Classical Hollywood cinema

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Classical Hollywood cinema
Bogart Bergman Casablanca.jpg
Years active1910s–1960s
CountryUnited States
Major figuresLauren Bacall, Ingrid Bergman, Humphrey Bogart, Marlon Brando, James Cagney, Lon Chaney, Charlie Chaplin, Joan Crawford, Bette Davis, Doris Day, Yvonne De Carlo, Olivia de Havilland, James Dean, Marlene Dietrich, Kirk Douglas, Deanna Durbin, Douglas Fairbanks, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Errol Flynn, Henry Fonda, John Ford, Clark Gable, Greta Garbo, Ava Gardner, Judy Garland, Greer Garson, Lillian Gish, Betty Grable, Cary Grant, D. W. Griffith, Jean Harlow, Howard Hawks, Rita Hayworth, Katharine Hepburn, Audrey Hepburn, Charlton Heston, Alfred Hitchcock, Buster Keaton, Grace Kelly, Veronica Lake, Fritz Lang, Vivien Leigh, Carole Lombard, Sophia Loren, Shirley MacLaine, Eva Marie Saint, Ray Milland, Marilyn Monroe, Gregory Peck, Mary Pickford, Sidney Poitier, Ann Sheridan, Barbara Stanwyck, James Stewart, Gloria Stuart, Elizabeth Taylor, Shirley Temple, Lana Turner, Rudolph Valentino, John Wayne, Orson Welles, Billy Wilder, Natalie Wood
Influences
Influenced

Classical Hollywood cinema is a term used in film criticism to describe both a narrative and visual style of filmmaking which became characteristic of American cinema between the 1910s (rapidly after World War I) and the 1960s.[4] It eventually became the most powerful and pervasive style of filmmaking worldwide.[5] Similar or associated terms include classical Hollywood narrative, the Golden Age of Hollywood, Old Hollywood, and classical continuity.[6]

Development of the classical style[edit]

Early narrative film (1894–1913)[edit]

For centuries the only visual standard of narrative storytelling art was the theatre. Since the first narrative films in the mid-1890s, filmmakers sought to capture the power of live theatre on the cinema screen. Most of these filmmakers started as directors on the late 19th century stage, and likewise most film actors had roots in vaudeville (ex: The Marx Brothers[7]) or theatrical melodramas. Visually, early narrative films had adapted little from the stage, and their narratives had adapted very little from vaudeville and melodrama. Before the visual style which would become known as "classical continuity", scenes were filmed in full shot and used carefully choreographed staging to portray plot and character relationships. Cutting was extremely limited, and mostly consisted of close-ups of writing on objects for their legibility.

Maturation of the silents (1913–late 1920s)[edit]

The Mothering Heart screenshot
Theatrical release poster for Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1925)

Though lacking the reality inherent to the stage, film (unlike stage) offers the freedom to manipulate apparent time and space, and thus to create the illusion of realism – that is temporal linearity and spatial continuity. By the early 1910s, filmmaking was beginning to fulfill its artistic potential. In Sweden and Denmark, this period would later be known as a "Golden Age" of film;[8] in America, this artistic change is attributed to filmmakers like D. W. Griffith finally breaking the grip of the Edison Trust to make films independent of the manufacturing monopoly. Films worldwide began to noticeably adopt visual and narrative elements which would be found in classical Hollywood cinema. 1913 was a particularly fruitful year for the medium, as pioneering directors from several countries produced masterpieces such as The Mothering Heart (D. W. Griffith), Ingeborg Holm (Victor Sjöström), and L'enfant de Paris (Léonce Perret) that set new standards for film as a form of storytelling. It was also the year when Yevgeni Bauer (the first true film artist, according to Georges Sadoul[9]) started his short, but prolific, career.[10]

In the world generally and America specifically, the influence of Griffith on filmmaking was unmatched. Equally influential were his actors in adapting their performances to the new medium. Lillian Gish, the star of The Mothering Heart, is particularly noted for her influence on screen performance techniques. Griffith's 1915 epic The Birth of a Nation was ground-breaking for film as a means of storytelling – a masterpiece of literary narrative with numerous innovative visual techniques. The film initiated so many advances in American cinema that it was rendered obsolete within a few years.[11] Though 1913 was a global landmark for filmmaking, 1917 was primarily an American one; the era of "classical Hollywood cinema" is distinguished by a narrative and visual style which began to dominate the film medium in America by 1917.[12]

Classical Hollywood cinema in the sound era (late 1920s–1960s)[edit]

The narrative and visual style of classical Hollywood style developed further after the transition to sound-film production. The primary changes in American filmmaking came from the film industry itself, with the height of the studio system. This mode of production, with its reigning star system promoted by several key studios,[13] had preceded sound by several years. By mid-1920, most of the prominent American directors and actors, who had worked independently since the early 1910s, had to become a part of the new studio system to continue to work.

