Gold certificate (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Gold certificate)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A Series 1934 $10,000 gold certificate depicting Salmon P. Chase, Smithsonian Institution

Gold certificates were issued by the United States Treasury as a form of representative money from 1865 to 1934. While the United States observed a gold standard, the certificates offered a more convenient way to pay in gold than the use of coins. Private ownership of gold certificates was outlawed in 1933 and since then they have been available only to the Federal Reserve Banks, with book-entry certificates replacing the paper form.

Overview[edit]

Gold certificates were first authorized under the Legal Tender Act of 1863, but unlike the United States Notes also authorized, they apparently were not printed until 1865. The need for them arose from the limitations of the United States Notes. To promote the flow of gold into the Treasury and maintain the credit of the government, the notes could not be used to pay customs duties or interest on the federal debt. Gold certificates, representing coins held physically in the Treasury, were instead provided for those purposes. The notes, as legal tender for most purposes, were the dominant paper currency until 1879 but were accepted at a discount in comparison to the gold certificates. After 1879 the government started to redeem United States Notes at face value in gold, bringing them into parity with gold certificates and making the latter also a candidate for general circulation.

The first gold certificates had no series date; they were hand-dated and payable either to the bearer or to the order of a named payee. They featured a vignette of an eagle uniformly across all denominations. Later issues (series 1870, 1871, and 1875) featured portraits of historical figures. The reverse sides were either blank or featured abstract designs. The only exception was the $20 of 1865, which had a picture of a $20 gold coin. The Series of 1882 was the first series that was uniformly payable to the bearer; it was transferable and anyone could redeem it for the equivalent in gold. This was the case with all gold certificate series from that point on, with the exception of 1888, 1900, and 1934. The series of 1888 and 1900 were issued to specific payees as before. The series of 1882 had the same portraits as the series of 1875, but a different back design, featuring a series of eagles, as well as complex border work.

Historic U.S. gold certificates (1863–1933)[edit]

Gold certificates, along with all other U.S. currency, were made in two sizes—a larger size from 1865 to 1928, and a smaller size beginning with the series of 1928. The backs of all large-sized notes (and also the small-sized notes of the Series of 1934) were orange, resulting in the nickname “yellow boys” or "goldbacks". The backs of the Series of 1928 bills were green, and identical to the corresponding denomination of the more familiar Federal Reserve Notes, including the usual buildings on the $10 through $100 designs and the less-known abstract designs of denominations $500 and up. Both large and small size gold certificates feature a gold treasury seal on the obverse, just as U.S. Notes feature a red seal, silver certificates (except World War II Hawaii and North Africa notes) a blue seal, and Federal Reserve Notes a green seal.

In the case of the Series 1928 (small-size) gold certificates, they bore a redemption statement with the following text: "This certifies that there have been deposited in the Treasury of the United States of America XXXXX Dollars in Gold Coin payable to the bearer on demand."

Series of 1900 $10,000 Gold Certificates[edit]

Another interesting note is the Series of 1900. Along with the $5,000 and $10,000 of the Series of 1888, all 1900 bills ($10,000 denomination only) have been redeemed, and no longer have legal tender status. Most were destroyed, with the exception of a number of 1900 $10,000 bills that were in a box in a post office near the U.S. Treasury in Washington, D.C. There was a fire on 13 December 1935, and employees threw burning boxes out into the street. The box of canceled high-denomination currency burst open. Much to everyone's dismay, they were worthless. There are several hundred outstanding, and their ownership is technically illegal, as they are stolen property. However, due to their lack of intrinsic value, the government has not prosecuted any owners, citing more important concerns. They carry a collector value in the numismatic market and, as noted in Bowers and Sundermans' The 100 Greatest American Currency Notes, the only United States notes that can be purchased for less than their face value. This is the only example of "circulating" U.S. currency that is not an obligation of the government, and thus not redeemable by a Federal Reserve Bank. The note bears the portrait of Andrew Jackson and has no printed design on its reverse side.

