Golden triangle (universities)
- University of Cambridge
- Imperial College London
- King's College London[note 1]
- London School of Economics[note 2]
- University College London
- University of Oxford
The corners of the triangle are formed by the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford and, to the south-east, Imperial College London, University College London and typically King's College London and London School of Economics and Political Science. The members of the triangle have among the highest research incomes of all British universities and collaborate closely through initiatives such as the G5, SES, Global Medical Cluster (GMEC) and MedCity. The term, originally coined to describe a group of universities with a large research income, is now also used as a short-hand for the members' perceived prestige and reputation.[not in citation given]
Golden triangle universities possess some of the largest UK university financial endowments, allowing the universities sufficient resources in delivering their academic programmes as well as research initiatives. As of 2014, University of Cambridge has an endowment of £5.89 billion. Further, each university receives millions of pounds in research fundings and other grants from the UK government.
|Institution||Arms||Location||Undergraduate enrollment||Graduate enrollment||Total enrollment||2015 Endowment||Academic staff||Colors||Motto|
|University of Cambridge||Cambridge,
|12,230 (2014/15)||7,285 (2014/15)||19,515 (2014/15)||£5.9 billion (including colleges)||6,645||
||Hinc lucem et pocula sacra
(From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge)
|Imperial College London||London,
|9,015 (2014/15)||7,595 (2014/15)||16,610 (2014/15)||£113.6 million||3,692||
||Scientia imperii decus et tutamen
(Knowledge is the adornment and protection of the Empire)
|King's College London||London,
|17,610 (2014/15)||11,120 (2014/15)||28,730 (2014/15)||£179.4 million||4,520||
||Sancte et Sapienter
(With Holiness and Wisdom)
|London School of Economics||London,
|4,415 (2014/15)||6,185 (2014/15)||10,600 (2014/15)||£112.9 million||1,303||
||Rerum cognoscere causas
(To Know the Causes of Things)
|University College London||N/A||London,
|16,830 (2014/15)||18,785 (2014/15)||35,615 (2014/15)||£103.6 million||7,070||
||Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae
(Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward)
|University of Oxford||Oxford,
|11,703 (2014/15)||10,173 (2014/15)||22,348 (2014/15)||£4.8 billion (including colleges)||3,700||
||Dominus Illuminatio Mea
(The Lord is my Light)
|University||THE World (2015/16)||QS World (2015/16)||ARWU World (2016)||US News Global (2014/15)||Global Employability Ranking (2015)|
|Imperial College London||8||8||22||12||15|
|King's College London||27||19||50||61||43|
|London School of Economics||23||35||101-150||328||45|
|University College London||14||7||17||21||30|
|University of Cambridge||4||3||4||6||2|
|University of Oxford||2||6||7||5||3|
|University||THE Table of Tables (2016)||Complete (2017)||Guardian (2016)||The Times (2016)||UK Employability (2015)|
|Imperial College London||4||4||8||3||3|
|King's College London||29||21||36||27||5|
|London School of Economics||8||3||13||9||6|
|University College London||12||10||12||10||8|
|University of Cambridge||1||1||1||1||2|
|University of Oxford||2||2||2||2||1|
|Rank||University||Research income (£,000)|
|1||University of Oxford||478,300|
|2||University College London||374,503|
|3||University of Cambridge||371,200|
|4||Imperial College London||350,900|
|7||King's College London||171,547|
|43||London School of Economics||27,038|
|Golden Triangle (Universities)|
- Research-intensive cluster
- SES-5 - Formal grouping of universities in the South East
- Global Medical Excellence Cluster
- Ivy League
- MedCity (London)
- Russell Group
- "Oxbridge windfall". Times Higher Education. 4 August 1995.
A large amount of the cash awarded to humanities postgraduates still goes to the "Golden Triangle" of Oxford, Cambridge and London, British Academy figures reveal.
- Kershaw, Alison (4 October 2012). "UK universities slip in rankings". The Independent.
Rankings editor Phil Baty said: "Outside the golden triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge, England's world-class universities face a collapse into global mediocrity.
- Andrew Ward (25 June 2015). "Johnson floats £10bn biotech fund for London". Financial Times.
MedCity was launched last year to increase collaboration between Imperial College, King's College and University College London — the capital's three main science universities — and promote the broader 'golden triangle' between London, Cambridge and Oxford to investors.
