|Canis aureus syriacus in Yarkon Park in Tel-Aviv, Israel|
12, see text
|Golden jackal range|
The golden jackal (Canis aureus), also known as the common jackal, Asiatic jackal or reed wolf is a canid native to north and northeastern Africa, southeastern and central Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, and southeast Asia. It is classified by the IUCN as Least Concern, due to its widespread range in areas with optimum food and shelter. It is a social species, whose basic social unit consists of a breeding pair, followed by its offspring. The golden jackal is highly adaptable, being able to exploit many foodstuffs, from fruit and insects to small ungulates. As of 2005[update], 13 subspecies were recognised but C. l. lupaster has since been recognised as a subspecies of grey wolf.
Although similar to a small grey wolf, the golden jackal is distinguished by a lighter tread, a more slender build, a sharper muzzle and a shorter tail. Its winter fur also differs from the wolf's by its more fulvous-reddish colour. Despite its name, the golden jackal is not closely related to black-backed and side-striped jackals, being instead more closely related to the grey wolf, coyote, and Ethiopian wolf.(Fig. 10) It is capable of producing fertile hybrids with wolves, with hybrid populations having been discovered in Senegal and Bulgaria.
The golden jackal features prominently in African, Middle-Eastern and Asian folklore and literature, where it is often portrayed as a trickster analogous to the fox and coyote in European and North American tales, respectively.
- 1 Etymology and naming
- 2 Taxonomy and evolution
- 3 Physical description
- 4 Behaviour
- 5 Ecology
- 6 Communication
- 7 Range and conservation
- 8 Diseases and parasites
- 9 Relationships with humans
- 10 See also
- 11 Footnotes
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Etymology and naming
Local and indigenous names
|Linguistic group or area||Indigenous name|
|Amharic||ተረ ቀበሮ (tera kebero)|
|Arabic||ابن آوى (Ibn awee)
أبو سليما (abu soliman)
|Bulgarian||Златист чакал (zlatist chakal)|
|Bweha wa mbuga
|Thai||สุนัขจิ้งจอก (sòo-nák jîng-jòk)|
|Vietnamese||Chó rừng lông vàng|
Taxonomy and evolution
The earliest fossil carnivores that can be linked with some certainty to canids are the Eocene Miacids, which lived some 38 to 56 million years ago. The Miacids later diverged into caniforms and feliforms, with the former line leading to such genera as the coyote-sized Mesocyon of the Oligocene (38 to 24 million years ago), the fox-like Leptocyon and the wolf-like Tomarctus which inhabited North America some 10 million years ago. The golden jackal is scantily represented in the fossil record, and its direct ancestor is unknown; two previous candidates, Canis kuruksaensis and C. arnensis (from Villafranchian Tajikistan and Italy respectively), were demonstrated to be more closely related to the coyote than the jackal. Jackal-like fossils appear in South Africa up to the Early Pleistocene, though remains identifiable as the golden jackal only appear beginning in the Middle Pleistocene. The absence of jackal fossils in Europe, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, areas where the species currently resides, indicates that the species is a relatively recent arrival. However, its presence in the Balkan peninsula is probably quite ancient, as fossil finds in Croatia indicate that the species has been established in the Dalmatian Coast since the Late Pleistocene or early Holocene. The jackal likely entered the Balkans during the last glacial maximum through a land bridge on the Bosphorus.
The golden jackal is the most typical member of the genus Canis, being of medium size and having no outstanding features. Though less basal than the black-backed and side-striped jackals, it is nonetheless a somewhat less specialised species than the grey wolf, as indicated by its relatively short facial region, weaker tooth row and the more weakly developed projections of the skull. These features are connected to the jackal's diet of small birds, rodents, small vertebrates, insects and carrion. The characteristics of the golden jackal's skull and genetic composition indicate a closer affinity to the grey wolf and coyote than to the black-backed jackal, side-striped jackal and Ethiopian wolf. A recent study found that the Golden Jackal and the ancestor of the wolf/dog diverged 400,000 years ago, and that since then there had been significant gene flow between the Golden Jackal and the Israeli wolf, as well as the population ancestral to the dog and wolf samples.
In captivity, the golden jackal is capable of hybridising with the coyote, though such hybrids become infertile at the second generation. In contrast, the golden jackal appears to have unlimited fertility with dogs and wolves. The Sulimov dog (see below) is an example of such a hybrid, as are jackal-wolf hybrids. Although hybridisation between golden jackals and grey wolves has never been observed, evidence of such occurrences was discovered through mtDNA analysis on jackals and wolves in Senegal and Bulgaria.
