Jump to content

Gold Coast (British colony)

Coordinates: 5°33′00″N 0°13′00″W / 5.5500°N 0.2167°W / 5.5500; -0.2167
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Colony of the Gold Coast
Badge of Ghana
Anthem: God Save the King (1821–1837; 1901–1952)
God Save the Queen (1837–1901; 1952–1957)
The Gold Coast in 1922
The Gold Coast in 1922
StatusBritish colony
CapitalCape Coast (1821–1877)
Accra (1877–1957)
Common languagesEnglish (official)
French, Ga, Akan, Ewe language, Dangme, Dagbani, Dagaare, Gonja, Kasena, Nzema widely spoken
Christianity, Islam, Traditional African religions
• 1821–1830 (first)
George IV
• 1830-1837 (second)
William IV
• 1837-1901 (third)
• 1901-1910 (fourth)
Edward VII
• 1910-1936 (fifth)
George V
• 1936-1936 (sixth)
Edward VIII
• 1936-1952 (seventh)
George VI
• 1952–1957 (last)
Elizabeth II
• 1821–1822 (first)
John Hope Smith
• 1949–1957 (last)
Charles Arden-Clarke
LegislatureLegislative Council
• Colony established
• Incorporation of the Danish Gold Coast
• Incorporation of the Dutch Gold Coast
6 April 1872
• Combination with local kingdoms
• Admission of British Togoland
27 December 1916
• New constitution establishing the Legislative Assembly[a]
• Incorporation of British Togoland
11 December 1956
• Independence as the Dominion of Ghana
6 March 1957
1924[2]207,199 km2 (80,000 sq mi)
• 1924[2]
CurrencyGold Coast ackey British West African pound
ISO 3166 codeGH
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ashanti Empire
British Togoland
Dutch Gold Coast
Danish Gold Coast
Dominion of Ghana
Today part ofGhana

The Gold Coast was a British Crown colony on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa from 1821 until its independence in 1957 as Ghana.[3] The term Gold Coast is also often used to describe all of the four separate jurisdictions that were under the administration of the Governor of the Gold Coast. These were the Gold Coast itself, Ashanti, the Northern Territories protectorate and the British Togoland trust territory.[4]

The first European explorers to arrive at the coast were the Portuguese in 1471. They encountered a variety of African kingdoms, some of which controlled substantial deposits of gold in the soil.[5] In 1483, the Portuguese came to the continent for increased trade.[6] They built the Castle of Elmina, the first European settlement on the Gold Coast. From here they acquired slaves and gold in trade for European goods, such as metal knives, beads, mirrors, rum, and guns.[7] News of the successful trading spread quickly, and British, Dutch, Danish, Prussian and Swedish traders arrived as well.[8] The European traders built several forts along the coastline.[9] The Gold Coast had long been a name for the region used by Europeans because of the large gold resources found in the area.[10] The slave trade was the principal exchange and major part of the economy for many years. In this period, European nations began to explore and colonize the Americas.[11] Soon the Portuguese and Spanish began to export African slaves to the Caribbean, and North and South America. The Dutch and British also entered the slave trade, at first supplying slaves to markets in the Caribbean and on the Caribbean coast of South America.[12]

The Royal Trading Company was established by the Crown in 1752 to lead its trading in Africa. It was replaced by the African Company of Merchants, which led the British trading efforts into the early 19th century.[13] In 1821, the British government withdrew their charter and seized privately held lands along the coast.[14] In 1821, the government formed the British Gold Coast colony, after having taken over the remaining interests of other European countries.[15] They purchased and incorporated the Danish Gold Coast in 1850 and the Dutch Gold Coast, including Fort Elmina, in 1872.[16] Britain steadily expanded its colony through the invasion and subjection of local kingdoms as well, particularly the Ashanti and Fante confederacies.[17]

The Ashanti people had controlled much of the territory of Ghana before the Europeans arrived and were often in conflict with them.[18] In the 21st century they continue to constitute the largest ethnic community in Ghana. Four wars, the Anglo-Ashanti Wars, were fought between the Ashanti (Asante) and the British, who were sometimes allied with the Fante.[19]

During the First Anglo-Ashanti War (1822–24), the two groups fought because of a disagreement over an Ashanti chief. Sergeant Kujo Otetfo of the Royal African Colonial Corps became involved in a verbal dispute with an Ashanti trader, and in the words of a British doctor, Walton Claridge "grossly abused the King of Ashanti, and it was this insignificant event that provided the spark that set the whole country in a blaze of war".[20] Tensions increased in 1874 during the Second Ashanti War (1873–74) when the British sacked the Ashanti capital of Kumasi. The Third Ashanti War (1893–94) occurred because the new Ashanti ruler Asantehene wanted to exercise his new title.[21] From 1895 to 1896 the British and Ashanti fought in the Fourth and final Ashanti War, where the Ashanti fought for and lost their independence.[22] In 1900, the Ashanti Uprising took place. The British suppressed the violence and captured the city of Kumasi.[23] At the end of this last Ashanti War, the territory of the Ashanti people became a British protectorate on 1 January 1902.[24]

By 1901, the British had established a colony incorporating all of the Gold Coast, with its kingdoms and tribes considered a single unit. The British exploited and exported a variety of natural resources such as gold, metal ores, diamonds, ivory, pepper, timber, grain and cocoa.[25] The British colonists built railways and a complex transport infrastructure to support the shipment of these commodities. This formed the basis for the transport infrastructure in modern-day Ghana.[26]

By 1945, in the wake of a major colonial role in the Second World War, nationalists in the Gold Coast took a leadership role in demanding more autonomy.[27] In 1951–55, they shared power with Britain. By 1956, British Togoland, the Northern Territories protectorate and the Ashanti protectorate were merged with the Gold Coast to create one colony, which became known as the Gold Coast.[28] The Ghana Independence Act 1957 constituted the Gold Coast Crown Colony as part of the new dominion of Ghana.[29]


British rule[edit]

By the late 19th century, the British, through conquest or purchase, occupied most of the forts along the coast. Two major factors laid the foundations of British rule and the eventual establishment of a colony on the Gold Coast: British reaction to the Asante wars and the resulting instability and disruption of trade, and Britain's increasing preoccupation with the suppression and elimination of the slave trade.[30][31]

During most of the 19th century, Asante, the most powerful state of the Akan interior, sought to expand its rule and to promote and protect its trade.[32] The first Asante invasion of the coastal regions took place in 1807; the Asante moved south again in the Ga-Fante War of 1811 and in the Ashanti–Akim–Akwapim War of 1814–16.[33] These invasions, though not decisive, disrupted trade in such products as feathers, ivory, rubber and palm oil, and threatened the security of the European forts. Local British, Dutch, and Danish authorities were all forced to come to terms with the Asante.[34] In 1817, the African Company of Merchants signed a treaty of friendship that recognised Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast and its peoples.[31][35] The assets of the African Company of Merchants consisted primarily of nine trading posts or factories: Fort William, Fort James, Fort Sekondi, Fort Winneba, Fort Apollonia, Fort Tantumquery, Fort Metal Cross, Fort Komenda, and Cape Coast Castle, the last of which was the administrative centre.[36]

The coastal people, primarily some of the Fante and the inhabitants of the new town of Accra, who were chiefly Ga, came to rely on British protection against Asante incursions.[37] But the merchant companies had limited ability to provide such security. The British Crown dissolved the company in 1821, giving authority over British forts on the Gold Coast to Charles MacCarthy, governor of the colony of Sierra Leone.[38] The British forts and Sierra Leone remained under common administration for the first half of the century.[39] MacCarthy's mandate was to impose peace and to end the slave trade. He sought to do this by encouraging the coastal peoples to oppose Kumasi rule and by closing the great roads to the coast. Incidents and sporadic warfare continued, however.[40] In 1824, MacCarthy was killed and most of his force was wiped out in a battle with Asante forces.[41] The British were able to defeat an Asante invasion of the coast in 1826 with a combined force of British and local forces, including the Fante and the people of Accra.[31][42]

The First Anglo-Ashanti War

When the British government allowed control of the Gold Coast settlements to revert to the British African Company of Merchants in the late 1820s, relations with Asante were still problematic.[15] From the Asante point of view, the British had failed to control the activities of their local coastal allies.[43] Had this been done, Asante might not have found it necessary to attempt to impose peace on the coastal peoples. MacCarthy's encouragement of coastal opposition to Asante and the subsequent 1824 British military attack further indicated to Asante leaders that the Europeans, especially the British, did not respect Asante.[31][35]

In 1830, a London committee of merchants chose Captain George Maclean to become president of a local council of merchants.[44] Although his formal jurisdiction was limited, Maclean's achievements were substantial; for example, he arranged a peace treaty with Asante in 1831.[45] Maclean also supervised the coastal people by holding regular court in Cape Coast, where he sentenced and punished those found guilty of disturbing the peace.[46] Between 1830 and 1843, while Maclean was in charge of affairs on the Gold Coast, no confrontations occurred with Asante. The volume of trade reportedly increased threefold.[47]

The Portuguese-built Elmina Castle was purchased by Britain in 1873. Also known as St. George Castle, it is now a World Heritage Site

Maclean's exercise of limited judicial power on the coast was so effective that a parliamentary committee recommended that the British government permanently administer its settlements and negotiate treaties with the coastal chiefs to define Britain's relations with them.[48] The government did so in 1843, the same year crown government was reinstated. Commander Henry Worsley Hill was appointed first governor of the Gold Coast. Under Maclean's administration, several coastal tribes had submitted voluntarily to British protection.[49] Hill proceeded to define the conditions and responsibilities of his jurisdiction over the protected areas. He negotiated a special treaty with a number of Fante and other local chiefs that became known as the Bond of 1844.[50] This document obliged local leaders to submit serious crimes, such as murder and robbery, to British jurisdiction; it laid the legal foundation for subsequent British colonisation of the coastal area.[31]

Additional coastal states as well as other states farther inland eventually signed the bond, and British influence was accepted, strengthened, and expanded.[51] Under the terms of the 1844 arrangement, the British appeared to provide security to the coastal areas; thus, an informal protectorate came into being.[52] As responsibilities for defending local allies and managing the affairs of the coastal protectorate increased, the administration of the Gold Coast was separated from Sierra Leone in 1850.[31][53]

At about the same time, growing acceptance of the advantages offered by the British presence led to the initiation of another important step.[54] In April 1852, local chiefs and elders met at Cape Coast to consult with the governor on means of raising revenue. With the governor's approval, the council of chiefs constituted itself as a legislative assembly.[55] In approving its resolutions, the governor indicated that the assembly of chiefs should become a permanent fixture of the protectorate's constitutional machinery, but the assembly was given no specific constitutional authority to pass laws or to levy taxes without the consent of the people.[31][56][57]

Following the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War in 1896, the British proclaimed a protectorate over the Ashanti Kingdom.