End of the Gold Certificate Era in the United States (March 1933)[edit]

As part of the Roosevelt Administration's response to the effects of the Great Depression and particularly the outflow of gold for hoarding and for shipment overseas, the practice of redeeming gold certificates for gold coin was ended by Presidential Proclamation 2039 (dated 6 March 1933) and Executive Order 6073 (dated 10 March 1933). On 5 April 1933, Executive Order 6102 was issued; it required all persons in the United States to deliver (with limited exceptions) all gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates to the Federal Reserve by 1 May 1933. By order of the Secretary of the Treasury dated 28 December 1933, private possession of gold certificates was declared illegal.[1] Due to their (then-)illegal status and public fear that the notes would be devalued and made obsolete, this resulted in the majority of circulating notes being retired.

The restrictions on private ownership of gold certificates were revoked by Treasury Secretary Douglas Dillon effective 24 April 1964, primarily to allow collectors to own examples legally; however, gold certificates are no longer redeemable for gold, but instead can be exchanged at face value for other U.S. coin and currency designated as legal tender (e.g., Federal Reserve Notes and United States Notes).[2] In general, the notes are scarce and valuable, especially examples in "new" condition.

Series of 1934 Gold Certificates; Modern usage by the Federal Reserve System[edit]

The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 established a new accounting mechanism, through the issue of a special series of gold certificates, to account for gold held by the Federal Reserve Banks on behalf of the United States. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to "prescribe the form and denominations of the certificates".[3]

The Series of 1934 (bearing the signatures of William Alexander Julian (Treasurer) and Henry Morgenthau (Treasury Secretary)) consisted of the following denominations: $100; $1,000; and $10,000 (mirroring the circulating Federal Reserve Notes of the same series and denominations). However, there was also a $100,000 denomination (bearing the portrait of President Woodrow Wilson) that had no equivalent in other types of U.S. currency and was also the largest currency denomination ever issued by the United States Treasury. 42,000 of the $100,000 denomination were printed. According to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing's own website, the $100,000 certificates were printed between 18 December 1934 and 9 January 1935.[4] These notes were never intended for circulation in the general economy and there are no known instances of any such certificates ever being released outside government channels, even as specimens. Reflecting the purpose for which these certificates were issued, the redemption statement on their face was changed to read as follows: "This certifies that there is on deposit in the Treasury of the United States of America XXXXX Dollars in Gold payable to bearer on demand as authorized by law."

Since the 1960s, most of the paper certificates have been destroyed,[5] and the currently prescribed form of the "certificates" issued to the Federal Reserve is an electronic book entry account between the Federal Reserve and the Treasury.[6] The electronic book entry system also allows for the various regional Federal Reserve Banks to exchange certificate balances among themselves.[7] However, the Treasury authorized a small amount of them to be retained at certain Federal Reserve Banks (where they had been used) for educational and historical purposes, such as being placed on public display. In addition, a $100,000 Series of 1934 gold certificate is part of the numismatic collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.[8]

As of December 2013 the Federal Reserve reported[9] holding $11.037 billion (face value) of these certificates. The Treasury backs these certificates by holding an equivalent amount of gold at the statutory exchange rate of $42 2/9 per troy ounce of gold, though the Federal Reserve does not have the right to exchange the certificates for gold. As the certificates are denominated in dollars rather than in a set weight of gold, any change in the statutory exchange rate towards the (much higher) market rate would result in a windfall accounting gain for the Treasury.


Series and varieties[edit]

Series and varieties of large-size gold certificates[10]
Series Value Features/varieties
1865

[nb 1]

