Golden triangle (universities)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Golden Triangle (UK universities))
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Golden Triangle.

The "golden triangle" is a group of elite universities located in the southern English cities of Cambridge, London and Oxford.[1]

The corners of the triangle are formed by the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, and to the south-east, Imperial College London and three constituent colleges of the University of London granted degree-awarding powers: the London School of Economics, King's College London and University College London.[2] [3] The members of the triangle have among the highest research incomes of all British universities and collaborate closely through initiatives such as the G5,[4] SES-5,[5] Global Medical Excellence Cluster (GMEC)[6][7] and MedCity.[8] The term, originally coined to describe a group of universities with a large research income, is now also used as a short-hand for the members' perceived prestige and reputation.[9]

The term can be used to refer not just to the universities, but to a resulting wider culture of research and innovation in the three cities.[10]



University ARWU World (2014)[11] QS World (2015/16)[12] THE World (2015/16)[13] THE Reputation (2015)[14] URAP World (2014-15)[15] US News Global (2014/15)[16]
Imperial College London 23 8 8 14 15 12
King's College London 55 19 27 31 56 61
London School of Economics[note 1][17] 101-150 35 23 22 636 328
University College London =18 7 14 17 6 21
University of Cambridge 5 3 4 2 5 6
University of Oxford 10 6 2 3 3 5


University THE Table of Tables (2015)[18] Complete (2016)[19] Guardian (2016)[20] The Times and Sunday Times (2015)[21]
University of Cambridge 1 1 1 1=
University of Oxford 2 2 2 1=
Imperial College London 4= 4 8 4
London School of Economics 4= 3 13 5
University College London 9 13 12 9
King's College London >30 23 36 29

In the The Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance; Cambridge, Oxford, LSE, Imperial and UCL (in order) claimed the top 5 positions whilst King's was placed joint 14th.[22]

Research income[edit]

Highest total research income for universities (out of 161 British universities, year 2013/14) [23]
Rank University Research income (£,000)
1 University of Oxford 478,300
2 University College London 374,503
3 University of Cambridge 371,200
4 Imperial College London 350,900
5 University of Edinburgh 215,934
6 University of Manchester 213,726
7 King's College London 171,547
8 University of Glasgow 133,618
9 University of Leeds 132,677
10 University of Bristol 131,500
43 London School of Economics 027,038
Highest total grant income for universities from UK research councils (out of 161 British universities, year 2013/14)[24]
Rank University Grant income (£,000)
1 University of Edinburgh 204,116
2 University College London 182,437
3 University of Oxford 182,200
4 University of Cambridge 178,600
5 University of Manchester 162,579
6 Imperial College London 161,400
7 University of Glasgow 161,213
8 Open University 149,000
9 King's College London 122,426
10 University of Leeds 111,773
86 London School of Economics 024,429

See also[edit]


  1. ^ LSE being a social science institution gets ranked lower in rankings that lean towards measuring research output in STEM subjects.