In 1872, British influence over the Gold Coast increased further when Britain purchased the Dutch Gold Coast.[58] The Asante, who for years had considered the Dutch at Elmina as their allies, thereby lost their last trade outlet to the sea. To prevent this loss and to ensure that revenue received from that post continued, the Asante staged their last invasion of the coast in 1873.[59] After early successes, they finally came up against well-trained British forces who compelled them to retreat beyond the Pra River.[60] Later attempts to negotiate a settlement with the British were rejected by the commander of their forces, Major General Sir Garnet Wolseley. To settle the Asante problem permanently, the British invaded Asante with a sizeable military force.[61] The attack, launched in January 1874 by 2,500 British soldiers and large numbers of African auxiliaries, resulted in the occupation and burning of Kumasi, the Asante capital.[31][62]

The subsequent peace treaty required the Asante to renounce any claim to many southern territories. The Asante also had to keep the road to Kumasi open to trade. From this point on, Asante power steadily declined. The confederation slowly disintegrated as subject territories broke away and as protected regions defected to British rule.[63] Enforcement of the treaty led to recurring difficulties and outbreaks of fighting. In 1896, the British dispatched another expedition that occupied Kumasi and forced Asante to become a protectorate of the British Crown. The British abolished the position of asantehene and exiled the incumbent from the colony.[31][64]

The core of the Asante federation accepted these terms grudgingly. In 1900, the Asante rebelled in the War of the Golden Stool but were defeated the next year.[65] In 1902, the British proclaimed Asante a colony under the jurisdiction of the governor of the Gold Coast.[66] The annexation was made with misgivings and recriminations on both sides. With Asante subdued and annexed, British colonisation of the region became a reality.[31][67]


Military confrontations between Asante and the Fante contributed to the growth of British influence on the Gold Coast.[68] It was concern about Asante activities on the coast that had compelled the Fante states to sign the Bond of 1844.[68] In theory, the bond allowed the British quite limited judicial powers—the trying of murder and robbery cases only.[68] Also, the British could not acquire further judicial rights without the consent of the kings, chiefs, and people of the protectorate. In practice, however, British efforts to usurp more and more judicial authority were so successful that in the 1850s they considered establishing European courts in place of traditional African ones.[69][70]

As a result of the exercise of ever-expanding judicial powers on the coast and also to ensure that the coastal peoples remained firmly under control, the British, following their defeat of Asante in 1874, proclaimed the former coastal protectorate a crown colony.[71] The Gold Coast Colony, established on 24 July 1874, comprised the coastal areas and extended inland as far as the ill-defined borders of Asante.[70][72]

The coastal peoples did not greet this move with enthusiasm. They were not consulted about this annexation, which arbitrarily set aside the Bond of 1844 and treated its signatories like conquered territories.[73] The British, however, made no claim to any rights to the land, a circumstance that probably explains the absence of popular resistance.[74] Shortly after declaring the coastal area a colony, the British moved the colonial capital from Cape Coast to the former Danish castle at Christiansborg in Accra.[70][75]

Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony
Map of the Gold Coast Colony, the Ashanti Colony, the Northern Territories and the mandate territory of British Togoland

The British sphere of influence was eventually extended to include Asante. Following the defeat of Asante in 1896, the British proclaimed a protectorate over the kingdom.[76] Once the asantehene and his council had been exiled, the British appointed a resident commissioner to Asante, who was given both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the territories.[77] Each Asante state was administered from Kumasi as a separate entity and was ultimately responsible to the governor of the Gold Coast. As noted above, Asante became a colony following its final defeat in 1901.[70][78]

In the meantime, the British became interested in the broad areas north of Asante, known generally as the Northern Territories. This interest was prompted primarily by the need to forestall the French and the Germans, who had been making rapid advances in the surrounding areas.[79] British officials had first penetrated the area in the 1880s, and after 1896 protection was extended to northern areas whose trade with the coast had been controlled by Asante.[80] In 1898 and 1899, European colonial powers amicably demarcated the boundaries between the Northern Territories and the surrounding French and German colonies. The Northern Territories were proclaimed a British protectorate in 1902.[70][81]

Like the Asante protectorate, the Northern Territories were placed under the authority of a resident commissioner who was responsible to the governor of the Gold Coast. The governor ruled both Asante and the Northern Territories by proclamations until 1946.[70][82]

With the north under British control, the three territories of the Gold Coast—the Colony (the coastal regions), Asante, and the Northern Territories—became, for all practical purposes, a single political unit, or crown colony, known as "the dependency" or simply as the Gold Coast.[4][83] The borders of present-day Ghana were realised in May 1956 when the people of the Volta region, known as British Mandated Togoland, voted in a plebiscite to become part of modern Ghana.[70][84]

Colonial administration[edit]

Visit of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales to the Gold Coast Colony in 1925, meeting His Royal Highness Nana Kwasi Akuffo I, Akuapemhene

Beginning in 1850, the coastal regions increasingly came under control of the governor of the British fortresses, who was assisted by the Executive Council and the Legislative Council.[85] The Executive Council was a small advisory body of European officials that recommended laws and voted taxes, subject to the governor's approval.[86] The Legislative Council included the members of the Executive Council and unofficial members initially chosen from British commercial interests. After 1900 three chiefs and three other Africans were added to the Legislative Council, these being chosen from the Europeanized communities of Accra, Cape Coast, and Sekondi.[87] The inclusion of Africans from Asante and the Northern Territories did not take place until much later. Prior to 1925, all members of the Legislative Council were appointed by the governor. Official members always outnumbered unofficial members.[88][89]

The gradual emergence of centralised colonial government brought about unified control over local services, although the actual administration of these services was still delegated to local authorities. Specific duties and responsibilities came to be clearly delineated, and the role of traditional states in local administration was also clarified.[89][90]

The structure of local government had its roots in traditional patterns of government. Village councils of chiefs and elders were almost exclusively responsible for the immediate needs of individual localities, including traditional law and order and the general welfare. The councils, however, ruled by consent rather than by right.[91] Chiefs were chosen by the ruling class of the society; a traditional leader continued to rule not only because he was the choice of what may be termed the nobility, but also because he was accepted by his people. The unseating or destooling of a chief by tribal elders was a fairly common practice if the chief failed to meet the desires or expectations of the community.[89][92][93]

British colonial officers in Kumasi, 1937

Traditional chiefs figured prominently in the system of indirect rule adopted by British authorities to administer their colonies in Africa. According to Frederick Lugard, architect of the policy, indirect rule was cost effective because it reduced the number of European officials in the field.[94] By allowing local rulers to exercise direct administrative control over their people, opposition to European rule from the local population would be minimised.[95] The chiefs, however, were to take instructions from their European supervisors. The plan, according to Lugard, had the further advantage of civilising the natives, because it exposed traditional rulers to the benefits of European political organisation and values. This "civilizing" process notwithstanding, indirect rule had the ultimate advantage of guaranteeing the maintenance of law and order.[89]

The application of indirect rule in the Gold Coast became essential, especially after Asante and the Northern Territories were brought under British rule.[96] Before the effective colonisation of these territories, the intention of the British was to use both force and agreements to control chiefs in Asante and the north.[96] Once indirect rule was implemented, the chiefs became responsible to the colonial authorities who supported them. In many respects, therefore, the power of each chief was greatly enhanced.[97] Although Lugard pointed to the civilising influence of indirect rule, critics of the policy argued that the element of popular participation was removed from the traditional political system.[94] Despite the theoretical argument in favour of decentralisation, indirect rule in practice caused chiefs to look to Accra (the capital) rather than to their people for all decisions.[89][98]

Postage stamp with a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, 1953

Many chiefs and elders came to regard themselves as a ruling aristocracy. Their councils were generally led by government commissioners, who often rewarded the chiefs with honours, decorations, and knighthoods.[99] Indirect rule tended to preserve traditional forms and sources of power, however, and it failed to provide meaningful opportunities for the growing number of educated young men anxious to find a niche in their country's development.[99] Other groups were dissatisfied because there was not sufficient co-operation between the councils and the central government and because some felt that the local authorities were too dominated by the British district commissioners.[89]