The beginning of the sound era itself is ambiguously defined. To some, it began with The Jazz Singer, which was released in 1927, and increased box-office profits for films as sound was introduced to feature films.[14] To others, the era began in 1929, when the silent age had definitively ended.[15] Most Hollywood pictures from the late 1920s to 1960s adhered closely to a genre – Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, and biopic (biographical picture) – and the same creative teams often worked on films made by the same studio. For instance, Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart always worked on MGM films; Alfred Newman worked at 20th Century Fox for twenty years; Cecil B. DeMille's films were almost all made at Paramount Pictures;[16] and director Henry King's films were mostly made for Twentieth Century Fox. Similarly, actors were mostly contract players. Film historians and critics note that it took about a decade for films to adapt to sound and return to the level of artistic quality of the silents, which it did in the late 1930s.

Many great works of cinema that emerged from this period were of highly regimented filmmaking. One reason this was possible is that, with so many films being made, not every one had to be a big hit. A studio could gamble on a medium-budget feature with a good script and relatively unknown actors. This was the case with Citizen Kane (1941), directed by Orson Welles and regarded by some as the greatest film of all time. Other strong-willed directors, like Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock and Frank Capra, battled the studios in order to achieve their artistic visions. The apogee of the studio system may have been the year 1939, which saw the release of such classics as Gone with the Wind, The Wizard of Oz, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Stagecoach, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Destry Rides Again, Young Mr. Lincoln, Wuthering Heights, Only Angels Have Wings, Ninotchka, Beau Geste, Babes in Arms, Gunga Din, The Women, Goodbye, Mr. Chips, and The Roaring Twenties.[17]

Style[edit]

The visual-narrative style of classical Hollywood cinema as elaborated by David Bordwell,[18] was heavily influenced by the ideas of the Renaissance and its resurgence of mankind as the focal point. It is distinguished at three general levels: devices, systems, and the relations of systems.

Devices[edit]

The devices most inherent to classical Hollywood cinema are those of continuity editing. This includes the 180-degree rule, one of the major visual-spatial elements of continuity editing. The 180-degree rule keeps with the "photographed play" style by creating an imaginary 180-degree axis between the viewer and the shot, allowing viewers to clearly orient themselves within the position and direction of action in a scene. According to the 30-degree rule, cuts in the angle that the scene is viewed from must be significant enough for the viewer to understand the purpose of a change in perspective. Cuts that do not adhere to the 30-degree rule, known as jump cuts, are disruptive to the illusion of temporal continuity between shots. The 180-degree and 30-degree rules are elementary guidelines in filmmaking that preceded the official start of the classical era by over a decade, as seen in the pioneering 1902 French film A Trip to the Moon. Cutting techniques in classical continuity editing serve to help establish or maintain continuity, as in the cross cut, which establishes the concurrence of action in different locations. Jump cuts are allowed in the form of the axial cut, which does not change the angle of shooting at all, but has the clear purpose of showing a perspective closer or farther from the subject, and therefore does not interfere with temporal continuity.[19]

Systems[edit]

Narrative logic[edit]

Classical narration progresses always through psychological motivation, i.e., by the will of a human character and its struggle with obstacles towards a defined goal. This narrative element is commonly composed of a primary narrative (e.g. a romance) intertwined with a secondary narrative or narratives. This narrative is structured with an unmistakable beginning, middle and end, and generally there is a distinct resolution. Utilizing actors, events, causal effects, main points, and secondary points are basic characteristics of this type of narrative. The characters in classical Hollywood cinema have clearly definable traits, are active, and very goal oriented. They are causal agents motivated by psychological rather than social concerns.[5] The narrative is a chain of cause and effect with the characters being the causal agents – in classical style, events do not occur randomly.

Cinematic time[edit]

Time in classical Hollywood is continuous, linear, and uniform, since non-linearity calls attention to the illusory workings of the medium. The only permissible manipulation of time in this format is the flashback. It is mostly used to introduce a memory sequence of a character, e. g., Casablanca.[20]

Cinematic space[edit]

The greatest rule of classical continuity regarding space is object permanence: the viewer must believe that the scene exists outside the shot of the cinematic frame to maintain the picture's realism. The treatment of space in classical Hollywood strives to overcome or conceal the two-dimensionality of film ("invisible style") and is strongly centered upon the human body. The majority of shots in a classical film focus on gestures or facial expressions (medium-long and medium shots). André Bazin once compared classical film to a photographed play in that the events seem to exist objectively and that cameras only give us the best view of the whole play.[21]

This treatment of space consists of four main aspects: centering, balancing, frontality, and depth. Persons or objects of significance are mostly in the center part of the picture frame and never out of focus. Balancing refers to the visual composition, i. e., characters are evenly distributed throughout the frame. The action is subtly addressed towards the spectator (frontality) and set, lighting (mostly three-point lighting, especially high-key lighting), and costumes are designed to separate foreground from the background (depth).

Relations of systems[edit]

The aspects of space and time are subordinated to the narrative element.