Because of the species' wide distribution, a large number of local races have been described. During the 19th century, the golden jackals of Africa were considered separate species from those in Eurasia, and were named "thoas" or "thous dogs". Although several attempts have been made to synonymise many of the proposed names, the taxonomic position of West African jackals, in particular, is too confused to come to any precise conclusion, as the collected study materials are few. Prior to 1840, six of the ten supposed West African subspecies were named or classed almost entirely because of their fur colour.
The species' display of high individual variation, coupled with the scarcity of samples and the lack of physical barriers on the continent preventing gene flow, brings into question the validity of some of these West African forms. The species remains poorly understood from a genetic standpoint; while the karyotype of Croatian jackals is similar to that of dogs and wolves (2n = 78; NF = 84), that of Indian jackals differs considerably (NF = 80), leading to the possibility that the golden jackal is in fact an aggregate of poorly defined species.
As of 2005[update], 13 subspecies of golden jackal were recognised. However, the list below excludes Canis aureus lupaster, the so-called "Egyptian jackal", which was demonstrated in 2011 through mtDNA analysis to be in fact a grey wolf.
Canis a. aureus
|Linnaeus, 1758||Large, with soft, pale fur with predominantly sandy tones.||Middle Asia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula, Baluchistan, northwestern India||balcanicus (Brusina, 1892)
caucasica (Kolenati, 1858)
Canis a. algirensis
|Wagner, 1841||Darker than C. a. aureus, with a tail marked with three dusky rings, it is equal in size to the red fox.||Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia||barbarus (C. E. H. Smith, 1839)
grayi (Hilzheimer, 1906)
Canis a. anthus
|F. Cuvier, 1820||Senegal||senegalensis (C. E. H. Smith, 1839)|
Canis a. bea
|Heller, 1914||Kenya, Northern Tanzania|
Canis a. cruesemanni
|Matschie, 1900||Smaller than C. a. indicus, its status as a separate subspecies has been disputed by certain authors, who point out its classification as such is based solely on observations on captive animals.||Thailand, Myanmar to east India|
|Canis a. ecsedensis||Kretzoi, 1947||minor (Mojsisovico, 1897)|
Canis a. indicus
|Hodgson, 1833||Its fur is a mixture of black and white, with buff on the shoulders, ears and legs. The buff colour is more pronounced in specimens from high altitudes. Black hairs predominate on the middle of the back and tail. The belly, chest and the sides of the legs are creamy white, while the face and lower flanks are grizzled with grey fur. Adults grow to a length of 100 cm (39 in), 35–45 cm (14–18 in) in height and 8–11 kg (18-24 lb) in weight.||India, Nepal|
Canis a. moreoticus
|I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1835||One of the largest in the world, animals of both sexes average 120–125 cm (47–49 in) in total length and 10–15 kg (20-33 lb) in body weight. The fur is coarse, and is generally brightly coloured with blackish tones on the back. The thighs, upper legs, ears and forehead are bright-reddish chestnut.||Southeastern Europe, Asia Minor and Caucasus||graecus (Wagner, 1841)|
|Sri Lankan jackal
Canis a. naria
|Wroughton, 1916||Measures 67–74 cm (26½-29 inches) in length and weighs 5-8.6 kg (12-19 lbs). The winter coat is shorter, smoother and not as shaggy as that of indicus. The coat is also darker on the back, being black and speckled with white. The underside is more pigmented on the chin, hind throat, chest and forebelly, while the limbs are rusty ochreous or a rich tan. Moulting occurs earlier in the season than with indicus, and the pelt generally does not lighten in colour.||Southern India, Sri Lanka||lanka (Wroughton, 1838)|
|Canis a. riparius||Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832||A dwarf subspecies measuring only a dozen inches in shoulder height, it is generally of a greyish-yellow colour, mingled with only a small proportion of black. The muzzle and legs are more decidedly yellow, and the underparts are white.||Somalia and coast of Ethiopia and Eritrea||hagenbecki (Noack, 1897)
mengesi (Noack, 1897)
Canis a. soudanicus
|Thomas, 1903||A small subspecies standing 38 cm (15 in) at the shoulder, and measuring 102 cm (40 in) in length. The fur is generally pale stone-buff, with blotches of black.||Sudan and Somalia||doederleini (Hilzheimer, 1906)
nubianus (Cabrera, 1921)
Canis a. syriacus
|Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833||It weighs 5–12 kg (11–27 lb), and has a body length of 60–90 cm (24–35 in). Distinguished by its brown ears, each hair of the back consists of four distinct colours: white at the root, then black, then foxy-red, and the point is black.||Israel, western Jordan|
The golden jackal is very similar to the grey wolf in general appearance, but is distinguished by its smaller size, lighter weight, shorter legs, more elongated torso and shorter tail. The end of the tail just reaches the heel or slightly below it. The head is lighter than the wolf's, with a less-prominent forehead, and the muzzle is narrower and more pointed.