In 1925, provincial councils of chiefs were established in all three territories of the colony, partly to give the chiefs a colony-wide function. This move was followed in 1927 by the promulgation of the Native Administration Ordinance, which replaced an 1883 arrangement that had placed chiefs in the Gold Coast Colony under British supervision.[100] The purpose was to clarify and to regulate the powers and areas of jurisdiction of chiefs and councils. Councils were given specific responsibilities over disputed elections and the unseating of chiefs; the procedure for the election of chiefs was set forth; and judicial powers were defined and delegated.[101] Councils were entrusted with the role of defining customary law in their areas (the government had to approve their decisions), and the provincial councils were empowered to become tribunals to decide matters of customary law when the dispute lay between chiefs in different hierarchies. Until 1939, when the Native Treasuries Ordinance was passed, however, there was no provision for local budgets.[102] In 1935, the Native Authorities Ordinance combined the central colonial government and the local authorities into a single governing system.[103] New native authorities, appointed by the governor, were given wide powers of local government under the supervision of the central government's provincial commissioners, who assured that their policies would be those of the central government.[89]

In the year 1948 native Ghanaians decided to fight for their independence.[104]

The provincial councils and moves to strengthen them were not popular. Even by British standards, the chiefs were not given enough power to be effective instruments of indirect rule. Some Ghanaians believed that the reforms, by increasing the power of the chiefs at the expense of local initiative, permitted the colonial government to avoid movement toward any form of popular participation in the colony's government.[89]

Economic and social development in the British colony[edit]

The years of British administration of the Gold Coast during the 20th century were an era of significant progress in social, economic, and educational development. Communications were greatly improved.[105] For example, the Sekondi-Tarkwa railroad, begun in 1898, was extended until it connected most of the important commercial centres of the south, and by 1937, there were 9,700 kilometres of roads. Telecommunication and postal services were initiated as well.[106][107]

New crops were also introduced and gained widespread acceptance. Cacao trees, introduced in 1878, brought the first cash crop to the farmers of the interior; it became the mainstay of the nation's economy in the 1920s when disease wiped out Brazil's trees. The production of cocoa was largely in the hands of Africans.[108] The Cocoa Marketing Board was created in 1947 to assist farmers and to stabilise the production and sale of their crop. By the end of that decade, the Gold Coast was exporting more than half of the world's cocoa supply.[107]

The colony's earnings increased further from the export of timber and gold. Gold, which initially brought Europeans to the Gold Coast, remained in the hands of Africans until the 1890s.[10] Traditional techniques of panning and shaft mining, however, yielded only limited output. The development of modern modes of extracting minerals made gold mining an exclusively foreign-run enterprise.[109] For example, the Ashanti Goldfields Corporation, which was organised in 1897, gained a concession of about 160 square kilometres in which to prospect commercially for gold. Although certain tribal authorities profited greatly from the granting of mining concessions, it was the European mining companies and the colonial government that accumulated much of the wealth.[110] Revenue from export of the colony's natural resources financed internal improvements in infrastructure and social services. The foundation of an educational system more advanced than any other else in West Africa also resulted from mineral export revenue.[107][111]

Many of the economic and civil improvements in the Gold Coast in the early part of the current century have been attributed to Frederick Gordon Guggisberg, governor from 1919 to 1927. Born in Galt (near Toronto), Canada, Guggisberg joined the British army in 1889.[112] During the first decade of the 20th century, he worked as a surveyor in the British colonies of the Gold Coast and Nigeria, and later, during World War I, he served in France.[107][112]

At the beginning of his governorship of the Gold Coast, Guggisberg presented a 10-year development program to the Legislative Council. He suggested first the improvement of transportation.[113] Then, in order of priority, his prescribed improvements included water supply, drainage, hydroelectric projects, public buildings, town improvements, schools, hospitals, prisons, communication lines, and other services.[114] Guggisberg also set a goal of filling half of the colony's technical positions with Africans as soon as they could be trained. His program has been described as the most ambitious ever proposed in West Africa up to that time.[115] Another of the governor's programs led to the development of an artificial harbour at Takoradi, which then became Ghana's first port. Achimota College, which developed into one of the nation's finest secondary schools, was also a Guggisberg idea.[107][116]

Lord Listowel watches fourth-year boys operating lathes at the Trade Training Centre in Tamale, Northern Territories. This Centre provided four-year courses for boys leaving middle schools and evening classes for those who go from the middle schools into industry.

When measuring the influence of living standard during the colonial period, the obvious constraint of a long-term perspective is the limited amount of proper data and a consistent measure of human well-being.[117] The anthropometric methods provide a way to overcome the limitations, and reveal the evolution of the long run. Baten drew a long run trend that included the experience of the pre-colonial, colonial and post-independence era.[118] The results indicate that for Ghana, the colonial period of the 20th century was not particularly bad. To be more precise the living standards improved rapidly in the first decade of 20th century when cocoa cultivation took off. In general, the performance of economy and living standard of colonial time shows a better record than the post-independence period.[119] It was through British-style education that a new Ghanaian elite gained the means and the desire to strive for independence. During the colonial years, the country's educational institutions improved markedly.[120] From beginnings in missionary schools, the early part of the 20th century saw significant advances in many fields, and, although the missions continued to participate, the government steadily increased its interest and support.[121] In 1909, the government established a technical school and a teachers' training college at Accra; several other secondary schools were set up by the missions. The government steadily increased its financial backing for the growing number of both state and mission schools. In 1948, the country opened its first centre of higher learning, the University College.[107]

The colony assisted Britain in both World War I and World War II. From 1914 to 1918, the Gold Coast Regiment served with distinction in battles against German forces in Cameroon and in the long East Africa campaign.[122] In World War II, troops from the Gold Coast emerged with even greater prestige after outstanding service in such places as Ethiopia and Burma.[123] In the ensuing years, however, postwar problems of inflation and instability severely hampered readjustment for returning veterans, who were in the forefront of growing discontent and unrest. Their war service and veterans' associations had broadened their horizons, making it difficult for them to return to the humble and circumscribed positions set aside for Africans by the colonial authorities.[107][124](See also Gold Coast in World War II).


As the country developed economically, the focus of government power gradually shifted from the hands of the governor and his officials into those of Ghanaians. The changes resulted from the gradual development of a strong spirit of nationalism and were to result eventually in independence.[125] The development of national consciousness accelerated quickly after World War II, when, in addition to ex-servicemen, a substantial group of urban African workers and traders emerged to lend mass support to the aspirations of a small educated minority.[126] Once the movement had begun, events moved rapidly—not always fast enough to satisfy the nationalist leaders, but still at a pace that surprised not only the colonial government but many of the more conservative African elements as well.[127]

Early manifestations[edit]

As early as the latter part of the 19th century, a growing number of educated Africans increasingly found unacceptable an arbitrary political system that placed almost all power in the hands of the governor through his appointment of council members.[128] In the 1890s, some members of the educated coastal elite organised themselves into the Aborigines' Rights Protection Society to protest a land bill that threatened traditional land tenure. This protest helped lay the foundation for political action that would ultimately lead to independence.[129] In 1920, one of the African members of the Legislative Council, Joseph E. Casely-Hayford, convened the National Congress of British West Africa, which sent a delegation to London to urge the Colonial Office to consider the principle of elected representation.[130] The group, which claimed to speak for all British West African colonies, represented the first expression of political solidarity between intellectuals and nationalists of the area.[131] Even though the delegation was not received in London (on the grounds that it represented only the interests of a small group of urbanised Africans), its actions aroused considerable support among the African elite at home.[132]

Notwithstanding their call for elected representation as opposed to a system whereby the governor appointed council members, these nationalists insisted that they were loyal to the British Crown and that they merely sought an extension of British political and social practices to Africans.[133] Notable leaders included Africanus Horton, Jr.; J. M. Sarbah; and S. R. B. Attah-Ahoma. Such men gave the nationalist movement a distinctly elitist flavour that was to last until the late 1940s.[132]

The constitution of 1925, promulgated by Gordon Guggisberg, created provincial councils of paramount chiefs for all but the northern provinces of the colony. These councils in turn elected six chiefs as unofficial members of the Legislative Council.[134] Although the new constitution appeared to recognise African sentiments, Guggisberg was concerned primarily with protecting British interests.[135] For example, he provided Africans with a limited voice in the central government; yet, by limiting nominations to chiefs, he drove a wedge between chiefs and their educated subjects.[136] The intellectuals believed that the chiefs, in return for British support, had allowed the provincial councils to fall completely under control of the government. By the mid-1930s, however, a gradual rapprochement between chiefs and intellectuals had begun.[132]

Agitation for more adequate representation continued. Newspapers owned and managed by Africans played a major part in provoking this discontent—six were being published in the 1930s. As a result of the call for broader representation, two more unofficial African members were added to the Executive Council in 1943.[137] Changes in the Legislative Council, however, had to await a different political climate in London, which came about only with the postwar election of a British Labour Party government.[132]

The new Gold Coast constitution of 1946 (also known as the Burns constitution after Sir Alan Burns, the governor of the time) was a bold document. For the first time, the concept of an official majority was abandoned.[138] The Legislative Council was now composed of six ex officio members, six nominated members, and eighteen elected members. The 1946 constitution also admitted representatives from Asante into the council for the first time. Even with a Labour Party government in power, however, the British continued to view the colonies as a source of raw materials that were needed to strengthen their crippled economy. Change that would place real power in African hands was not a priority among British leaders until after rioting and looting in Accra and other towns and cities in early 1948 over issues of pensions for ex-servicemen, the dominant role of foreigners in the economy, the shortage of housing, and other economic and political grievances.[132]

With elected members in a decisive majority, Ghana had reached a level of political maturity unequaled anywhere in colonial Africa. The constitution did not, however, grant full self-government.[139] Executive power remained in the hands of the governor, to whom the Legislative Council was responsible. Hence, the constitution, although greeted with enthusiasm as a significant milestone, soon encountered trouble.[140] World War II had just ended, and many Gold Coast veterans who had served in British overseas expeditions returned to a country beset with shortages, inflation, unemployment, and black-market practices. There veterans, along with discontented urban elements, formed a nucleus of malcontents ripe for disruptive action.[141] They were now joined by farmers, who resented drastic governmental measures required to cut out diseased cacao trees to control an epidemic, and by many others who were unhappy that the end of the war had not been followed by economic improvements.[142]

