The golden samphire (Limbarda crithmoides) is a perennial coastal species, which may be found growing on salt marsh or sea cliffs across western and southern Europe and the Mediterranean.
Golden samphire has a tufted habit, and the plant may grow up to 1 m tall. It has narrow fleshy green to yellow green leaves and large flower heads, with six yellow ray florets which may be up to 1.5–2.5 cm (1–1 in) across. The flowers are self-fertile (able to pollinate themselves) and may also be pollinated by bees, flies and beetles. They bloom between June and October and can smell like shoe polish.
It was first described by Carl Linnaeus as Inula crithmoides in his book 'Species Plantarum' 2 on page 883 in 1753 and then later when the genus was renamed, it was published as Limbarda crithmoides by Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier in Fl. Belg. on page 68 in 1827.
- Limbarda crithmoides subsp. crithmoides
- Limbarda crithmoides subsp. longifolia (Arcang.) Greuter
Distribution and habitat
Europe, within Ireland, United Kingdom (where it is mostly found in the Isle of Sheppey), Albania, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia and Sicily), Malta, Montenegro and Slovenia. Also within south-western European countries of France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares).
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 13 January 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Tela Botanica, Inule fausse criste, Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort. in French, with photo and French distribution map
- Altervista Flora Italiana, Enula bacicci, Golden Samphire, Limbarda crithmoides includes photos and European distribution map
- Malta Wild Plants, Comprehensive profile for Inula crithmoides
- Flowers in Israel, Limbarda crithmoides, Inula crithmoides, Jacobaea crithmoides, Eritheis maritima, Golden samphire, בן-טיון בשרני , طيون ملحيطيون ملحي
- National Biodiversity Network, Natural History Museum, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Inula crithmoides L. [Golden-samphire] includes links plus distribution map for United Kingdom and Irish Republic
- Chris Gibson Seashore: A Unique Photographic Guide to the Coastal Wildlife of Britain and Europe (2008), p. 14, at Google Books
- "Limbarda crithmoides | International Plant Names Index". www.ipni.org. Retrieved 29 May 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Limbarda crithmoides". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Grieve, Margaret (2013). A Modern Herbal, Vol. II. ISBN 9780486317311.
- J. S. Rodwell and C. D. Pigott British Plant Communities: Volume 5, Maritime Communities and Vegetation of open habitats (2000), p. 107, at Google Books
- The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe published by Collins 1974
- Margaret Grieve A Modern Herbal, Volume 2 (1971), p. 710, at Google Books
- Zurayk, R. A.; Baalbaki, R. (1996). "Inula crithmoides: A candidate plant for saline agriculture". Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation. 10 (3): 213–223. doi:10.1080/15324989609381436.