Its skull is similar to the wolf's, but is smaller and less massive, with a lower nasal region and shorter facial region. The projections of the skull are strongly developed, but weaker than the wolf's. Its canine teeth are large and strong, but relatively thinner than the wolf's, and its carnassials are weaker. Occasionally, it develops a horny growth on the skull, which is associated with magical powers in southeastern Asia. This horn usually measures half an inch in length, and is concealed by fur. The iris is light or dark brownish. Females have 4-5 pairs of teats.
The fur's base colour is golden, though this varies seasonally from pale creamy yellow to dark tawny. The fur on the back often consists of a mixture of black, brown and white hairs, which sometimes form a dark saddle similar to the black-backed jackal's. Animals from high elevations tend to have buffier coats than their lowland counterparts. The underparts and belly are of a lighter pale ginger to cream colour than the back. Individual specimens can usually be distinguished by light markings on the throat and chest which differ individually. The tail is bushy, and has a tan or black tip. Melanists occasionally occur, and were once considered "by no means rare" in Bengal.
Unlike melanistic wolves and coyotes, which historically received their dark pigmentation from interbreeding with domestic dogs, melanism in golden jackals likely stems from an independent mutation, and could be an adaptive trait. An albino specimen was photographed in 2012 in southeastern Iran.
The golden jackal moults twice a year, in spring and autumn. In Transcaucasia and Tajikistan, the spring moult begins in mid-late February, while in winter it starts in mid-March and ends in mid-late May. In healthy specimens, the moult lasts 60–65 days. The spring moult begins on the head and limbs, then extends to the flanks, chest, belly and rump, with the tail coming last. The autumn moult takes place from mid-September onwards. The shedding of the summer fur and the growth of the winter coat is simultaneous. The development of the autumn coat starts with the rump and tail, spreading to the back, flanks, belly, chest, limbs and head, with full winter fur being attained at the end of November.
Social and territorial behaviours
The golden jackal's social organisation is extremely flexible, varying according to the availability and distribution of food. The basic social unit is a breeding pair, followed by its current offspring, or offspring from previous litters staying as "helpers". Large groups are rare, and have only been recorded to occur in areas with abundant human waste. Family relationships among golden jackals are comparatively peaceful compared to those of the black-backed jackal; although the sexual and territorial behaviour of grown pups is suppressed by the breeding pair, they are not actively driven off once they attain adulthood. Golden jackals also lie together and groom each other much more frequently than black-backed jackals.
In the Serengeti, pairs defend permanent territories encompassing 2–4 km², while in Tajikistan, home ranges can have a radius of 12 km. Breeding pairs will vacate their territories only to drink or when lured by a large carcass. During severe winters or brushfires, when food is scarce, golden jackals may travel 40–50 km, sometimes appearing in villages and cultivated areas. The pair patrols and marks its territory in tandem. Both partners and helpers will react aggressively towards intruders, though the greatest aggression is reserved for intruders of the same sex; pair members do not assist each other in repelling intruders of the opposite sex.
Reproduction and development
The golden jackal's courtship rituals are remarkably long, lasting 26–28 days, during which the breeding pair remains almost constantly together. In Transcaucasia, estrus begins in early February, and occasionally late January during warm winters. Spermatogenesis in males occurs 10–12 days before the females enter estrus, which lasts for 3–4 days. Females failing to mate during this time will undergo a loss of receptivity which lasts six to eight days.
Females undergoing their first estrus are often pursued by several males, which will quarrel amongst themselves. Prior to mating, the pair patrols and scent marks its territory. Copulation is preceded by the female holding her tail out and angled in such a way that her genitalia are exposed. The two approach each other, whimpering, lifting their tails and bristling their fur, displaying varying intensities of offensive and defensive behaviour. The female sniffs and licks the male's genitals, whilst the male nuzzles the female's fur. They may circle each other and fight briefly. The male then proceeds to lick the female's vulva, and repeatedly mounts her without erection or hip thrusting. Actual copulation takes place days later, and continues for about a week. The copulatory tie lasts 20–45 minutes in Eurasia, and roughly four minutes in Africa. Towards the end of estrus, the pair drifts apart, with the female often approaching the male in a comparatively more submissive manner. In anticipation of the role he will take in raising pups, the male regurgitates or surrenders any food he has to the female.