Politics of the independence movements[edit]

Although political organisations had existed in the British colony, the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) was the first nationalist movement with the aim of self-government "in the shortest possible time".[143] Founded in August 1947 by educated Africans who included J. B. Danquah, G. A. Grant (known as Paa Grant), R. A. Awoonor-Williams, Eric Ato Nkrumah (all lawyers except for Grant, who was a wealthy businessman), and others, the leadership of the organisation called for the replacement of chiefs on the Legislative Council with educated persons.[144] For these political leaders, traditional governance, exercised largely via indirect rule, was identified with colonial interests and the past. They believed that it was their responsibility to lead their country into a new age. They also demanded that, given their education, the colonial administration should respect them and accord them positions of responsibility.[145] As one writer on the period reported, "The symbols of progress, science, freedom, youth, all became cues which the new leadership evoked and reinforced."[146] In particular, the UGCC leadership criticised the government for its failure to solve the problems of unemployment, inflation, and the disturbances that had come to characterise the society at the end of the war.[147][148]

Charles Arden-Clarke, Governor of the Gold Coast, greets Chiefs of the Northern Territories, 1953

Their opposition to the colonial administration notwithstanding, UGCC members were conservative in the sense that their leadership did not seek drastic or revolutionary change.[149][150] This was probably a result of their training in the British way of doing things. The manner in which politics were then conducted was to change after Kwame Nkrumah created his Convention People's Party (CPP) in June 1949.[148][151]

Nkrumah was born at Nkroful in the Nzema area and educated in Catholic schools at Half Assini and at Achimota School. He received further training in the United States at Lincoln University and at the University of Pennsylvania.[152] Later, in London, Nkrumah became active in the West African Students' Union and the Pan-African Congress.[153] He was one of the few Africans who participated in the Fifth Pan-African Congress held at Manchester in 1945. During his time in Britain, Nkrumah came to know such outspoken anti-colonialists and intellectuals as the West Indian George Padmore, and the African-American W. E. B. Du Bois[154] In 1947, when the UGCC was created in the Gold Coast to oppose colonial rule, Nkrumah was invited from London to become the movement's general secretary.[148][155]

Nkrumah's tenure with the UGCC was a stormy one. In March 1948, he was arrested and detained with other leaders of the UGCC for political activism. They were known as the Big Six of Ghana Politics.[156] Later, after the other members of the UGCC were invited to make recommendations to the Coussey Committee, which was advising the governor on the path to independence, Nkrumah broke with the UGCC and founded the CPP.[156] Unlike the UGCC call for self-government "in the shortest possible time", Nkrumah and the CPP asked for "self-government now".[157] The party leadership, made up of Nkrumah, Kojo Botsio, Komla A. Gbedemah, and a group of mostly young political professionals known as the "Verandah Boys", identified itself more with ordinary working people than with the UGCC and its intelligentsia.[148][156]

Nkrumah's style and the promises he made appealed directly to the majority of workers, farmers, and youths who heard him; he seemed to be the national leader on whom they could focus their hopes. He also won the support of, among others, influential market women who, through their domination of small-scale trade, served as effective channels of communication at the local level.[148][158]

The majority of the politicised population, stirred in the postwar years by outspoken newspapers, was separated from both the tribal chiefs and the Anglophile elite nearly as much as from the British by economic, social, and educational factors.[159] This majority consisted primarily of ex-servicemen, literate persons who had some primary schooling, journalists, and elementary school teachers, all of whom had developed a taste for populist conceptions of democracy.[160] A growing number of uneducated but urbanised industrial workers also formed part of the support group. Nkrumah was able to appeal to them on their own terms. By June 1949, when the CPP was formed with the avowed purpose of seeking immediate self-governance, Nkrumah had a mass following.[148][161]

The constitution of 1951 resulted from the report of the Coussey Committee, created because of disturbances in Accra and other cities in 1948.[162] In addition to giving the Executive Council a large majority of African ministers, it created an assembly, half the elected members of which were to come from the towns and rural districts and half from the traditional councils, including, for the first time, the Northern Territories.[163] Although it was an enormous step forward, the new constitution still fell far short of the CPP's call for full self-government. Executive power remained in British hands, and the legislature was tailored to permit control by traditionalist interests.[148][164]

With increasing popular backing, the CPP in early 1950 initiated a campaign of "positive action", intended to instigate widespread strikes and nonviolent resistance. When some violent disorders occurred, Nkrumah, along with his principal lieutenants, was promptly arrested and imprisoned for sedition.[165] But this merely increased his prestige as leader and hero of the cause and gave him the status of martyr.[165] In February 1951, the first elections were held for the Legislative Assembly under the new constitution. Nkrumah, still in jail, won a seat, and the CPP won an impressive victory with a two-thirds majority of the 104 seats.[148][166]

The governor, Sir Charles Arden-Clarke, released Nkrumah and invited him to form a government as "leader of government business", a position similar to that of prime minister. Nkrumah accepted.[167] A major milestone had been passed on the road to independence and self-government. Nonetheless, although the CPP agreed to work within the new constitutional order, the structure of government that existed in 1951 was certainly not what the CPP preferred.[167] The ministries of defence, external affairs, finance, and justice were still controlled by British officials who were not responsible to the legislature. Also, by providing for a sizeable representation of traditional tribal chiefs in the Legislative Assembly, the constitution accentuated the cleavage between the modern political leaders and the traditional authorities of the councils of chiefs.[148][168]

The start of Nkrumah's first term as "leader of government business" was marked by cordiality and co-operation with the British governor. During the next few years, the government was gradually transformed into a full parliamentary system. The changes were opposed by the more traditionalist African elements, particularly in Asante and the Northern Territories. This opposition, however, proved ineffective in the face of continuing and growing popular support for a single over-riding concept—independence at an early date.[148][167]

In 1952, the position of prime minister was created and the Executive Council became the cabinet. The prime minister was made responsible to the assembly, which duly elected Nkrumah prime minister. The constitution of 1954 ended the election of assembly members by the tribal councils.[169] The Legislative Assembly increased in size, and all members were chosen by direct election from equal, single-member constituencies. Only defence and foreign policy remained in the hands of the governor; the elected assembly was given control of virtually all internal affairs of the colony.[148][170]

The CPP pursued a policy of political centralisation, which encountered serious opposition. Shortly after the 1954 election, a new party, the Asante-based National Liberation Movement (NLM), was formed.[171] The NLM advocated a federal form of government, with increased powers for the various regions. NLM leaders criticised the CPP for perceived dictatorial tendencies. The new party worked in co-operation with another regionalist group, the Northern People's Party.[172] When these two regional parties walked out of discussions on a new constitution, the CPP feared that London might consider such disunity an indication that the colony was not yet ready for the next phase of self-government.[148][173]

The British constitutional adviser, however, backed the CPP position. The governor dissolved the assembly to test popular support for the CPP demand for immediate independence. The Crown agreed to grant independence if so requested by a two-thirds majority of the new legislature.[174] New elections were held in July 1956. In keenly contested elections, the CPP won 57 per cent of the votes cast, but the fragmentation of the opposition gave the CPP every seat in the south as well as enough seats in Asante, the Northern Territories, and the Trans-Volta Region to hold a two-thirds majority of the 104 seats.[148][175]

Prior to the July 1956 general elections in the Gold Coast, a plebiscite was conducted under United Nations (UN) auspices to decide the future disposition of British Togoland and French Togoland.[176] The British trusteeship, the western portion of the former German colony, had been linked to the Gold Coast since 1919 and was represented in its parliament.[176] A clear majority of British Togoland inhabitants voted in favour of union with their western neighbours, and the area was absorbed into the Gold Coast. There was, however, vocal opposition to the incorporation from some of the Ewe in southern British Togoland.[148][177]


On 6 March 1957, the Colony of Gold Coast gained independence as the country of Ghana.[29][178]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ A 84-member body, 38 of whom were to be elected by the people, 37 representing territorial councils, six appointed to represent commercial interests and three ex officio members appointed by the Governor. Those representing commercial interests and appointed by the Governor were all white.[1]


