 737 MAX 8 38 92[73][74] 36 144 180 Order with 100 options and 100 purchase rights.[75]
PR-XMR in sustainability livery.[76]
42 144 186
Gol Cargo fleet
Boeing 737-800BCF 1 5 Cargo [77][78]
Total 142 97

Former fleet[edit]

Gol formerly operated the following aircraft:

Aircraft Total Introduced Retired Notes
Boeing 737-300 15 2004 2011
Boeing 767-200ER 1 2010 2011
Boeing 767-300ER 4 2009 2011

Airline Affinity Program[edit]

Smiles is GOL/Varig's Frequent-flyer program since 20 July 2006. Points can be used for services from GOL/Varig, and partners Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeromexico, Air Canada, Air Europa, Air France, Alitalia, American Airlines, Avianca, British Airways, Copa Airlines, Emirates, Etihad, Iberia, KLM, Qatar Airways and TAP Air Portugal, including flights, upgrades, holidays, hotel stays and car rentals. Smiles was part of the "new Varig" package bought by GOL, which honored all miles and eventually became its own frequent-flyer program. Previously Gol had no such program.[citation needed]

On a study conducted in 2011, Smiles ranked third among 24 chosen frequent flyer programs, with 97.1% success of requests made.[79]

In 2013, Smiles was spun off as an independent company eventually leading to its IPO at BOVESPA in April 2013.[80][81]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

See also[edit]


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