In Transcaucasia, pups are usually born from late March to late April, in northeastern Italy probably in late April, and between December–January in the Serengeti, though they are born at any time of year in Nepal. The number of pups in a single litter varies geographically; jackals in Uzbekistan give birth to 2-8 pups, in Bulgaria 4-7, in Michurinsk only 3-5, and in India the average is four. Pups are born with shut eyelids and soft fur, which ranges in colour from light grey to dark brown. At the age of one month, their fur is shed and replaced with a new reddish coloured pelt with black speckles. Their eyes typically open after 8–11 days, with the ears erecting after 10–13 days. The eruption of adult dentition is completed after five months. The pups have a fast growth rate; at the age of two days, they weigh 201–214 g, 560–726 g at one month, and 2700–3250 g at four months.
The length of the nursing period varies; in the Caucasus it lasts 50–70 days, while in Tajikistan it lasts up to 90 days. The lactation period ends in mid-July, though in some areas it ends in early August. In Eurasia, the pups begin to eat solid food at the age of 15–20 days, while in Africa they begin after a month. Weaning starts at the age of two months, and ends at four months. At this stage, the pups are semi-independent, venturing up to 50 metres from the den, even sleeping in the open. Their playing behaviour becomes increasingly more aggressive, with the pups competing for rank, which is established after six months. The female feeds the pups more frequently than the male or helpers do, though the presence of the latter allows the breeding pair to leave the den and hunt without leaving the litter unprotected. Once the lactation period concludes, the female drives off the pups. Pups born late remain with their mother until early autumn, at which point they leave either singly or in groups of two to four individuals.
Denning and sheltering behaviours
In the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, female golden jackals usually give birth in burrows dug with the assistance of males, or they occupy derelict fox or badger dens. The burrow is dug a few days before parturition, with both the male and female taking turns digging. The burrow is located either in thick shrubs, on the slopes of gulleys or on flat surfaces. A golden jackal burrow is a simple structure with a single opening. Its length is about 2 metres, while the nest chamber occurs at a depth of 1.0-1.4 metres. In Dagestan and Azerbaijan, litters are sometimes are located within the hollows of fallen trees, tree roots and under stones on river banks. In Middle Asia, the golden jackal does not dig burrows, but constructs lairs in dense tugai thickets. Jackals in the Vakhsh tugais construct 3-metre-long burrows under tree roots or directly in dense thickets. Jackals in the tugais and cultivated lands of Tajikistan construct lairs in long grass plumes, shrubs and reed openings.
Hunting and feeding behaviour
The golden jackal rarely hunts in groups, though packs of 8–12 jackals consisting of more than one family have been observed in the summer periods in Transcaucasia. When hunting singly, the golden jackal will trot around an area, occasionally stopping to sniff and listen. Once prey is located, it will conceal itself, quickly approach, then pounce. When hunting in pairs or packs, jackals run parallel to their prey and overtake it in unison. When hunting aquatic rodents or birds, they will run along both sides of narrow rivers or streams, driving their prey from one jackal to another. The golden jackal rarely catches hares, as they are faster than it. Gazelle mothers (often working in groups of two or three) are formidable when defending their young against single jackals, which are much more successful in hunting gazelle fawns when working in pairs. Jackal pairs will methodically search for concealed gazelle fawns within herds, tall grass, bushes and other likely hiding places.
Although it is known to kill animals up to three times its own weight, the golden jackal overall targets mammalian prey much less frequently than the black-backed jackal. On capturing large prey, the golden jackal makes no attempt to kill it, instead it rips open the belly and eats the entrails. Small prey is typically killed by shaking, though snakes may be eaten alive from the tail end. The golden jackal often carries away more food than it can consume, and caches the surplus, which is generally recovered within 24 hours. When foraging for insects, the golden jackal turns over dung piles to find dung beetles. During the dry seasons, it excavates dung balls to reach the larvae within. Grasshoppers and flying termites are caught either by pouncing on them while they are on the ground or are caught in mid-air. It is fiercely intolerant of other scavengers, having been known to dominate vultures on kills - one can hold dozens of vultures at bay by threatening, snapping and lunging at them.
The golden jackal is a generalist that adapts to local food abundances, a trait which allows it to occupy a variety of different habitats and exploit a large number of food resources. Its lithe body and long legs allows it to trot for large distances in search of food. It has the ability to forego liquids, and has been observed on islands with no fresh water. Although the most desert-adapted jackal, it can survive in temperatures as low as -25° or -35°, though it is not maximally adapted for living in snowy areas. Its preferred habitats consist of flat shrublands, humid reeded areas and floodplains. Although it generally avoids mountainous forests, it may enter alpine and subalpine areas during dispersal. In Turkey, Caucasus and Transcaucasia, it has been observed at heights of up to 1,000 AMSL, particularly in areas where the climate forces shrublands into high elevations.