  1. ^ "The Gold Coast Experiment", The Times, 17 February 1951, p7, Issue 51928
  2. ^ a b "The British Empire in 1924". The British Empire. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  3. ^ "One-Man Policy—A Curse to West Africa", The Gold Coast Nation and National Consciousness, Routledge, pp. 54–59, 13 September 2013, doi:10.4324/9781315033044-11, ISBN 978-1-315-03304-4
  4. ^ a b Chipp, Thomas Ford (1922). Forest officers' handbook of the Gold Coast, Ashanti and the Northern Territories. London [etc.]: Waterlow & sons limited. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.45233.
  5. ^ "Gold Coast", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, 7 April 2005, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.41463, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  6. ^ "57. How It Came About That Children Were First Whipped", African Folktales, Princeton University Press, pp. 209–211, 2015, doi:10.1353/chapter.1546551, ISBN 978-1-4008-7294-7
  7. ^ Irwin, Graham W. (1971). "Gold and Guns on the Gold Coast - Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast 1600–1720. A Study of the African Reaction to European Trade. By Kwame Yeboa Daaku. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Pp. xviii + 219; maps. £2.50". The Journal of African History. 12 (2): 330–331. doi:10.1017/s0021853700010744. ISSN 0021-8537. S2CID 155038059.
  8. ^ Sutton, Angela (3 July 2015). "The Seventeenth-century Slave Trade in the Documents of the English, Dutch, Swedish, Danish and Prussian Royal Slave Trading Companies". Slavery & Abolition. 36 (3): 445–459. doi:10.1080/0144039x.2015.1067975. ISSN 0144-039X. S2CID 143085310.
  9. ^ Corliss, Timothy (26 September 2015), "New World Trading of Old World Markets: European Derivatives", Master Traders, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 242–262, doi:10.1002/9781119205043.ch12, ISBN 978-1-119-20504-3
  10. ^ a b Chalmers, AlbertJ. (1900). "Uncomplicated Æstivo-Autumnal Fever in Europeans in the Gold Coast Colony, West Africa". The Lancet. 156 (4027): 1262–1264. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)99958-1. ISSN 0140-6736.
  11. ^ Klein, Herbert S. (2010), "Major slaving ports of the Gold Coast and the Bights of Benin and Biafra", The Atlantic Slave Trade, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. xiii, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511779473.003, ISBN 978-0-511-77947-3
  12. ^ "Time On The Coast", From Capture to Sale: The Portuguese Slave Trade to Spanish South America in the Early Seventeenth Century, Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 72–100, 2007, doi:10.1163/ej.9789004156791.i-373.17, ISBN 978-90-04-15679-1, S2CID 128336362
  13. ^ Gelder, M. Van (2009), "Introduction", Trading Places Trading Places: The Netherlandish Merchants in Early Modern Venice, Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 1–20, doi:10.1163/ej.9789004175433.i-246.10, ISBN 978-90-04-17543-3
  14. ^ "10. Crown and Charter", Crown and Charter, University of California Press, pp. 310–340, 31 December 1974, doi:10.1525/9780520338456-011, ISBN 978-0-520-33845-6
  15. ^ a b Horton, James Africanus Beale (2011), "Self-Government of the Gold Coast", West African Countries and Peoples, British and Native, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–123, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511983146.010, ISBN 978-0-511-98314-6
  16. ^ Feinberg, H. M. (1970). "An Incident in Elmina-Dutch Relations, The Gold Coast (Ghana), 1739–1740". African Historical Studies. 3 (2): 359–372. doi:10.2307/216221. ISSN 0001-9992. JSTOR 216221.
  17. ^ "Atta, Nana Sir Ofori, (11 Oct. 1881–24 Aug. 1943), Omanhene (Paramount Chief) of Akyem Abuakwa; an Unofficial Member, Executive Council of Gold Coast, since 1942; Provincial Member of the Legislative Council, Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of Education, Gold Coast Colony; Director of Akim, Limited; Member of District Agricultural Committee, Akim Abuakwa", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u222064
  18. ^ Giles, Jim (2007). "Before settlers arrived, California's wildfires were much worse". New Scientist. 196 (2628): 9. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(07)62754-7. ISSN 0262-4079.
  19. ^ "Who were the Gentry?", The Medieval Gentry : Power, Leadership and Choice during the Wars of the Roses, Bloomsbury Academic, 2010, doi:10.5040/9781472599179.ch-002, ISBN 978-1-4411-9064-2
  20. ^ Busia, K. A. (16 August 2018), "British Rule and the Chief", The Position of the Chief in the Modern Political System of Ashanti, Routledge, pp. 139–164, doi:10.4324/9781351030823-7, ISBN 978-1-351-03082-3, S2CID 233065561
  21. ^ Brackenbury, Henry, Sir (1873). Fanti and Ashanti. W. Blackwood and Sons. doi:10.5479/sil.204747.39088000128199.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ "The Ashanti Expedition". The Lancet. 146 (3768): 1246–1247. 1895. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(00)31670-1. ISSN 0140-6736.
  23. ^ Armitage, Cecil Hamilton; Montanaro, Arthur Forbes (2011), "Shut up in Kumasi", The Ashanti Campaign of 1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 34–44, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139058032.006, ISBN 978-1-139-05803-2
  24. ^ Thompson, Larry (1995), "Ashanti soll geheilt werden", Der Fall Ashanti, Basel: Birkhäuser Basel, pp. 12–50, doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-6006-2_1, ISBN 978-3-0348-6007-9
  25. ^ Milburn, Josephine (1970). "The 1938 Gold Coast Cocoa Crisis: British Business and the Colonial Office". African Historical Studies. 3 (1): 57–74. doi:10.2307/216480. ISSN 0001-9992. JSTOR 216480.
  26. ^ "Figure 2.20 Transport infrastructure spending has been below OECD average". doi:10.1787/888933318975. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  27. ^ Drew, Allison (1 November 2014), "The Nation in Formation: Communists and Nationalists During the Second World War", We are no longer in France, Manchester University Press, pp. 110–144, doi:10.7228/manchester/9780719090240.003.0006, ISBN 978-0-7190-9024-0
  28. ^ McKay, Vernon; Bourrett, F. M. (1950). "The Gold Coast: A Survey of the Gold Coast and British Togoland, 1919-1946". The American Historical Review. 55 (2): 345. doi:10.2307/1843737. ISSN 0002-8762. JSTOR 1843737.
  29. ^ a b Howe, Russell Warren (1957). "Gold Coast into Ghana". The Phylon Quarterly. 18 (2): 155–161. doi:10.2307/273187. ISSN 0885-6826. JSTOR 273187.
  30. ^ Lambert, David (1 September 2015), "Slave-trade suppression and the image of West Africa in nineteenth-century Britain", The suppression of the Atlantic slave trade, Manchester University Press, pp. 146–165, doi:10.7228/manchester/9780719085116.003.0007, ISBN 978-0-7190-8511-6
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), Britain and the Gold Coast: the Early Years
  32. ^ P. Hagan, George (1980). "The Rule of Law in Asante, A Traditional Akan State". Présence Africaine. 113 (1): 193. doi:10.3917/presa.113.0193. ISSN 0032-7638.
  33. ^ Austin, Gareth (2012), "Asante, 1807–1956: The State, Output and Resources", Labour, Land and Capital in Ghana, Woodbridge, UK: Boydell and Brewer Limited, pp. 34–71, doi:10.1017/upo9781580466363.008, ISBN 978-1-58046-636-3
  34. ^ "British traders and the restructuring of the palm products trade", Commerce and Economic Change in West Africa, Cambridge University Press, pp. 128–150, 11 December 1997, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511582035.008, ISBN 978-0-521-59074-7
  35. ^ a b Ross, Doran H. (2003), "Asante and related peoples", Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.t004502, ISBN 978-1-884446-05-4
  36. ^ Nassaney, Michael S. (27 August 2019), "Fort St. Joseph Revealed Then and Now", Fort St. Joseph Revealed, University Press of Florida, pp. 223–246, doi:10.5744/florida/9780813056425.003.0010, ISBN 978-0-8130-5642-5, S2CID 213549340
  37. ^ Sowerby, James (1804). The British Miscellany: or coloured figures of new, rare, or little known animal subjects; many not before ascertained to be inhabitants of the British Isles and chiefly in the possession of the author /. London: printed by R. Taylor & Co.; and sold by the author, J. Sowerby; by White; Johnson; Symonds; and by all booksellers, &c. in town and country. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.120056.
  38. ^ "Islamic Triumphalism in a Christian Colony: Temne Agency in the Spread and Sierra Leonization of Islam", The Temne of Sierra Leone, Cambridge University Press, pp. 127–165, 9 November 2017, doi:10.1017/9781108182010.006, ISBN 978-1-108-18201-0
  39. ^ Starbuck, David R. (10 April 2018), "British Forts in Northern New York State", British Forts and Their Communities, University Press of Florida, doi:10.5744/florida/9780813056753.003.0002, ISBN 978-0-8130-5675-3
  40. ^ "Antislavery on a Slave Coast", Freedom's Debtors, Yale University Press, pp. 28–64, 2017, doi:10.2307/j.ctt1vgwbg8.5, ISBN 978-0-300-23152-6
  41. ^ Piette, A. (20 August 2013). "Childhood Wiped Out: Larkin, His Father, and the Bombing of Coventry" (PDF). English. 62 (238): 230–247. doi:10.1093/english/eft030. ISSN 0013-8215.
  42. ^ Connaughton, Richard M. (1 January 2000). "Organizing British Joint Rapid Reaction Forces (Joint Force Quarterly, Autumn 2000)". Fort Belvoir, VA. doi:10.21236/ada426696. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  43. ^ "Ahmadiyya Expansion to Asante", The Ahmadiyya in the Gold Coast, Indiana University Press, pp. 199–217, 2017, doi:10.2307/j.ctt2005s3h.15, ISBN 978-0-253-02951-5
  44. ^ "de Mel, Sir Henry Lawson, (1877–8 May 1936), Member of the Legislative Council; Member of the Municipal Council; JP for the island; President Plumbago Merchants' Union; Proprietor H. L. de Mel & Co., merchants", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u213981
  45. ^ "de Mel, Sir Henry Lawson, (1877–8 May 1936), Member of the Legislative Council; Member of the Municipal Council; JP for the island; President Plumbago Merchants' Union; Proprietor H. L. de Mel & Co., merchants", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u213981
