Golden Week (Japan)

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Golden Week
Official nameゴールデンウィーク (Gōruden Wīku)
Also called'Ōgon Shūkan (黄金週間), 大型連休 (Ōgata Renkyū, "long holiday series")
Observed by Japan
TypeNational
CelebrationsNumerous national holiday events
Date29 April, 3–6 May
FrequencyAnnual

Golden Week (Japanese: ゴールデンウィーク, Hepburn: Gōruden Wīku)[a] or 'Ōgon Shūkan (黄金週間) is a week from 29 April to early May containing multiple Japanese holidays.[1] It is also known as 'Ōgata Renkyū' (大型連休, Long holiday series).

Holidays celebrated[edit]

Golden Week encompasses the following public holidays.[2]

Golden Week holidays
Name Date
Shōwa Day (昭和の日, Shōwa no Hi), 2007–present[3] 29 April
Constitution Memorial Day (憲法記念日, Kenpō Kinenbi), 1949–present 3 May
Greenery Day (みどりの日, Midori no Hi), 2007–present[3] 4 May
Children's Day (子供の日, Kodomo no Hi), also known as Boys' Day or the Feast of Banners, traditionally celebrated as Tango no Sekku (端午の節句). 5 May

Note that Citizen's Holiday (国民の休日, Kokumin no Kyūjitsu) is a generic term for any official holiday. 4 May was until 2006 an unnamed but official holiday because of a rule that converts any day between two holidays into a new holiday. Japan celebrates Labor Thanksgiving Day, a holiday with a similar purpose to May Day (as celebrated in Europe and North America). When a public holiday lands on a Sunday, the next day that is not already a holiday becomes a holiday for that year.[4] In some cases, a Compensation Holiday (振替休日, Furikae Kyūjitsu) is held on either 30 April or 6 May should any of the Golden Week holidays fall on Sunday; 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 have had Compensation Holidays for Shōwa Day, Children's Day, Greenery Day, and Constitution Memorial Day, respectively.

History[edit]

The National Holiday Laws, promulgated in July 1948, declared nine official holidays. Since many were concentrated in a week spanning the end of April to early May, many leisure-based industries experienced spikes in their revenues. The film industry was no exception. In 1951, the film Jiyū Gakkō recorded higher ticket sales during this holiday-filled week than any other time in the year (including New Year's and Obon). This prompted the managing director of Daiei Film Co., Ltd. to dub the week "Golden Week" based on the Japanese radio lingo "golden time", which denotes the period with the highest listener ratings.[5] At the time, 29 April was a national holiday celebrating the birth of the Shōwa Emperor. Upon his death in 1989, the day was renamed to Greenery Day (みどりの日, Midori no Hi).[3] In 2007, Greenery Day was moved to 4 May, and 29 April was renamed Shōwa Day to commemorate the late Emperor.[3] The Emperor's Birthday (天長節, Tenchō Setsu) was celebrated from 1927–1948 and it is now called The Emperor's Birthday (天皇誕生日, Tennō Tanjōbi). Emperor Naruhito's birthday is on 23 February.[6]

Current practice[edit]

Many Japanese nationals take paid time off during this holiday, and some companies are closed down completely and give their employees time off. Golden Week is the longest vacation period of the year for many Japanese workers. Two other Japanese holidays are observed for most or all of a week: Japanese New Year in January and Obon Festival in August.[citation needed]

Golden Week is a popular time for holiday travel. Despite significantly higher rates, flights, trains, and hotels are often fully booked. Popular destinations include Asia, Guam, Saipan, and Hawaii, major cities on the West Coast of North America such as Los Angeles, Seattle, San Diego, San Francisco, and Vancouver, and a number of cities in Europe and Australia.[citation needed]

The Super GT Fuji 500 km car race is held on Golden Week.[citation needed]

Transition to Reiwa[edit]

Golden Week in 2019 was particularly long due to the 2019 Japanese imperial transition, with the succession of the new emperor on 1 May designated as an additional national holiday. The day marks the official beginning of the new Reiwa era. As 29 April and 3 May are already holidays, this caused 30 April and 2 May to be public holidays as well, making 2019's Golden Week ten consecutive days, from Saturday 27 April through Monday 6 May.[7]

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2020, Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike discouraged holiday travel during "Golden Week" to prevent the spread of infection. Tokyo residents were advised to stay home for Stay Home Week (ステイホーム週間, Sutei hōmu shūkan).[8][9] The rebranded "Stay Home Week to Save Lives" ran from April 25 through to May 6.[10][11] Osaka governor Hirofumi Yoshimura closed schools on May 7 and 8 and businesses in the Kansai region were encouraged to extend the holiday period through the weekend until May 11.[12]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Also ゴールデンウイーク, Gōruden Uīku

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Do Not Come To Japan This Week". Kotaku.
  2. ^ "Les jours fériés du calendrier japonais" (in French). Nippon Communications Foundation. 28 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019..
  3. ^ a b c d "Golden Week". Japan-guide.com. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
  4. ^ "Golden Week in Japan - Japanese Golden Week". Gojapan.about.com. 3 May 1947. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
  5. ^ "ゴールデンウィーク - 語源由来辞典". Gogen-allguide.com. 27 April 2004. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
  6. ^ "「国民の祝日」について" [About "national holiday"]. Cabinet Office (Japan). Archived from the original on 29 March 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Government to designate May 1, day of new Emperor's accession, as public holiday, creating 10-day Golden Week in 2019". Japan Times. 12 October 2018.
  8. ^ "「ステイホーム週間」初日の各地 "ゴルフ"やパチンコ店は大勢の人". FNNプライムオンライン. Fuji News Network. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  9. ^ "「STAY HOME 週間」ポータルサイト|東京都". www.koho.metro.tokyo.lg.jp. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Coronavirus Cases in Japan by Prefecture". nippon.com. 27 April 2020.
  11. ^ "「ステイホーム週間」初日 都内の商店街では自主休業". NHKニュース. NHK.
  12. ^ "大阪府立学校 来月8日まで休校|NHK 関西のニュース". NHK NEWS WEB. NHK. Retrieved 27 April 2020.