The golden jackal is an omnivorous and opportunistic forager; its diet varies according to season and habitat. In Bharatpur, India, over 60% of its diet consists of rodents, birds and fruit, while 80% of its diet consists of rodents, reptiles and fruit in Kanha. In the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, the golden jackal primarily hunts hares and mouse-like rodents, as well as pheasants, francolins, ducks, coots, moorhens and passerines.
Vegetable matter eaten by jackals in these areas includes fruits, such as pears, hawthorn, dogwood and the cones of common medlars. It is implicated in the destruction of grapes, watermelons, muskmelons and nuts. Near the Vakhsh River, the jackal's spring diet consists almost exclusively of plant bulbs and the roots of wild sugar cane, while in winter it feeds on the fruit stones of wild stony olives. In the edges of the Karakum Desert, the golden jackal feeds on gerbils, lizards, snakes, fish and muskrats. Karakum jackals also eat the fruits of wild stony olives, mulberry and dried apricots, as well as watermelons, muskmelons, tomatoes and grapes. In Hungary, its most frequent prey animals are common voles and bank voles. Information on the diet of the golden jackal in northeastern Italy is scant, but it certainly preys on small roe deer and hares.
In Dalmatia, mammals (the majority being even-toed ungulates and lagomorphs) made up 50.3% of the golden jackal's diet, fruit seeds (14% each being common fig and common grape vine, while 4.6% are Juniperus oxycedrus) and vegetables 34.1%, insects (16% orthopteras, 12% beetles, and 3% dictyopteras) 29.5%, birds and their eggs 24.8%, artificial food 24%, and branches, leaves, and grass 24%.
In west Africa, it mostly confines itself to small prey, such as hares, rats, ground squirrels and grass cutters. Other prey items include lizards, snakes, and ground-nesting birds, such as francolins and bustards. It also consumes a large amount of insects, including dung beetles, larvae, termites and grasshoppers. It will also kill young gazelles, duikers and warthogs. In East Africa, it consumes invertebrates and fruit, though 60% of its diet consists of rodents, lizards, snakes, birds, hares and Thomson's gazelles.
During the wildebeest calving season, golden jackals will feed almost exclusively on their afterbirth. In the Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater, less than 20% of its diet comes from scavenging. In Israel, golden jackals have been shown to be significant predators of snakes, including venomous snakes; an increase in snakebites occurred during a period of poisoning campaign against golden jackals while a decrease in snakebites occurred once the poisoning ceased.
Enemies and competitors
Golden jackals tend to dominate smaller canid species. In Africa, golden jackals have been observed to kill the pups of black-backed jackals. In Israel, red foxes will avoid close physical proximity with jackals, with studies showing that fox populations decrease where jackals are abundant. Conversely, jackals vacate areas inhabited by wolves, which have been known to approach jackal-calling stations at a quick trotting pace, presumably to chase them off.
The jackal's recent expansion throughout eastern and western Europe has been attributed to historical declines in wolf populations. The present diffusion of the golden jackal in the northern Adriatic hinterland seems to be in rapid expansion in various areas where the wolf is absent or very rare. However, some jackals have been observed to follow and feed alongside wolves without evoking any hostility. In Africa, golden jackals often eat alongside African wild dogs, and will stand their ground if the dogs try to harass them. In South-eastern Asia, golden jackals have been known to hunt alongside dhole packs, and there is one record of a golden jackal pack adopting a male Ethiopian wolf.
In India, lone jackals expelled from their pack have been known to form commensal relationships with tigers. These solitary jackals, known as kol-bahl, will attach themselves to a particular tiger, trailing it at a safe distance to feed on the big cat's kills. A kol-bahl will even alert a tiger to a kill with a loud pheal. Tigers have been known to tolerate these jackals, with one report describing how a jackal confidently walked in and out between three tigers walking together a few feet away from each other.
Jackals will feed alongside spotted hyenas, though they will be chased if they approach too closely. Spotted hyenas will sometimes follow jackals during the gazelle fawning season, as jackals are effective at tracking and catching young animals. Hyenas do not take to eating jackal flesh readily; four hyenas were reported to take half an hour in eating one. Overall, the two animals typically ignore each other when no food or young is at stake. Jackals will confront a hyena approaching too closely to their dens by taking turns in biting the hyena's hocks until it retreats. Striped hyenas have been known to prey on golden jackals.
Golden jackals frequently groom one another, particularly during courtship, during which it can last up to ½ hour. Nibbling of the face and neck is observed during greeting ceremonies. When fighting, the golden jackal slams its opponents with its hips, and bites and shakes the shoulder. The species' postures are typically canine, and it has more facial mobility than the black-backed and side-striped jackals, being able to expose its canine teeth like a dog.