  46. ^ Bernstein, Rachel (6 July 2015). "HIV researcher found guilty of research misconduct sentenced to prison". Science. doi:10.1126/science.caredit.a1500171. ISSN 1095-9203.
  47. ^ Grenfell-Williams, Dorothy (1962). "Maclean of the Gold Coast". African Affairs. 61 (245): 348–350. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a095044. ISSN 1468-2621.
  48. ^ "Précis of the Treaties and Engagements between the British Government and the Chiefs of the Arabian Coast of the Persian Gulf". doi:10.1163/2405-447x_loro_com_110031. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  49. ^ "Thorburn, James Jamieson, (1864–14 Sept. 1929), Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Gold Coast Colony, 1910–12", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u218141
  50. ^ Mackenzie, Alexander (2012), "Notifications Defining the "Inner Line" of British Jurisdiction in Frontier Districts", History of the Relations of the Government with the Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier of Bengal, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 395–398, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139192149.026, ISBN 978-1-139-19214-9
  51. ^ "Other dimensions of well-being: performance indicators: United States". doi:10.1787/888932778157. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  52. ^ "British Informal Influence in Ottoman Cyprus", Protectorate Cyprus, I.B.Tauris, 2015, doi:10.5040/9780755623624.ch-001, ISBN 978-1-78076-114-5
  53. ^ Kaberry, Phyllis (1952). "Western Africa: Part II. The Peoples of Sierra Leone Protectorate". International Affairs. 28 (1): 117. doi:10.2307/2605063. ISSN 1468-2346. JSTOR 2605063.
  54. ^ Bernstein, Rachel (9 January 2015). "NIH takes another step in recognizing same-sex marriage". Science. doi:10.1126/science.caredit.a1500011. ISSN 1095-9203.
  55. ^ "Sharwood-Smith, Sir Bryan (Evers), (5 Jan. 1899–10 Oct. 1983), Governor, Northern Nigeria, 1954–57 (Lieut-Governor, and President Northern House of Chiefs, 1952–54); retd 1957", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u169029
  56. ^ Levy, Leonard (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 0-02-864880-3. OCLC 43648650.
  57. ^ Barnett, Randy E. (24 November 2013), "Constitutional Legitimacy without Consent: Protecting the Rights Retained by the People", Restoring the Lost Constitution, Princeton University Press, doi:10.23943/princeton/9780691159737.003.0003, ISBN 978-0-691-15973-7
  58. ^ "Ahmadiyya Arrival in the Gold Coast", The Ahmadiyya in the Gold Coast, Indiana University Press, pp. 163–180, 2017, doi:10.2307/j.ctt2005s3h.13, ISBN 978-0-253-02951-5
  59. ^ YARAK, LARRY W. (19 July 1990), "Asante, the Dutch, and Elmina: An Overview, 1701–1872", Asante and the Dutch 1744–1873, Oxford University Press, pp. 93–132, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198221562.003.0003, ISBN 978-0-19-822156-2
  60. ^ "83 The Fathers who Came after Them". International Migration Review. 28 (1_suppl): 267–268. 1994. doi:10.1177/019791839402801s84. ISSN 0197-9183. S2CID 220340725.
  61. ^ "Redgrave, Maj.-Gen. Sir Roy Michael Frederick, (16 Sept. 1925–3 July 2011), Commander, British Forces, Hong Kong, and Major-General Brigade of Gurkhas, 1978–80", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u32068
  62. ^ "Asante and Kumasi: A Muslim Minority in a "Sea of Paganism"", Muslim Societies in African History, Cambridge University Press, pp. 124–138, 12 January 2004, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511811746.010, ISBN 978-0-521-82627-3
  63. ^ Nketia, J.H. Kwabena (2001). "Asante music". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.01399.
  64. ^ "Stewart, Captain Sir Donald William, (22 May 1860–1 Oct. 1905), Commissioner, East African Protectorate from 1904; British resident, Kumasi, retired", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u191258
  65. ^ Armitage, Cecil Hamilton; Montanaro, Arthur Forbes (2011), "The Quest of the Golden Stool", The Ashanti Campaign of 1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139058032.003, ISBN 978-1-139-05803-2
  66. ^ "Sanitary Progress in the Gold Coast Colony". The Lancet. 159 (4111): 1710. 1902. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)85617-8. ISSN 0140-6736.
  67. ^ Ampene, Kwasi (14 June 2020), "Asante court music in historical perspective", Asante Court Music and Verbal Arts in Ghana, Routledge, pp. 34–63, doi:10.4324/9780429340628-2, ISBN 978-0-429-34062-8, S2CID 225687000
  68. ^ a b c "The Hausa Force and the Religious Marketplace in the Fante States", The Ahmadiyya in the Gold Coast, Indiana University Press, pp. 31–59, 2017, doi:10.2307/j.ctt2005s3h.8, ISBN 978-0-253-02951-5
  69. ^ "Judicial Authority", British Overseas Territories Law, Hart Publishing, 2011, doi:10.5040/9781472565433.ch-006, ISBN 978-1-84946-019-4
  70. ^ a b c d e f g McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "The Colonial Era: British Rule of the Gold Coast".
  71. ^ Glavovic, Bruce C. (2008). "Sustainable coastal communities in the age of coastal storms: Reconceptualising coastal planning as 'new' naval architecture". Journal of Coastal Conservation. 12 (3): 125–134. doi:10.1007/s11852-008-0037-4. ISSN 1400-0350. S2CID 128678644.
  72. ^ Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro (2020). "Evolution of coastal erosion in Palmarin (Senegal)". Journal of Coastal Conservation. 24 (2). doi:10.1007/s11852-020-00742-y. ISSN 1400-0350. S2CID 214784654.
  73. ^ "California Conquered: The Annexation of a Mexican Province, 1846-1850". doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim050080165. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  74. ^ "2013 Annual Report - Nothing Can Justify Torture Under Any Circumstance". doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-9935-2014001. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  75. ^ "British Columbia, coastal area". 1968. doi:10.4095/8830. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  76. ^ "Amma Asante". New British Cinema from Submarine to 12 Years a Slave. 2015. doi:10.5040/9780571343454.0007. ISBN 9780571343454.
  77. ^ "Wilkie, Alexander Mair, (24 May 1917–13 Aug. 1966), British Resident Commissioner, New Hebrides, since 1962", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u58616
  78. ^ "Asante, Kwaku Baprui, (born 26 March 1924), High Commissioner for Ghana in London, 1991–93", Who's Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u5796
  79. ^ "Interest. Judgments. Claim for Interest against Judgment Debtor Who Had Been Enjoined from Satisfying Judgment". Harvard Law Review. 54 (4): 700–701. 1941. doi:10.2307/1333971. ISSN 0017-811X. JSTOR 1333971.
  80. ^ "Imbalances had been growing before the crisis". doi:10.1787/814130478455. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  81. ^ "Unexplored Territories". What if I Had Been the Hero?. 2012. doi:10.5040/9781838710224.ch-003. ISBN 9781838710224.
  82. ^ "Bishop, Captain Frederick Edward, (23 March 1872–5 Sept. 1931), late Bedfordshire Regt; late travelling Commissioner, Northern Territories, Gold Coast", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u206187
  83. ^ Seebohm, Caroline. (2001). Boca Rococo : how Addison Mizner invented Florida's gold coast. Clarkson Potter. ISBN 0-609-60515-1. OCLC 45393879.
  84. ^ Valsecchi, Perluigi (2014). "Free People, Slaves and Pawns in the Western Gold Coast: The Demography of Dependency in a Mid-Nineteenth-Century British Archival Source". Ghana Studies. 17 (1): 223–246. doi:10.1353/ghs.2014.0010. ISSN 2333-7168. S2CID 162392978.
  85. ^ "Sircar, Sir Nripendra Nath, (died 1945), Law Member of Executive Council of Governor-General of India, 1934–39; late Vice-President, Viceroy's Executive Council; Leader of Indian Legislative Assembly", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u231810
  86. ^ "Sircar, Sir Nripendra Nath, (died 1945), Law Member of Executive Council of Governor-General of India, 1934–39; late Vice-President, Viceroy's Executive Council; Leader of Indian Legislative Assembly", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u231810
  87. ^ "Sarbah, John Mensah, (1864–28 Nov. 1910), Barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1887; Senior Unofficial Member, Legislative Council, Gold Coast, from 1901; Senior Trustee, Mfantsi National Fund, 1902", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u190678
  88. ^ "Gokhale, Hon. Gopal Krishna, (1866–20 Feb. 1915), representative of non-official members of Bombay Legislature on Viceroy's Legislative Council", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u186402
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "Colonial Administration".
  90. ^ "Chapter I. Internal Organization of Local Authorities", Financial Administration in Local Government, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 13–26, 31 December 1960, doi:10.3138/9781487579906-003, ISBN 978-1-4875-7990-6
  91. ^ Deacon, Russell (2000). "'Pushing at a closed door': The 1998 welsh local government review and its implications for electing welsh councils". Local Government Studies. 26 (3): 1–10. doi:10.1080/03003930008433996. ISSN 0300-3930. S2CID 153482452.
  92. ^ Duncan, Joyce (2015). Service learning in the community : the cultural implications of positive change. Momentum Press. ISBN 978-1-60650-794-0. OCLC 911067682.
  93. ^ "A Jury May Have Sentenced a Man to Death Because He Is Gay. It's Time for a Federal Court to Hear His Bias Claim". 2018. doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-9970-20180016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  94. ^ a b Myers, J. C. (2012), "Chiefs in the New South Africa", Indirect Rule in South Africa, Woodbridge, UK: Boydell and Brewer Limited, pp. 70–95, doi:10.1017/upo9781580467421.006, ISBN 978-1-58046-742-1
  95. ^ "From Indirect to Direct Rule", The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, doi:10.1057/9781137318275.0013, ISBN 978-1-137-31827-5
  96. ^ a b Thompson, Lanny (31 July 2010), "Legal Foundations of Colonial Rule", Imperial Archipelago, University of Hawai'i Press, pp. 183–226, doi:10.21313/hawaii/9780824834012.003.0006, ISBN 978-0-8248-3401-2
