Golden Horn Metro Bridge

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Golden Horn Metro Bridge
Haliç Metro Köprüsü
GoldenHornMetroBridge 09.JPG
A view of the Golden Horn Metro Bridge, with the Galata Tower at the left end of the frame, and the Galata Bridge in the background.
Coordinates 41°01′22″N 28°57′58″E / 41.0227°N 28.9662°E / 41.0227; 28.9662Coordinates: 41°01′22″N 28°57′58″E / 41.0227°N 28.9662°E / 41.0227; 28.9662
Carries Istanbul public transport - M2 line symbol.png
Crosses Golden Horn
Locale Istanbul
Other name(s) Haliç Metro Crossing Bridge
Maintained by
Characteristics
Design Cable-stayed bridge
Material Steel
Total length 936 m (3,071 ft)
Width 12.6 m (41 ft)
Height 65 m (213 ft)
Longest span 180 m (590 ft)
Clearance above 13 m (43 ft)
History
Designer
Construction start January 2, 2009
Construction cost €146.7 million
Opened February 15, 2014
Golden Horn Metro Bridge is located in Istanbul
Golden Horn Metro Bridge
Golden Horn Metro Bridge
Location in Istanbul

The Golden Horn Metro Bridge (Turkish: Haliç Metro Köprüsü) is a cable-stayed bridge along the M2 line of the Istanbul Metro, spanning the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. It connects the Beyoğlu and Fatih districts on the European side of Istanbul, and is located between the Galata Bridge and Atatürk Bridge, approximately 200 m (660 ft) east of the latter.[1][2][3] It is the fourth bridge across the Golden Horn[3][4] and entered service on February 15, 2014.[5] The bridge enables a direct connection between the Hacıosman metro station in the Sarıyer district (at the northern end of the M2 line), with the Yenikapı transport hub in the Fatih district (at the southern end of the M2 line.)[1][2][6]

Project[edit]

Golden Horn Metro Bridge under construction in February 2013, with the Atatürk Bridge in the background.

The appearance of the bridge project in the general agenda goes back to 1952. After the approval of the metro line by the city's Monument Protection Board and the completion of the tunnels relating to the metro line, a construction bid for the metro bridge spanning the Golden Horn was published by the Metropolitan Municipality. By 2005, a total of 21 proposals were submitted to the Monument Protection Board; however, none were found to be sufficiently in harmony with the city's skyline. A successful design, by architect Hakan Kıran, was controversial from the very beginning. In November 2009, the tower height was reduced from the initially projected 82 m (269 ft) to 65 m (213 ft) because the original height threatened the removal of Istanbul from the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites.[2][3][6] The top level of cables was changed from 63 to 55 m (207 to 180 ft), and later in July 2011, it was further lowered to 47 m (154 ft). This revised design was approved in February 2012.[3]

The bridge's conceptual design was carried out by French engineer and bridge specialist Michel Virlogeux, who also designed the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Third Bosphorus Bridge) at the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul.[3] Turkish architect Hakan Kıran was responsible for the architectural design and the construction supervision. Wiecon Consulting Engineers & Architects did the structural engineering work for the bridge.[3] It was built by a consortium of the Italian Astaldi SpA and the Turkish Gülermak Ağır Sanayi İnşaat ve Taahhüt A.Ş.[2] Construction began on January 2, 2009,[1][3] and was initially planned to be completed within 600 days.[2] The construction time was extended, and the bridge was completed on January 9, 2013. Test runs of the metro line on the bridge began the next day, and the bridge went into service on 15 February 2014.[1][7] Budgeted cost of the construction was €146.7 million.[2][8]

Due to the historical character of the surroundings, the project underwent revisions relating to the alignment of the metro line. The discovery of a Byzantine-era vault on the Unkapanı bank during excavation works for pier foundations forced a redesign of the project.[3] The design of the swing bridge operator's command building had to be revised when the wall of a Byzantine-era basilica and a graveyard on the same bank came to light.[3]

Architecture[edit]

The bridge connects the Beyoğlu and Fatih districts on the northern and southern shores of the Golden Horn. Süleymaniye Mosque and Beyazıt Tower are seen in the background.