The vocabulary of the golden jackal is similar to that of the domestic dog, though more "plaintive", with seven different sounds having been recorded. The golden jackal's vocalisations include howls, barks, growls, whines and cackles. Different subspecies can be recognised by differences in their howls. One of the most commonly heard sounds is a high, keening wail, of which there are three varieties; a long single toned continuous howl, a wail that rises and falls (transcribed as "Ai-yai! Ai-yai!"), and a series of short, staccato howls (transcribed as "Dead Hindoo, where, where, where?"). These howls are used to repel intruders and attract family members. Howling in chorus is thought to reinforce family bonds, as well as establish territorial status.
Adults howl standing, while young or subordinate specimens do so in a sitting posture, with the frequency of howling increasing during the mating season. The golden jackal has been recorded to howl upon hearing church bells, sirens or the whistles of steam engines and boats. It typically howls at dawn, midday and the evening. When in the vicinity of tigers, leopards or any other cause for alarm, the golden jackal emits a cry that has been variously transliterated as "pheal", "phion" or "phnew". When hunting in a pack, the dominant jackal initiates an attack by repeatedly emitting a sound transliterated as "okkay!".
Range and conservation
The species is common in North and north-east Africa, occurring from Senegal to Egypt in the east, in a range including Morocco, Algeria, and Libya in the north to Nigeria, Chad and Tanzania in the south. It also inhabits the Arabian Peninsula and has expanded into Europe. The jackal's current European range mostly encompasses the Balkans, where habitat loss and mass poisoning caused it to become extinct in many areas the 1960s, with core populations only occurring in scattered regions such as Strandja, the Dalmatian Coast, Aegean Macedonia and the Peloponnese.
It recolonised its former territories in Bulgaria in 1962, following legislative protection, and subsequently expanded its range into Romania and Serbia. Individual jackals further expanded into Italy, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia during the 1980s. Recently, an isolated population was confirmed in western Estonia, much further than their common range. Whether they are an introduced population or a natural migration is yet unknown. To the east, its range runs through Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Central Asia, the entire Indian subcontinent, then east and south to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and parts of Indochina.
In India, the golden jackal is included in CITES Appendix III, and is featured in Schedule III of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, thus receiving legal protection, albeit at the lowest level. The species occurs in all of India's protected areas, save for those in the higher areas of the Himalayas. Golden jackals in East Africa occur in numerous conservation units, including the Serengeti-Masai Mara-Ngorongoro complex.
Although listed as vulnerable in the Red Data Book for Greek Vertebrates, the golden jackal is not listed as a game species in Greece, nor is it afforded legal protection. In Estonia, it has been classified as an invasive species, and subject to extermination campaigns. However, by 2014 the population has grown in Läänemaa, Estonia and because there is no proof whether jackals came to Estonia by natural migration or not, it has not been a subject to full extermination, as so far there is no proof of its harmful effect on local fauna  The Golden Jackal is listed as an Annex V species in the EU Habitats Directive and as such has legal protection in Estonia, Greece and all other EU member states.
Diseases and parasites
The golden jackal can carry diseases and parasites harmful to human health, including rabies and Donovan's Leishmania (which, although harmless to jackals, can cause leishmaniasis in people). Jackals in the Serengeti are known to carry the canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, canine coronavirus and canine adenovirus.
Jackals in southwestern Tajikistan have been recorded to carry 16 species of cestodes, roundworms and acanthocephalans, these being Sparganum mansoni, Diphyllobothrium mansonoides, Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. ovis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis, Diphylidium caninum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Dioctophyma renale, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dracunculus medinensis, Filariata and Macracanthorhynchus catulinum. Jackals infected with D. medinensis can infect water bodies with their eggs, and cause dracunculiasis in people who drink from them. Jackals may also play a large part in spreading coenurosis in sheep and cattle, and canine distemper in dogs. In July 2006, a jackal in Romania was found to be carrying Trichinella britovi. Jackals consuming fish and molluscs can be infected with metagonimiasis, which was recently diagnosed in a male jackal from northeastern Italy.
In Tajikistan, golden jackals carry at least 12 tick species (which include Ixodes, Rhipicephalus turanicus, R. leporis, R. rossicus, R. sanguineus, R. pumilio, R. schulzei, Hyalomma anatolicum, H. scupense and H. asiaticum), four flea species (Pulex irritans, Xenopsylla nesokiae, Ctenocephanlides canis and C. felis) and one species of louse (Trichodectes canis). In northeastern Italy, the species is a carrier of the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus.