  97. ^ Graham, James D. (1 May 2018), "Indirect Rule: The Establishment of "Chiefs" and "Tribes" in Cameron's Tanganyika", The Colonial Epoch in Africa, Routledge, pp. 23–32, doi:10.4324/9781351058551-3, ISBN 978-1-351-05855-1
  98. ^ Osler, Mark William (2011). "What Would It Look Like If We Cared About Narcotics Trafficking? An Argument to Attack Narcotics Capital Rather than Labor". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1800370. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 155227204.
  99. ^ a b Osborn, Michelle (14 February 2020), Cheeseman, Nic; Kanyinga, Karuti; Lynch, Gabrielle (eds.), "Chiefs, elders, and traditional authority", The Oxford Handbook of Kenyan Politics, Oxford University Press, pp. 296–309, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198815693.013.20, ISBN 978-0-19-881569-3
  100. ^ "Atta, Nana Sir Ofori, (11 Oct. 1881–24 Aug. 1943), Omanhene (Paramount Chief) of Akyem Abuakwa; an Unofficial Member, Executive Council of Gold Coast, since 1942; Provincial Member of the Legislative Council, Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of Education, Gold Coast Colony; Director of Akim, Limited; Member of District Agricultural Committee, Akim Abuakwa", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u222064
  101. ^ Baldwin, Kate (2016), "Cross-National Data Set of Chiefs' Power", The Paradox of Traditional Chiefs in Democratic Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 189–196, doi:10.1017/cbo9781316422335.011, ISBN 978-1-316-42233-5
  102. ^ Ubink, Janine M. (2008). In The Land of the Chiefs : Customary Law, Land Conflicts, and the Role of the State in Peri-Urban Ghana. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. doi:10.5117/9789087280413. hdl:1887/21154. ISBN 978-90-8728-041-3. S2CID 153527682.
  103. ^ "Central and local authorities". Tubercle. 17 (1): 43–44. 1935. doi:10.1016/s0041-3879(35)80807-6. ISSN 0041-3879.
  104. ^ Bell, J. Bowyer; Arens, Moshe (28 July 2017), "The Jews Attack, March 1948–May 1948", Terror Out of Zion, Routledge, pp. 290–313, doi:10.4324/9781315130767-10, ISBN 978-1-315-13076-7
  105. ^ Grass, Tim (3 October 2013), "How Fundamentalist were British Brethren during the 1920s?", Evangelicalism and Fundamentalism in the United Kingdom during the Twentieth Century, Oxford University Press, pp. 115–131, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199664832.003.0007, ISBN 978-0-19-966483-2
  106. ^ Reid, Carlton (2015), "When Two Tribes Were One", Roads Were Not Built for Cars, Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, pp. 1–7, doi:10.5822/978-1-61091-688-2_1, ISBN 978-1-59726-315-3
  107. ^ a b c d e f g McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "Economic and Social Development".
  108. ^ Lewis, Isaac M. (1915). Trees of Texas; An illustrated manual of the native and introduced trees of the state. Austin: University of Texas. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.120501. hdl:2152/25198.
  109. ^ "Atta, Nana Sir Ofori, (11 Oct. 1881–24 Aug. 1943), Omanhene (Paramount Chief) of Akyem Abuakwa; an Unofficial Member, Executive Council of Gold Coast, since 1942; Provincial Member of the Legislative Council, Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of Education, Gold Coast Colony; Director of Akim, Limited; Member of District Agricultural Committee, Akim Abuakwa", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u222064
  110. ^ "4. "Something from Nothing": Generating Wealth in the Racialized Mining Economy", Colonial Extractions, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 31 January 2015, doi:10.3138/9781442619951-006, ISBN 978-1-4426-1995-1
  111. ^ "Revenue from export taxes". doi:10.1787/888933907963. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  112. ^ a b KILLINGRAY, D. (1 October 1998). "Beloved Imperialist: Sir Gordon Guggisberg governor of the Gold Coast". African Affairs. 97 (389): 577. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a007978. ISSN 0001-9909.
  113. ^ "Kole, Nene Sir Emmanuel Mate, (7 Feb. 1860–30 Jan. 1939), Paramount Chief of Manya Krobo, Gold Coast; Member of Legislative Council, Gold Coast, since 1911", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u212467
  114. ^ "Medical schools conflict of interest policies improve; additional improvements suggested". 2004. doi:10.1037/e648622011-003. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Retrieved 4 January 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  115. ^ Soon, Lee (2015). An Effect that Taping has on %MVIC According to Bodyweight Half Squat Set (Thesis). Korean Society for Neurotherapy. doi:10.17817/2015.07.09.249.
  116. ^ "Figure 9. Private consumption has led growth, which has been uncertain". doi:10.1787/888933600790. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  117. ^ "Long-term unemployment rate". How's Life? 2013. How's Life?. 5 November 2013. doi:10.1787/how_life-2013-graph10-en. ISBN 9789264200746. ISSN 2308-9679.
  118. ^ Iyer, Lakshmi (20 August 2015), "The Long-Run Consequences of Colonial Institutions", A New Economic History of Colonial India, Routledge, pp. 117–139, doi:10.4324/9781315771083-8, ISBN 978-1-315-77108-3
  119. ^ Baten, Jörg. "POPULATION AND LIVING STANDARDS 1914-45". The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe. 2.
  120. ^ "Life-years gained from defibrillator implantation. markedly nonlinear increase during 3 years of follow-up and its implications". ACC Current Journal Review. 13 (7): 50. 2004. doi:10.1016/j.accreview.2004.07.038. ISSN 1062-1458.
  121. ^ Lawson, Kevin E. (2003). "Evangelical Christian Education in the Early 20th Century: Marginalization and New Beginnings". Christian Education Journal: Research on Educational Ministry. 1 (1): 7–11. doi:10.1177/073989130300100102. ISSN 0739-8913. S2CID 158253861.
  122. ^ "The Impact of the East Africa Campaign, 1914–1918 On South Africa and Beyond". doi:10.1163/2352-3786_dlws1_b9789004188471_011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  123. ^ Killingray, David (1987), "Military and Labour Policies in the Gold Coast During the First World War", Africa and the First World War, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 152–170, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-18827-7_8, ISBN 978-1-349-18829-1
  124. ^ Committee On The Assessment Of The Readjustment Needs Of Military Personnel, Veterans; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute Of, Medicine (12 March 2013). Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan. doi:10.17226/13499. ISBN 978-0-309-26427-3. PMID 24901192.
  125. ^ "Figure 2.5. The Japanese wage system has gradually shifted from its traditional seniority pay system". doi:10.1787/888933890540. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  126. ^ Morris, Marcus (14 February 2019), "Between workers and soldiers", Veterans of the First World War, Routledge, pp. 48–64, doi:10.4324/9780429056949-4, ISBN 978-0-429-05694-9, S2CID 187898587
  127. ^ McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "The growth of nationalism and the end of colonial rule".
  128. ^ "Colonialism and the Educated Africans", Postcolonial Modernism, Duke University Press, pp. 21–37, 2014, doi:10.1215/9780822376309-002, ISBN 978-0-8223-5732-2
  129. ^ Mercer, David (1987). "Patterns of protest: native land rights and claims in Australia". Political Geography Quarterly. 6 (2): 171–194. doi:10.1016/0260-9827(87)90006-1. ISSN 0260-9827.
  130. ^ Korang, Kwaku Larbi (27 April 2010), "Casely Hayford, Joseph Ephraim", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.47795, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  131. ^ Korang, Kwaku Larbi (27 April 2010), "British West African National Congress", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.47789, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  132. ^ a b c d e McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "Early Manifestations of Nationalism".
  133. ^ "Labour Representation Committee members of the British parliament elected in 1906". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 24 May 2007. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/96943. ISBN 978-0-19-861412-8. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  134. ^ "Atta, Nana Sir Ofori, (11 Oct. 1881–24 Aug. 1943), Omanhene (Paramount Chief) of Akyem Abuakwa; an Unofficial Member, Executive Council of Gold Coast, since 1942; Provincial Member of the Legislative Council, Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of Education, Gold Coast Colony; Director of Akim, Limited; Member of District Agricultural Committee, Akim Abuakwa", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u222064
  135. ^ "Origins, Evidence, and Consequences", Moral Sentiments and Material Interests, The MIT Press, 2005, doi:10.7551/mitpress/4771.003.0004, ISBN 978-0-262-27386-2
  136. ^ "Atta, Nana Sir Ofori, (11 Oct. 1881–24 Aug. 1943), Omanhene (Paramount Chief) of Akyem Abuakwa; an Unofficial Member, Executive Council of Gold Coast, since 1942; Provincial Member of the Legislative Council, Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of Education, Gold Coast Colony; Director of Akim, Limited; Member of District Agricultural Committee, Akim Abuakwa", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u222064
  137. ^ "Figure 6.8. Immigrant-owned firms were more likely to be job creators". doi:10.1787/888934066425. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  138. ^ Sokolowski, Robert (1970), "The Constitution Performed by Inner Time", The Formation of Husserl's Concept of Constitution, Phaenomenologica, vol. 18, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 74–115, doi:10.1007/978-94-017-3325-0_4, ISBN 978-90-481-8316-6
  139. ^ Bleek, Wolf (1990). "Did the Akan resort to abortion in pre-colonial Ghana? Some Conjectures" (PDF). Africa. 60 (1): 121–131. doi:10.2307/1160430. ISSN 0001-9720. JSTOR 1160430. PMID 12343106. S2CID 24702978.
  140. ^ "Members Elected by the Executive Council". Africa. 9 (4): 543. 1936. doi:10.1017/s0001972000008986. ISSN 0001-9720. S2CID 245910374.