  • $20
  • $100
  • $500
  • $1000
  • $5,000
  • $10,000
Notes from this first issue are extremely rare in lower ($20 and $100) denominations. A single $1,000 and $5,000 are reported to exist in a government collection, and an issued $500 or $10,000 has never been seen.[12] In addition to the two engraved signatures customary on United States banknotes (the Register of the Treasury and Treasurer of the United States), the earlier issues of Gold certificates (i.e., 1865, 1870, 1875, and some 1882) included a third signature of one of the Assistant Treasurers of the United States (in New York or Washington, D.C.).[13] Known as a countersigned or triple-signature note, this feature existed for all Series prior to 1882 (and the first printing of the Series 1882).
1870–75
  • $100
  • $500
  • $1,000
  • $5,000
  • $10,000
Series 1870 notes introduced portraits to gold certificates. Both Series of 1870 and Series of 1875 are countersigned notes. Between the two series, the $100 is extremely rare, the $500, $1,000, and $10,000 are unique (in government collections), and the $5,000 is unknown.[12]
1882
  • $20
  • $50
  • $100
  • $500
  • $1,000
  • $5,000
  • $10,000
The Act of 12 July 1882 authorized denominations “not less than $20”.[14]
1888
  • $5,000
  • $10,000
Series 1888 notes were intended for bank use to balance accounts without having to transport large volumes of gold bullion or currency.[15] They have all been redeemed.[16]
1900 $10,000 Canceled -- Not legal tender. Several hundred notes exist and examples occasionally appear for sale. See above.
1905 $20
1906 $20
1907
  • $10
  • $1,000
1913 $50
1922
  • $10
  • $20
  • $50
  • $100
  • $500
  • $1000

Complete United States gold certificate type set[edit]

Large[edit]

Large-size United States gold certificates
Value Issue Series Fr. Image Portrait Signature & seal varieties
20$20 1st 1865 Fr.1166b Image pending Vignettes of eagle with shield 1166b – Colby and Spinner – small red
100$100 1st 1865 Fr.1166c $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1865, Fr.1166c, with a vignette of an eagle and shield (left) and justice (bottom center). Vignette of eagle with shield 1166c – Colby and Spinner – small red
500$500 1st 1865 Fr.1166d
proof
$500 Gold Certificate, Series 1865, Fr.1166d, with a vignette of an eagle and shield (left) and justice (bottom center). Vignette of eagle with shield 1166d – Colby and Spinner – small red
1000$1,000 1st 1865 Fr.1166e
proof
$1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1865, Fr.1166e, with a vignette of an eagle and shield (left) and justice (bottom center). Vignettes of eagle with shield, and justice with scales. 1166e – Colby and Spinner – small red
5000$5,000 1st 1865 Fr.1166f
proof
$5,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1865, Fr.1166f, with a vignette of an eagle and shield (left) and justice (bottom center). Vignettes of eagle with shield and female 1166f – Colby and Spinner – small red
10000$10,000 1st 1865 Fr.1166g
proof
$10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1865, Fr.1166g, with a vignette of an eagle and shield (left) and justice (bottom center). Vignettes of eagle with shield 1166g – Colby and Spinner – small red
100$100 2nd & 3rd 1870–75 Fr.1166h $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1875, Fr.1166h, depicting Thomas Hart Benton Thomas Hart Benton 1166h – xxx and xxx – large red (1870)
1166m – Allison and New – large red (1875)
500$500 2nd & 3rd 1870–75 Fr.1166i $500 Gold Certificate, Series 1870, Fr.1166i, depicting Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln 1166i – Allison and Tuttle – large red (1870)
1166n – Allison and New – large red (1875)
1000$1,000 2nd & 3rd 1870–75 Fr.1166j
proof
$1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1875, Fr.1166j, depicting Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton 1166j – xxx and xxx – large red (1870)
1166o – Allison and New – large red (1875)
5000$5,000 2nd & 3rd 1870–75 Fr.1166k
proof
$5,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1870, Fr.1166k, depicting James Madison James Madison 1166k – Allison and Gilfillan – large red
10000$10,000 2nd & 3rd 1870–75 Fr.1166l
proof
$10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1875, Fr.1166l, depicting Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson 1166l – xxx and xxx – large red (1870)
1166q – Allison and Wyman – large red (1875)
10$10 7th 1907 Fr.1172 $10 Gold Certificate, Series 1907, Fr.1172, depicting Michael Hillegas Michael Hillegas
1167 – 1172