Relationships with humans
In folklore, mythology and literature
|“||... yet the jackal seems to be placed between [the wolf and the dog]; to the savage fierceness of the wolf, it adds the impudent familiarity of the dog ... It is more noisy in its pursuits even than the dog, and more voracious than the wolf.||”|
The Ancient Egyptian god of embalming, Anubis, was portrayed as a jackal-headed man, or as a jackal wearing ribbons and holding a flagellum. Anubis was always shown as a jackal or dog colored black, the color of regeneration, death, and the night. It was also the color that the body turned during mummification. The reason for Anubis' animal model being canine is based on what the ancient Egyptians themselves observed of the creature - dogs and jackals often haunted the edges of the desert, especially near the cemeteries where the dead were buried. In fact, the Egyptians are thought to have begun the practice of making elaborate graves and tombs to protect the dead from desecration by jackals. Duamutef, one of the Four Sons of Horus and a protection god of the Canopic jars, was also portrayed as having jackal-like features.
Golden jackals appear prominently in Indian folklore and ancient texts, such as the Jakatas and Panchatantra, where they are often portrayed as intelligent and wily creatures. One popular Indian saying describes the jackal as "the sharpest among beasts, the crow among birds, and the barber among men". To hear a jackal howl when embarking on an early morning journey was considered to be a sign of impending good fortune, as was seeing a jackal crossing a road from the left. In Hinduism, the golden jackal is portrayed as the familiar of several deities, the most common of which being Chamunda, the emaciated, devouring goddess of the cremation grounds. Another deity associated with jackals is Kali, who inhabits the cremation ground and is surrounded by millions of jackals. According to the Tantrasara, when offered animal flesh, Kali appears before the officiant in the form of a jackal. The goddess Shivatudi is depicted with a jackal's head.
The Authorized King James Version (AV) of the Bible never mentions jackals, though this could be due to a translation error. The AVs of Isiah, Micah, Job and Malachi mention "wild beasts" and "dragons" crying in desolate houses and palaces. The original Hebrew words used are lyim (howler) and tan, respectively. According to biologist Michael Bright, tan is more likely referring to jackals than dragons, as the word is frequently used throughout the AV to describe a howling animal associated with desolation and abandoned habitations, which is consistent with the golden jackal's vast vocal repertoire and its occasional habit of living in abandoned buildings. Jeremiah makes frequent references to jackals by using the word shu'al, which can mean both jackal and fox. Although the AV translates the word as fox, the behaviour described is more consistent with jackals, as shown in the books of Lamentations and Psalms, in which references are made to the shu'al's habit of eating corpses in battlefields.
Some authors have put forth that because of the general scarcity and elusiveness of foxes in Israel, the author of the Book of Judges may have actually been describing the much more common golden jackals when narrating how Samson tied torches to the tails of 300 foxes to make them destroy the vineyards of the Philistines. According to an ancient Ethiopian folktale, jackals and man first became enemies shortly before the Great Flood, when Noah initially refused to allow jackals into the ark, thinking they were unworthy of being saved, until being commanded by God to do so.
In Rudyard Kipling's Mowgli stories collected in The Jungle Book, the character Tabaqui is a jackal despised by the Sioni wolf pack, due to his mock cordiality, scavenging habits and his subservience to Shere Khan. His name likely stems from tabáqi kūtta, meaning "dish (licking) dog".
Livestock, game and crop predation
The golden jackal can be a harmful pest, attacking domestic animals such as turkeys, lambs, sheep, goats, and domestic water buffalo calves, and valuable game species like newborn roe deer, hares, coypu, pheasants, francolins, grey partridges, bustards and waterfowl. It destroys many grapes, and will eat watermelons, muskmelons and nuts.
In Greece, jackals tend not to be as damaging to livestock as wolves and red foxes are, though they can become a serious nuisance to small stock when in high numbers. In southern Bulgaria, 1,053 attacks on small stock, mainly sheep and lambs, were recorded between 1982 and 1987, along with some damages to newborn deer in game farms. About 1.5%–1.9% of calves born on the Golan Heights die due to predation, mainly by golden jackals. In both cases, the high predation rate is attributable to a jackal population explosion due to the high availability of food in illegal garbage dumps. Preventive measures to avoid predation were also lacking in both cases.