  141. ^ "Medals of Honor Presented to Black Veterans of World War II (1997)", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, 30 September 2009, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.33755, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  142. ^ "Of the Many Who Returned and Yet Were Dead'", The Philosophy of War and Exile, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, doi:10.1057/9781137351227.0010, ISBN 978-1-137-35122-7
  143. ^ Waters, R. S. (1933). "Possible Results had Modern Air Reconnaissance Existed in 1914". Royal United Services Institution. Journal. 78 (509): 44–59. doi:10.1080/03071843309433806. ISSN 0035-9289.
  144. ^ "Atta, Nana Sir Ofori, (11 Oct. 1881–24 Aug. 1943), Omanhene (Paramount Chief) of Akyem Abuakwa; an Unofficial Member, Executive Council of Gold Coast, since 1942; Provincial Member of the Legislative Council, Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of Education, Gold Coast Colony; Director of Akim, Limited; Member of District Agricultural Committee, Akim Abuakwa", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u222064
  145. ^ "Public Responsibility", Black Education in New York State, Syracuse University Press, pp. 69–84, 1 December 1979, doi:10.2307/j.ctv9b2x9d.8, ISBN 978-1-68445-015-2, S2CID 241586403
  146. ^ RENZ, MARION CASEY (1995). "This writer became a nurse for All the wrong reasons Learn why she stayed". Nursing. 25 (5): 47–49. doi:10.1097/00152193-199505000-00018. ISSN 0360-4039. PMID 7746538. S2CID 193110128.
  147. ^ Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (1999), "New Institutional Economics, New Public Management and Government Failure", Market Failure, Government Failure, Leadership and Public Policy, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 61–92, doi:10.1057/9780230372962_4, ISBN 978-1-349-40797-2
  148. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "The Politics of the Independence Movements".
  149. ^ Heuer, Jennifer (3 March 2014). Andress, David (ed.). "Did Everything Change? Rethinking Revolutionary Legacies". Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199639748.013.036.
  150. ^ Johnson, Chalmers Ashby. (1982). Revolutionary change. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1144-5. OCLC 251351828.
  151. ^ "Doing Things the Right Way: The Way You Were Taught", Doing Things the Right Way, University of Calgary Press, pp. 23–36, 1995, doi:10.2307/j.ctv8jnzd8.11, ISBN 978-1-55238-328-5
  152. ^ Tews, Michael J.; Frager, Kelly; Citarella, Ashley I.; Orndorff, Robert M. (1 August 2018). "What is Etiquette Today? Interviewing Etiquette for Today's College Student". Journal of Advances in Education Research. 3 (3). doi:10.22606/jaer.2018.33005. ISSN 2519-7002.
  153. ^ Robinson, Lisa Clayton (7 April 2005), "Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.42169, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  154. ^ Schwarz, Bill (4 December 2003), "George Padmore", West Indian Intellectuals in Britain, Manchester University Press, pp. 132–149, doi:10.7228/manchester/9780719064746.003.0007, ISBN 978-0-7190-6474-6, S2CID 242756948
  155. ^ "Nkrumah/Lumumba", African Intellectuals and Decolonization, Ohio University Press, pp. 27–36, 2012, doi:10.1353/chapter.711980, ISBN 978-0-89680-486-9
  156. ^ a b c "Secretary of the Ugcc", Kwame Nkrumah. Vision and Tragedy, Sub-Saharan Publishers, pp. 52–72, 15 November 2007, doi:10.2307/j.ctvk3gm60.9, ISBN 978-9988-647-81-0
  157. ^ Rubenfeld, Jed (10 April 2001), "Constitutional Self-Government on the Model of Speech", Freedom and Time, Yale University Press, pp. 45–73, doi:10.12987/yale/9780300080483.003.0003, ISBN 978-0-300-08048-3
  158. ^ Wegmann, Andrew N. (1 August 2017), "He Be God Who Made Dis Man", New Directions in the Study of African American Recolonization, University Press of Florida, doi:10.5744/florida/9780813054247.003.0004, ISBN 978-0-8130-5424-7
  159. ^ "From Talking Chiefs to a Native Coperative Élite", From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite, MQUP, pp. 297–320, 21 June 1996, doi:10.2307/j.ctt806bn.22, ISBN 978-0-7735-6580-7
  160. ^ "The Man Who Had All the Luck". Man Who Had All the Luck, the. 1 June 2007. doi:10.5040/9781580814768.
  161. ^ "Birth of the CPP", Kwame Nkrumah. Vision and Tragedy, Sub-Saharan Publishers, pp. 74–90, 15 November 2007, doi:10.2307/j.ctvk3gm60.10, ISBN 978-9988-647-81-0
  162. ^ Leek, J. H. (1948). "Preliminary Draft of a World Constitution. Common Cause: A Monthly Report of the Committee to Frame a World Constitution". Books Abroad. 22 (4): 418. doi:10.2307/40087909. ISSN 0006-7431. JSTOR 40087909.
  163. ^ "More than half of all jobs created since 1995 were non-standard jobs". 21 May 2015. doi:10.1787/9789264235120-graph7-en. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  164. ^ Johnson, Nevil (2004), "A Parliamentary Government: the Executive Power", Reshaping the British Constitution, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 79–101, doi:10.1057/9780230503366_6, ISBN 978-0-333-94620-6
  165. ^ a b Omer, Haim; London-Sapir, Shoshannah (2003), "Nonviolent Resistance in Action", Nonviolent Resistance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75–92, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511550652.006, ISBN 978-0-511-55065-2
  166. ^ Biney, Ama (2011), "From Activist to Leader of the CPP, 1945–1951", The Political and Social Thought of Kwame Nkrumah, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 29–45, doi:10.1057/9780230118645_3, ISBN 978-1-349-29513-5
  167. ^ a b c "Leader of Government Business", Kwame Nkrumah. Vision and Tragedy, Sub-Saharan Publishers, pp. 92–102, 15 November 2007, doi:10.2307/j.ctvk3gm60.11, ISBN 978-9988-647-81-0
  168. ^ Kleist, N. (29 June 2011). "Modern chiefs: Tradition, development and return among traditional authorities in Ghana". African Affairs. 110 (441): 629–647. doi:10.1093/afraf/adr041. ISSN 0001-9909.
  169. ^ James, Simon (1995), "Relations between Prime Minister and Cabinet: From Wilson to Thatcher", Prime Minister, Cabinet and Core Executive, London: Macmillan Education UK, pp. 63–86, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-24141-5_4, ISBN 978-0-333-55528-6
  170. ^ "Aziz, Shaukat, (born 6 March 1949), Member for Attock, National Assembly, Pakistan, 2004–07; Prime Minister of Pakistan, 2004–07, and Minister of Finance, 1999–2007", Who's Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u244938
  171. ^ Afghan National Liberation Front (Afghanistan : Political party)./Liberation Front. University of Arizona Libraries. 1990. doi:10.2458/azu_acku_serial_jq1769_a8_a76_v6_n7.
  172. ^ Wildenmann, Rudolf (31 December 1987), Katz, Richard S (ed.), "3. The Party Government of the Federal Republic of Germany: Form and Experience", Party Governments, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, pp. 78–117, doi:10.1515/9783110900255-004, ISBN 978-3-11-090025-5
  173. ^ King, Tom (21 January 2015), "The Advent of Two New Micro Parties: The Palmer United Party and Katter's Australia Party", Abbott's Gambit: The 2013 Australian Federal Election, ANU Press, doi:10.22459/ag.01.2015.17, ISBN 978-1-925022-09-4
  174. ^ "19. Indonesia's demand for immediate independence", Portrait of a Patriot, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, pp. 373–376, 31 December 1972, doi:10.1515/9783110870640-020, ISBN 978-3-11-087064-0
  175. ^ "Coattails Upside Down: How Assembly Elections Shape Presidential Elections", Votes from Seats, Cambridge University Press, 2017, doi:10.1017/9781108261128.012, ISBN 978-1-108-26112-8
  176. ^ a b L.; Hilton, T. E. (1962). "Ghana Population Atlas. The Distribution and Density of Population in the Gold Coast and Togoland under United Kingdom Trusteeship". Population (French Edition). 17 (2): 353. doi:10.2307/1527080. ISSN 0032-4663. JSTOR 1527080.
  177. ^ "Original Title", The Ewe-Speaking People of Togoland and the Gold Coast, Routledge, p. 7, 3 February 2017, doi:10.4324/9781315295978-4, ISBN 978-1-315-29597-8, S2CID 239521353
  178. ^ Laronce, Cécile. Auteur. (1997). L'influence de Nkrumah dans la politique étrangère américaine : les États-Unis découvrent l'Afrique, 1945-1966. [s.n.] OCLC 490457889.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bourret, Florence Mabel. Gold Coast: A survey of the Gold Coast and British Togoland, 1919-1946. (Stanford University Press, 1949). online
  • Buah, F. K. A history of Ghana (London: Macmillan, 1998)
  • Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Gold Coast" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). pp. 203–207.
  • Claridge, W. W. A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti (1915)
  • Davidson, Basil. Black Star: a view of the life and times of Kwame Nkrumah (1990)
  • Gocking, Roger S. The History of Ghana (2005). online free to borrow
  • Graham, Charles Kwesi. The History of Education in Ghana: From the Earliest Times to the Declaration of Independence (Routledge, 2013)
  • Kimble, David (1963). A Political History of Ghana: The Rise of Gold Coast Nationalism, 1850–1928. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • McLaughlin, James L., and David Owusu-Ansah. "Historical Setting" (and sub-chapters). In A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  • Owusu-Ansah, David. Historical dictionary of Ghana (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014)
  • Quartey, Seth (2007). Missionary Practices on the Gold Coast, 1832–1895: Discourse, Gaze and Gender in the Basel Mission in Pre-Colonial West Africa. Youngstown, New York: Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-62499-043-4.
  • Szereszewski, R. Structural Changes in the Economy of Ghana, 1891-1911 (London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965)
  • Ward, W. E. F. A History of Ghana (Allen & Unwin, 1966) online free to borrow
  • Gyasi, Yaa (2016). Homegoing. New York, NY: Knopf.
  • Great Britain. Colonial Office. Annual report on the Gold Coast (annual 1931–1953) online free

External links[edit]

5°33′00″N 0°13′00″W / 5.5500°N 0.2167°W / 5.5500; -0.2167