1167 – Vernon and Treat – Gold
1168 – Vernon and McClung – Gold
1169 – Napier and McClung – Gold, Act of 1882
1169a – Napier and McClung – Gold, Act of 1907
1170 – Napier and Thompson – Gold, Act of 1882
1170a – Napier and Thompson – Gold, Act of 1907
1171 – Parker and Burke – Gold

1172 – Teehee and Burke – Gold
10$10 9th 1922 Fr.1173 $10 Gold Certificate, Series 1922, Fr.1173, depicting Michael Hillegas Michael Hillegas 1173 – Speelman and White – Gold

1173a – Speelman and White – Gold, small serial numbers

20$20 4th 1882 Fr.1175a $20 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1175a, depicting James Garfield James Garfield
1174 – 1178

1174 – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown
1175* – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1175a – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1176 – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1177 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown

1178 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
20$20 4th 1882 Fr.1177 $20 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1177, depicting James Garfield James Garfield
20$20 7th 1905 Fr.1180 $20 Gold Certificate, Series 1905, Fr.1180, depicting George Washington George Washington 1179 – Lyons and Roberts – small red

1180 – Lyons and Treat – small red

20$20 7th 1906 Fr.1185 $20 Gold Certificate, Series 1906, Fr.1185, depicting George Washington George Washington
1181 – 1186

1181 – Vernon and Treat – Gold
1182 – Vernon and McClung – Gold
1183 – Napier and McClung – Gold
1184 – Napier and Thompson – Gold
1185 – Parker and Burke – Gold

1186 – Teehee and Burke – Gold
20$20 9th 1922 Fr.1187 $20 Gold Certificate, Series 1922, Fr.1187, depicting George Washington George Washington 1187 – Speelman and White – Gold
50$50 4th 1882 Fr.1189a $50 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1189a, depicting Silas Wright Silas Wright
1188 – 1197

1188 – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown
1189* – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1189a – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1190 – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1191 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
1192 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
1192a – Rosecrans and Huston – small red
1193 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
1194 – Lyons and Treat – small red
1195 – Vernon and Treat – small red
1196 – Vernon and McClung – small red

1197 – Napier and McClung – small red
50$50 4th 1882 Fr.1195 $50 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1195, depicting Silas Wright Silas Wright
50$50 9th 1913 Fr.1199 $50 Gold Certificate, Series 1913, Fr.1199, depicting Ulysses Grant Ulysses S. Grant 1198 – Parker and Burke – Gold

1199 – Teehee and Burke – Gold

50$50 9th 1922 Fr.1200a $50 Gold Certificate, Series 1922, Fr.1200a, depicting Ulysses Grant Ulysses S. Grant 1200 – Speelman and White – Gold

1200a – Speelman and White – Gold, small serial numbers

100$100 4th 1882 Fr.1202 $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1202, depicting Thomas Hart Benton Thomas Hart Benton
1201 – 1214

1201 – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown
1202* – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1202a – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1203 – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1204 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
1205 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
1206 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
1207 – Lyons and Treat – small red
1208 – Vernon and Treat – small red
1209 – Vernon and McClung – small red
1210 – Napier and McClung – small red
1211 – Napier and Thompson – small red
1212 – Napier and Burke – small red
1213 – Parker and Burke – small red

1214 – Teehee and Burke – small red
100$100 4th 1882 Fr.1207 $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.xxxx, depicting Thomas Hart Benton Thomas Hart Benton
100$100 9th 1922 Fr.1215 $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1922, Fr.xxxx, depicting Thomas Hart Benton Thomas Hart Benton 1215 – Speelman and White – small red
500$500 4th 1882 Fr.1216a $500 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.xxxx, depicting Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln
1215a – 1216b

1215a – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown
1215b – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1215c – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1215d – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
1216 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
1216a – Parker and Burke – small red

1216b – Teehee and Burke – small red
500$500 9th 1922 Fr.1217 $500 Gold Certificate, Series 1922, Fr.xxxx, depicting Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln 1217 – Speelman and White – small red
1000$1,000 4th 1882 Fr.1218a $1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1218a, depicting Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton
1218 – 1218g