The cable-stayed bridge has an overall length of 936 m (3,071 ft) between Azapkapı (Beyoğlu) and Unkapanı (Fatih), and a span of 460 m (1,510 ft) over water.[1][6][8] The longest span between the two towers is 180 m (590 ft).[9] It is flanked by viaducts at both sides, which connect the bridge with the metro tunnels on the opposite banks of the Golden Horn.[2][3] Nine cables are connected to each side of the two towers in harp-design[8] starting at a height of 47 m (154 ft).[1][10] To restrain the soft bedrock, dozens of steel pipe piles with diameters of 1,800 mm (71 in) and 2,500 mm (98 in),[2][3] supplied from Europe, were driven using a hydraulic hammer more than 30 m (98 ft) deep into ground.[1][3][6] The two steel supporting towers are 65 m (213 ft) high,[3][6][10] Each resting on a nine-pile group while for the side supports four-pile or five-pile groups are built.[3]

The 12.6-metre-wide (41 ft) bridge carries two metro railway tracks in the middle and a 4.4-metre-wide (14 ft)[3] sidewalk in each direction at a height of 13 m (43 ft) above sea level.[1][6] The deck is a 4.45-metre-high (14.6 ft) box girder.[3]

On the Unkapanı side, a 120-metre-long (390 ft) swing bridge, essentially a cantilever structure, is to allow passage for large ships.[1][2][3] It has 50-metre (160 ft) and 70-metre-long (230 ft) spans, which rest on a central pier.[3] Controlled from a room on a platform between the bridge and the shoreline, the swing bridge turns in right angle about the vertical axis after lifting, and provides about 40-metre-wide (130 ft) free clearance within four to six minutes.[3] It is planned that the swing bridge will be open once a week between the early hours of 1:00 and 5:00 in the summer time, and twice a week during these hours in the winter months.[6] The gray color of the bridge was determined after extensive photographic studies of the surroundings.[6]

The south tower of bridge and Süleymaniye Mosque in the background

A metro station with 180-metre-long (590 ft) platform, suitable for holding an 8-car train, is situated in the middle of the bridge.[1][2][3][8] The station extends across the full length of the main span, and is capped with a 90-metre-long (300 ft) canopy.[3] The color of the metro station on the bridge is light brown.[10] It is expected that the metro line over the bridge will transport around one million passengers daily.[1][6]

Controversy[edit]

Haliç metro station of the M2 line on the bridge.

The construction of the Golden Horn Metro Bridge faced some opposition over its design.[8] Chambers of architects and city planners, as well as many citizens criticized that the original plans approved by UNESCO were changed without permission. The design and the number of the bridge trestles have been altered; these lead to disturbance of the skyline of the city's historical area.[8] The piers are much higher than approved. The metro station is in the middle of the bridge, and is argued to be without any logical function as it would be unusual for anyone to get off a train while in the middle of a bridge,[10] but it has exits to both banks and thus can serve the respective areas.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k ""Haliç Metro Geçiş Köprüsü" açılışa hazır". Hürriyet (in Turkish). 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2014-02-03. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Haliç metro Hattı" (in Turkish). İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2014-02-03. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Low profile". Bridge Design & Engineering. 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2014-02-03. 
  4. ^ "Haliç Metro Crossing Bridge". halicmetrokoprusu.com. Archived from the original on 2014-01-26. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  5. ^ "Haliç, Yenikapıyı, Hacıosman'a bağladı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). 2014-02-15. Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Korkut, Sevgi (2013-09-22). "[Photo story] Haliç Metro Transit Bridge prepared for test drive". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-05. 
  7. ^ http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view/golden-horn-metro-bridge-opens.html
  8. ^ a b c d e f Seibert, Thomas (2011-08-09). "New Istanbul bridge sparks criticism". The National. Retrieved 2014-02-05. 
  9. ^ "Golden Horn Metro Crossing Bridge Detailed Design" (PDF). Official website. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  10. ^ a b c d Güneş, Erdem (2012-09-17). "Haliç bridge shaping up". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2014-02-05.