Criticism[edit]

This style of cinema is not without its critics, ranging from racial stereotypes (especially of African Americans)[22][23] to the lack of realism which resulted in a more realistic post-WWII cinema.[24][25][26]

Legacy[edit]

The New Hollywood of the 1960s–70s was influenced by the romanticism of the classical era,[27] as was the French New Wave.[28]

List of selected important figures in the era[edit]

Many of the filmmakers listed below performed multiple duties on various film productions through their careers. They are here listed by the category they are most readily recognized as. If they are recognized in more than one category on the same level, they are listed in all of them.

Directors[edit]

The following is a list of directors associated with classical Hollywood. Some of them also had careers in other countries (e.g., Hitchcock and Renoir), and some also had careers either before (e.g., Griffith) and/or after (e.g., Huston) the classical era.

Producers[edit]

Actors[edit]

Actresses[edit]

Others[edit]

List of selected notable films[edit]

The following is a chronological list of notable American films that were made during Hollywood's Golden Age.[41]

Silent era[edit]

Sound era[edit]

Selected international films made during the Golden Age[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Classical and Post-Classical Hollywood Cinema Essay – History Hollywo". www.123helpme.com.
  2. ^ "The Ancient Art of Falling DownVaudeville Cinema between Hollywood and China". MCLC Resource Center. August 29, 2017. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  3. ^ [1] German Expressionist Cinema- The World of Light and Shadow-Columbia University Press
  4. ^ "Music and Cinema, Classical Hollywood". Oxford Bibliographies Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Goldburg, Michael. "Classical Hollywood Cinema (Internet Archive)". Archived from the original on May 31, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2007.
  6. ^ The Classic Hollywood Narrative Style at the Department of History, University of San Diego.
  7. ^ The Marx Brothers - Vaudeville Shows
  8. ^ "The "golden age" of silent film – Sweden – bio, actress, children, wife, cinema, role, story".
  9. ^ Georges Sadoul. Всеобщая история кино. Moscow, Iskustvo, 1958. Т. 3. p. 178
  10. ^ [2] Evgenii Bauer (1865–1917)
  11. ^ Brownlow, Kevin (1968). The Parade's Gone By..., University of California Press, p. 78. ISBN 0-520-03068-0.
  12. ^ 1917: The Year That Changed The Movies — The San Francisco Silent Film Festival
  13. ^ The Star - Annenberg Learner
  14. ^ "Golden Age of Hollywood: Movies, Actors and Actresses ***". www.american-historama.org.
  15. ^ "Expressive Experimentalism in Silent Cinema 1926–1929-Lucia Maria Pier".
  16. ^ The Studio System - Annenberg Learner
  17. ^ The Top 25 Films Of 1939: A Look Back At "The Greatest Year In Movies"|Film Inquiry
  18. ^ Bordwell, David; Staiger, Janet; Thompson, Kristin (1985): The Classical Hollywood Cinema. Film Style & Mode of Production to 1960. New York: Columbia University Press. 1–59
  19. ^ "Continuity Editing in Hitchcock's Rear Window". slideshare.net. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
  20. ^ The Hollywood Style - Annenberg Learner
  21. ^ Bordwell: 24
  22. ^ The Jazz Singer (1927)|UC Berkeley Library
  23. ^ Why You Shouldn't Watch The Birth of a Nation (AND WHY YOU SHOULD)|Brows Held High on YouTube
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ [4]
  26. ^ "The idea of "classic Hollywood narration" derives from The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985), by David Bordwell, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson".
  27. ^ New Hollywood -JT Esterkamp – Medium
  28. ^ French New Wave: The Influencing of the Influencers – The Film Stage
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie [5] The Directors, Producers, and Money Men – Hollywood's Golden Age.com
  30. ^ Bordwell: p. 1897
  31. ^ a b c d e f g "A Brief History On The Golden Age Of Animation". The Odyssey Online. August 1, 2016.
  32. ^ McGilligan: pp. 21, 54, 200, 269, 293
  33. ^ Davis: p. 209
  34. ^ Dixon (2013), p. 179
  35. ^ a b c d "Manny Farber, 91, 'Eccentric' Film Critic". The New York Sun.
  36. ^ The Beginner's Guide: Hollywood Melodramas|Film Inquiry
  37. ^ William Stott. Agee, James Rufus, American National Biography Online, February 2000. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  38. ^ Scott Bradley at Walter Lantz|Cartoon Brew
  39. ^ a b c d e Robey, Tim (August 24, 2013). "The music behind Hollywood's golden age" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  40. ^ "Early WB Scores: The Depression Era (1936–1941)" – via www.youtube.com.
  41. ^ "The Movies". www.hollywoodsgoldenage.com.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Classic Hollywood". The Criterion Collection.
  43. ^ The Beginner's Guide: Hollywood Melodramas|Film Inquiry
  44. ^ Star! (1968)- Articles – TCM.com
  45. ^ "Hello, Dolly!". Turner Classic Movies.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]