1218 – Bruce and Gilfillan –brown
1218a* – Bruce and Gilfillan –brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1218b – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1218c – Rosecrans and Hyatt –large red
1218d – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
1218e – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
1218f – Lyons and Roberts – small red

1218g – Lyons and Treat – small red
1000$1,000 4th 1882 Fr.1218g $1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1218g, depicting Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton
1000$1,000 8th 1907 Fr.1219 $1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1907, Fr.1219, depicting Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton
1219 – 1219e

1219 – Vernon and Treat – Gold
1219a – Vernon and McClung – Gold
1219b – Napier and McClung – Gold
1219c – Napier and Burke – Gold
1219d – Parker and Burke – Gold

1219e – Teehee and Burke – Gold
1000$1,000 9th 1922 Fr.1220 $1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1922, Fr.1220, depicting Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton 1220 – Speelman and White – Gold
5000$5,000 4th 1882 Fr.1221a
proof
$5,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1221a, depicting James Madison James Madison
1221 – 1221j

1221 – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown
1221a* – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1221b – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1221c – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
1221d – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
1221e – Lyons and Roberts – small red
1221f – Vernon and Treat – small red
1221g – Vernon and McClung – small red
1221h – Napier and McClung – small red
1221i – Parker and Burke – small red

1221j – Teehee and Burke – small red
5000$5,000 5th 1888 Fr.1222a
proof
$5,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1888, Fr.1222a, depicting James Madison James Madison 1222 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red

1222a – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red

10000$10,000 4th 1882 Fr.1223a
proof
$10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1882, Fr.1223a, depicting Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson
1223 – 1223g

1223 – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown
1223a – Bruce and Gilfillan – brown, CS by Thomas C. Acton
1223b – Bruce and Wyman – brown
1223c – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
1223d – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
1223e – Lyons and Roberts – small red
1223f – Vernon and Treat – small red

1223g – Teehee and Burke – small red
10000$10,000 5th 1888 Fr.1224a
proof
$10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1888, Fr.1224a, depicting Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson 1224 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red

1224a – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red

10000$10,000 6th 1900[nb 2] Fr.1225 $10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1900, Fr.1225, depicting Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson
1225a – 1225h

1225a – Lyons and Roberts – small red
1225b – Lyons and Treat – small red
1225c – Vernon and Treat – small red
1225d – Vernon and McClung – small red
1225e – Napier and McClung – small red
1225f – Napier and Burke – small red
1225g – Parker and Burke – small red

1225h – Teehee and Burke – small red

Small[edit]

Small-size United States Gold Certificates
Value Series Fr. Image Portrait Signature & seal varieties
10$10 19281928 Fr.2400 $10 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2400, depicting Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton 2400 – Woods and Mellon – gold

2401 – Woods and Mellon (1928A) – gold.

20$20 19281928 Fr.2402 $20 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2402, depicting Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson 2402 – Woods and Mellon – gold

2403 – Woods and Mills (1928A) – gold.

50$50 19281928 Fr.2404 $50 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2404, depicting Ulysses Grant Ulysses Grant 2404 – Woods and Mellon – gold
100$100 19281928 Fr.2405 $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2405, depicting Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin 2405 – Woods and Mellon – gold.
500$500 19281928 Fr.2407 $500 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2407, depicting William McKinley William McKinley 2407 – Woods and Mellon – gold.
1000$1,000 19281928 Fr.2408 $1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2408, depicting Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland 2408 – Woods and Mellon – gold.
5000$5,000 19281928 Fr.2410 $5,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2410, depicting James Madison James Madison 2410 – Woods and Mellon – gold.
10000$10,000 19281928 Fr.2411 $10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, Fr.2411, depicting Salmon P. Chase Salmon P. Chase 2411 – Woods and Mellon – gold.
100$100 19341934 Fr.2406 $100 Gold Certificate, Series 1934, Fr.2406, depicting Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin 2406 – Julian and Morgenthau – gold.
1000$1,000 19341934 Fr.2409 $1,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1934, Fr.2409, depicting Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland 2409 – Julian and Morgenthau – gold.
10000$10,000 19341934 Fr.2412 $10,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1934, Fr.2412, depicting Salmon P. Chase Salmon P. Chase 2412 – Julian and Morgenthau – gold.
100000$100,000 19341934 Fr.2413 $100,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1934, Fr.2413, depicting Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson 2413 – Julian and Morgenthau – gold.