However, even without preventive measures, the highest damages by jackals from Bulgaria were minimal when compared to the livestock losses to wolves. Golden jackals are extremely harmful to furbearing rodents, such as coypu and muskrats. Coypu can be completely extirpated in shallow water bodies; during the winter of 1948–49 in the Amu Darya, muskrats constituted 12.3% of jackal faeces contents, and 71% of muskrat houses were destroyed by jackals, 16% of which froze and became unsuitable for muskrat occupation. Jackals also harm the fur industry by eating muskrats caught in traps or taking skins left out to dry.
|“||The jackal is, I think, a more difficult animal to kill with hounds than the fox. He does not play the game as the fox does. He is as cunning, as intelligent, as wild, but he is far less sophisticated, and it used to please me to think that perhaps in the chase of the jackal we saw hunting as it was in an earlier phase than that at which it has now arrived in England.||”|
—Thomas Francis Dale
During British rule, sportsmen in India and Iraq would hunt jackals on horseback with hounds as a substitute for the fox hunting of their native England. Although not considered as beautiful as English red foxes, golden jackals were esteemed for their endurance in the chase, with one pursuit having been recorded to have lasted 3½ hours. India's weather and terrain also added further challenges to jackal hunters not present in England; the hounds of India were rarely in the same good condition as English hounds were, and although the golden jackal has a strong odour, the terrain of northern India was not good in retaining scent. Also, unlike foxes, golden jackals were documented to feign death when caught, and could be ferociously protective of their captured packmates. Jackals were hunted in three ways: with greyhounds, foxhounds and with mixed packs. Hunting jackals with greyhounds offered poor sport, as greyhounds were too fast for jackals, and mixed packs were too difficult to control. British hunters distinguished between three types of jackal; the city scavenger, which was slow and smelly, and which the dogs did not like to follow; the "village jack", which was faster, more alert, and less odorous; and the open-country jack, which was still faster, cleaner, and provided better sport.
Some indigenous people of India, such as the Kolis and Vaghirs of Gujarat and Rajastan and the Narikuravas in Tamil Nadu, hunt and eat golden jackals, but the majority of South Asian cultures consider the animal unclean. The orthodox dharma texts forbid the eating of jackals, as they have five nails (panchanakha). In the former Soviet Union, jackals are not actively hunted, and are usually captured incidentally during the hunting of other animals by means of traps or shooting during drives. In the Trans-Caucasus, jackals are captured with large fishing hooks baited with meat, suspended 75–100 cm from the ground with wire. The jackals can only reach the meat by jumping, and are hooked by the lip or jaw.
In Russia and other nations of the former Soviet Union, golden jackals are considered furbearers, albeit ones of low quality due to their sparse, coarse and monotonously coloured fur. Asiatic and Near Eastern jackals produce the coarsest pelts, though this can be remedied during the dressing process. As jackal hairs have very little fur fibre, their skins have a flat appearance. The softest furs come from Elburz in northern Iran. Jackals are known to have been hunted for their fur in the 19th century: in the 1880s, 200 jackals were captured annually in Mervsk. In the Zakatal area of the Trans-Caucasus, 300 jackals were captured in 1896. During that period, a total of 10,000 jackals had been taken within Russia, and were sent exclusively to the Nizhegorod fair. In the early 1930s, 20-25 thousand jackal skins were tanned annually in the Soviet Union, though the stocks were significantly underused, as over triple that amount could have been produced. Before 1949 and the onset of the Cold War, the majority of jackal skins were exported to the USA. Despite their geographical variations, jackal skins are not graded according to a fur standard, and are typically used in the manufacture of cheap collars, women's coats and fur coats.
The golden jackal may have once been tamed in Neolithic Turkey 11,000 years ago, as evidenced by a sculpture of a man cradling a jackal found in Göbekli Tepe. Golden jackals are present in almost all Indian zoos, with 67 males, 72 females, and 54 unsexed individuals as of March 2000. Outside India, golden jackals are rarely kept in Western zoos, where the more colourful black-backed jackal is mostly exhibited.
In 1975, scientists at Russia's DS Likhachev Scientific Research Institute for Cultural Heritage and Environmental Protection began a breeding project in which they crossed golden jackals with huskies, to create an improved breed with the jackal's power of scent and the husky's resistance to cold. In recent years, Aeroflot has used one-quarter jackal hybrids, known as Sulimov dogs, to sniff out explosives otherwise undetectable by machinery.
Attacks on humans
Jackals are responsible for 1.7% of rabies infections in humans in India, coming in third place after foxes (3%) and dogs (96%). During 1998–2005, 220 cases of jackal attacks on humans occurred in Chhattisgarh's Marwahi forest division, though none were fatal. The majority of these attacks occurred in villages, followed by forests and crop fields. On 6 October 2008, a rabid jackal attacked 36 people in five villages in Berasia, Bhopal district, four of whom died later. In early 2012, a jackal thought to be non-rabid injured 11 people, three of them seriously in Chincholi, Gulbarga district. There are several reports of jackal attacks on humans in Iran; in 1996, a jackal injured a 10-year-old boy, and in late 1997, a jackal injured a man and mauled his seven-day-old son in Kerman Province.
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