- Rebecca Marriage (11 March 2015). "UK confirmed as 'global education superpower' in international university rankings". ReLocate Global.
The 'golden triangle' of Oxford, Cambridge and London strengthened its grip on UK higher education: As well as Cambridge and Oxford rising closer to the summit, University College London moved up from 25th to 17th, the London School of Economics rose two places to 22nd and King's College London jumped eight places from 43rd to 31st.
- Mullins, Justin (23 April 2005). "England's golden triangle". New Scientist.
Take a look at any of the various league tables ranking universities around the world ... Oxford and Cambridge are in the top handful, while London's University College and Imperial College sit comfortably in the top 25. ... London, Oxford and Cambridge are a 'golden triangle' of academic success.
- Wiggins, Kaye (11 March 2015). "The World Reputation Rankings: UK's university 'golden triangle' strengthens grip".
The “golden triangle” of Oxford, Cambridge and London has strengthened its grip on the UK’s higher education system, according to the latest global reputation rankings from TES’s sister title Times Higher Education.
- Multiple sources state the golden triangle is formed around Oxford, Cambridge and London
- "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005.
No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub.(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, King's and Imperial)
- Zoe Corbyn (26 November 2009). "In research, small is just as beautiful". Times Higher Education.
The findings reveal the full extent of the dominance of the golden triangle: papers from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, and the London School of Economics were cited far more often than the world average(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, Imperial and LSE)
- "'Golden triangle' to win funding riches". Times Higher Education. 11 February 2010.
The other institutions in the Cambridge-Oxford-London 'golden triangle' - University College London, Imperial College London and the London School of Economics - will also receive big cash windfalls, as will the University of Manchester.(names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, Imperial and LSE)
- Sean Coughlan (3 October 2013). "London top city in global university rankings". BBC News.
The so-called 'golden triangle' of UK universities - Oxford, Cambridge and leading London institutions - is seen as a breakaway elite group, with these universities consolidating their international reputations. Imperial College, University College London, LSE and King's College London are all in the top 40.(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, King's, Imperial and LSE)
- Miriam Frankel; Alison Goddard; Gretchen Ransow (18 December 2014). "Golden Triangle pulls ahead in REF shake-out: UCL and KCL ascend power rankings, Manchester and Leeds fall" (PDF). Research Fortnight.
The top six universities in the so-called golden triangle--Oxford, UCL, Cambridge, Imperial, KCL and the London School of Economics and Political Science--have done particularly well in the Power Ratings.(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, King's, Imperial and LSE)
- Jha, Alok (3 June 2003). "Gold rush". The Guardian.
The golden triangle of Oxford, Cambridge, University College London and Imperial College, show no sign of slowing down in their race away from the rest of the sector when it comes to research funding.(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL and Imperial)
- OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation, North of England, UK. OECD. 2008. p. 222.
The "Golden Triangle" of ... the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Imperial College and University College of London ...(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL and Imperial)
- Grant, Malcolm (1 March 2005). "The future of the University of London: a discussion paper from the Provost of UCL" (PDF): 6. (Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL, King's, Imperial and LSE)
- Clark, Paul (1 March 2002). "The golden triangle holds the secret". Times Higher Education.
Suppose, for the sake of argument, that the four institutions comprising the 'golden triangle' - Cambridge, Imperial College, Oxford and University College London - elect not to receive their block Higher Education Funding Council for England grant for teaching.(Names Oxford, Cambridge, UCL and Imperial)
- Multiple sources confirm the membership, although some omit either King's or LSE, as noted under their entries
- Mike Savage (5 November 2015). Social Class in the 21st Century. Penguin. p. 167.
Higher education researchers often talk about a 'Golden Triangle' of universities. The 'triangle' describes an imaginary three-sided shape with corners in Oxford, Cambridge and London. The exact composition of the London 'corner' can vary, but typically it includes the London School of Economics, King's College London, University College London and Imperial College London.
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- "Universities". GMEC. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Collaborate and listen, The Guardian, Tuesday 19 December 2006"
- "MedCity launched to promote South East's science 'golden triangle'". BBC News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
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- "LSE in university league tables". London School of Economics. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
But we remain concerned that all of the global rankings - by some way the most important for us, given our highly international orientation - suffer from inbuilt biases in favour of large multi-faculty universities with full STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) offerings, and against small, specialist, mainly non-STEM universities such as LSE.
- "THE 'Table of Tables' 2016: University of Cambridge top for fifth year running". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
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