Series catalogue[edit]

This is a chart of some of the series of gold certificates printed. Each entry includes: series year, general description, and printing figures if available.

Small-size gold certificates[edit]

Small-size gold certificates
Series Denominations Signatures Printing Figure
1928 $10 W. O. WoodsAndrew W. Mellon 33,356,000
1928 $20 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 67,704,000
1928 $50 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 5,520,000
1928 $100 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 3,240,000
1928A $100 W. O. Woods – Ogden L. Mills 120,000*
1934 $100 W. A. JulianHenry Morgenthau, Jr. 120,000*
1928 $500 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 420,000
1928 $1,000 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 288,000
1934 $1,000 W. A. Julian – Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 84,000*
1928 $5,000 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 24,000
1928 $10,000 W. O. Woods – Andrew W. Mellon 48,000
1934 $10,000 W. A. Julian – Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 36,000*
1934 $100,000 W. A. Julian – Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 42,000*

* Notes: All Series 1928A gold certificates were consigned to destruction and never released; none[18] are known to exist.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Notes issued under a given Series (e.g., Series 1882, Series 1907) are, in some cases, released over a period of years, as reflected in the Friedberg number signature and seal varieties. For example, based on dates of the signature combinations,[11] the Series 1907 $10 gold certificate was first issued with the signature combination of Vernon and Treat (in office together from 1906 to 1909) and last issued with the Teehee and Burke signatures (in office together from 1915 to 1919). Therefore, a Series 1907 note could have been issued as late as 1919.
  2. ^ There was a massive fire in a new Post Office building at the corner of 12th and Pennsylvania, in Washington D.C., on Friday, December 13, 1935. At the time, part of the 6th floor was being used for Treasury Department storage. Fire Fighters threw many boxes of documents out of the windows and into the streets below. One such box contained almost every surviving piece of the series 1900 Gold Certificates. Passersby quickly grabbed them up off the street, although all of the notes had been previously redeemed and canceled. Treasury records indicate that there are no outstanding redeemable notes of this series.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Morgenthau, Henry (Jr.) (December 28, 1933). "Secretary of the Treasury Gold Order, December 28, 1933". FRASER (https://fraser.stlouisfed.org). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  2. ^ Dillon, Douglas (April 24, 1964). "29 FR 5556, "Removal of Delivery Requirements for Gold Certificates and General License to Hold Gold Certificates"" (PDF). GovInfo.gov (https://www.govinfo.gov). Office of the Federal Register. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  3. ^ "Chapter 31, United States Code". Retrieved March 31, 2013.
  4. ^ "Denominations Above The $100 Note". Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  5. ^ "CUSTODY OF GOLD CERTIFICATES, SERIES OF 1934, as specified by the United States Treasury". Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  6. ^ "ISSUE AND REDEMPTION OF GOLD CERTIFICATES, as specified by the United States Treasury". Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  7. ^ "GOLD CERTIFICATE ACCOUNT, as Specified by Federal Reserve System". Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  8. ^ "100,000 Dollars, Gold Certificate, United States, 1934". National Museum of American History. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  9. ^ "Federal Reserve H.4.1 Release". Retrieved December 28, 2013.
  10. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, pp. 164–173.
  11. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 303.
  12. ^ a b Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 165.
  13. ^ Blake, p. 19.
  14. ^ Waldron, George B. (1896). A Handbook on Currency and Wealth: With Numerous Table and Diagrams. Funk & Wagnallis Company. p. 20. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  15. ^ The Bankers' Magazine. 43: 813. 1888. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, pp. 172-173.
  17. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 173.
  18. ^ "USPaperMoney.Info". Retrieved December 9, 2011.

References[edit]