  1. ^ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. : "No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub."
    • "Oxbridge windfall". Times Higher Education. 4 August 1995. : "A large amount of the cash awarded to humanities postgraduates still goes to the "Golden Triangle" of Oxford, Cambridge and London, British Academy figures reveal."
    • Kershaw, Alison. "UK universities slip in rankings", The Independent, 4 October 2012: "Rankings editor Phil Baty said: "Outside the golden triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge, England's world-class universities face a collapse into global mediocrity."
  2. ^
    • For LSE, see two articles by Zoe Corbyn.
    • "In research, small is just as beautiful", Times Higher Education, 26 November 2009: "The findings reveal the full extent of the dominance of the golden triangle: papers from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial College London, King's College London, University College London and the London School of Economics were cited far more often than the world average," and
    • "'Golden triangle' to win funding riches", Times Higher Education, 11 February 2010: "The other institutions in the Cambridge-Oxford-London 'golden triangle' - University College London, Imperial College London and the London School of Economics - will also receive big cash windfalls, as will the University of Manchester."
    • For King's, see
  3. ^
    • The golden triangle consists of Oxford, Cambridge and London's Imperial College, King's College and University College, see "Johnson floats £10bn biotech fund for London", Andrew Ward, Financial Times, 25 June 2015: "MedCity was launched last year to increase collaboration between Imperial College, King’s College and University College London — the capital’s three main science universities — and promote the broader 'golden triangle' between London, Cambridge and Oxford to investors."
    • The golden triangle consists of Oxford, Cambridge and London's Imperial College, King's College, LSE and University College, see "London top city in global university rankings", Sean Coughlan, BBC News, 3 October 2013: "The so-called 'golden triangle' of UK universities - Oxford, Cambridge and leading London institutions - is seen as a breakaway elite group, with these universities consolidating their international reputations. Imperial College, University College London, LSE and King's College London are all in the top 40."
    • Also talking about Oxford, Cambridge and London's Imperial College, King's College, LSE and University College, see "Golden Triangle pulls ahead in REF shake-out: UCL and KCL ascend power rankings, Manchester and Leeds fall", Miriam Frankel, Alison Goddard and Gretchen Ransow, Research Fortnight, 18 December 2014: "The top six universities in the so-called golden triangle--Oxford, UCL, Cambridge, Imperial, KCL and the London School of Economics and Political Science--have done particularly well in the Power Ratings."
    • Jha, Alok. "Gold rush", The Guardian, 3 June 2003: "The golden triangle of Oxford, Cambridge, University College London and Imperial College, show no sign of slowing down in their race away from the rest of the sector when it comes to research funding."
    • OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation, North of England, UK, OECD, 2008, p. 222: "The "Golden Triangle" of ... the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Imperial College and University College of London ..."
    • Mullins, Justin. "England's golden triangle", New Scientist, 23 April 2005: "Take a look at any of the various league tables ranking universities around the world ... Oxford and Cambridge are in the top handful, while London's University College and Imperial College sit comfortably in the top 25. ... London, Oxford and Cambridge are a 'golden triangle' of academic success."
    • Clark, Paul. "The golden triangle holds the secret", Times Higher Education, 1 March 2002: "Suppose, for the sake of argument, that the four institutions comprising the 'golden triangle' - Cambridge, Imperial College, Oxford and University College London - elect not to receive their block Higher Education Funding Council for England grant for teaching."
    • That the golden triangle consists of Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College, see The future sustainability of the higher education sector, House of Commons, Education and Skills Committee, The Stationery Office, 2007, p. 241.
  4. ^ "Super elite in secret bid for cash boost". Times Higher Education. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  5. ^ "Research heavyweights deny 'ganging up'". Times Higher Education. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  6. ^ "GMEC"
  7. ^ "Collaborate and listen, The Guardian, Tuesday 19 December 2006"
  8. ^ "MedCity launched to promote South East's science 'golden triangle'". BBC News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Espinoza, Javier. "Britain climbs up world university rankings". The Telegraph. 
  10. ^ Graham Stringer (24 June 2015). "Science and Research". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons (Westminster Hall). col. 259WH. 
  11. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2014". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2015/16". Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  13. ^ "World University Rankings 2015-16". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  14. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2015 results". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "URAP". Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  16. ^ "US News Rankings". 
  17. ^ "LSE in university league tables". London School of Economics. Retrieved 1 October 2015. But we remain concerned that all of the global rankings - by some way the most important for us, given our highly international orientation - suffer from inbuilt biases in favour of large multi-faculty universities with full STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) offerings, and against small, specialist, mainly non-STEM universities such as LSE. 
  18. ^ "University of Cambridge tops ‘Table of Tables’ for fourth year". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  19. ^ "Top UK University League Tables and Rankings 2016". Complete University Guide. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  20. ^ "University guide 2016: University league table". The Guardian. 21 May 2015. 
  21. ^ The Times and Sunday Times Retrieved 30 May 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)(subscription required)
  22. ^ "University ranking based on performance over 10 years" (PDF). The Times (London). 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2008. 
  23. ^ (PDF). Times Higher Education. 27 April 2014 Retrieved 30 June 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ (PDF). Times Higher Education. 27 April 2015 Retrieved 30 June 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)