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Gold wire was used in dentistry in ancient times, and for filling cavities in the 19th century. Gold is suitable for dentistry because it is malleable, nearly immune to corrosion, and closely mimics the hardness of natural teeth, thereby causing no harm to natural teeth during chewing. Gold was used before silver became available and has continued to be used for specialized purposes. Dental restorations are often made from a combination of precious metals. The use of gold in dentistry today makes up less than 5% of the world's gold use.
As the dental industry adopted CAD/CAM processes for most of the crown and bridge fabrication, gold manufacturing still relied on the ancient "lost wax" technique, which requires a significant amount of time, skill, and labor. Recent developments have seen the advent of CAD/CAM milling of 100 mm diameter pucks of dental alloy to facilitate the direct milling of crowns and bridges from the solid puck. This effectively eliminated the risk and difficulty of the lost wax process and simultaneously improved upon the quality of the devices.
World War II
In Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account, concentration camp survivor Dr. Miklós Nyiszli (who served on Dr. Josef Mengele's medical kommando) describes the "tooth-pulling kommando". These teams of eight, all "fine stomatologists and dental surgeons" equipped "in one hand with a lever, and in the other a pair of pliers for extracting teeth", worked in the crematoria. Stationed in front of the ovens, their job was to pry open the mouths of prisoners who had been gassed and extract, or break off, "all gold teeth, as well as any gold bridgework and fillings". The teeth were collected and stored at the camp before being sent on to the Reichsbank to be melted down and converted into gold bullion, which could then be sold with no trace of its origin.
Gold teeth were first present in America during the Jim Crow era. Originally it had become a tradition in Louisiana and around the Mississippi Delta after the slave trade. During Jim Crow it was believed[by whom?] that many African Americans who were former slaves began getting the gold caps to replace their rotting teeth. It later became a symbol of wealth and freedom for the slaves that once worked on the plantations fields in south Louisiana. African Americans who had money would get gold caps as flaunted by Jack Johnson, the first black heavyweight boxing champion.
After 1980, gold inlays and gold foil work became rare in the United States. In the late 1980s they were popularized in New York by Brooklyn native Mike Tyson, who got gold caps in mimicking his idol Jack Johnson. Rappers such as Rakim and Slick Rick began to sport gold grills instead of permanent gold teeth. This trend lasted in New York for over ten years.
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Gold teeth in South Africa has become part of the South African fashion culture. Gold teeth are very popular in the country with people getting permanent gold teeth from as young as 12 years old.
Permanent Gold teeth in South Africa is not considered a sign of wealth like in other countries, but a fashion trend.
The trend of permanent gold teeth is so big in South Africa that many politicians, celebrities and even pastors have them.
Popular belief is that gold will scare away evil spirits (with it being a representation of light in South African culture), the Tikoloshe was said to be afraid of the light and gold teeth wearers were generally very superstitious.
In many regions of the world, including some parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the Caucasus Regions, gold teeth are also worn as a status symbol. They are considered a symbol of wealth and sometimes installed in the place of healthy teeth or as crowns over filed-down healthy teeth.
Grills, false tooth covers made of metal, have become a popular hip hop fashion in the United States since the 1980s in New York City. In the early 2000s, grills were again popularized in hip hop videos by Nelly, Three 6 Mafia, Lil Wayne, Ludacris, Paul Wall, and other rappers from the south. The gold grills are still being sported by rappers in various colors. Grills were also worn by Miley Cyrus, Beyonce, and Madonna. While some rap musicians have had their gold teeth permanently attached to existing teeth, most people who purchase them for aesthetic purposes opt for removable gold teeth caps. In 2005, Nelly released the rap single "Grillz" which promotes the dental apparatus.
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- Knosp, Helmut; Holliday, Richard J.; Corti, Christopher W. (2003-09-01). "Gold in dentistry: Alloys, uses and performance". Gold Bulletin. 36 (3): 93–102. doi:10.1007/BF03215496. ISSN 2190-7579.
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- Johnson, Russell; Verrett, Ronald; Haney, Stephan; Mansueto, Michael; Challa, Suman (January 2017). "Marginal Gap of Milled versus Cast Gold Restorations". Journal of Prosthodontics. 26 (1): 56–63. doi:10.1111/jopr.12432. ISSN 1532-849X. PMID 26845495.
- Nyiszli, Miklós (2011). "Chapter III". Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account. Translated by Richard Seaver. New York: Arcade Publishing. pp. 53–55. ISBN 9781611450118. OCLC 761307497.
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- "Pop Star Ladies Wearing Grills: Madonna, Miley, Beyonce & More Show Off Golden Chops". Billboard.
- Schepp, David (August 3, 2001). "Gold teeth are a gold mine". BBC News. Retrieved January 16, 2006.
- May, Meredith (May 1, 2005). "The gold standard of style: No longer just for tough guys, glittering grills go mainstream". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Media related to Gold dental crowns at Wikimedia Commons