Golden triangle (universities)
The corners of the triangle are formed by the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, and to the south-east, Imperial College London and three constituent colleges of the University of London granted degree-awarding powers: King's College London, London School of Economics and Political Science, and University College London. The members of the triangle have among the highest research incomes of all British universities and collaborate closely through initiatives such as the G5, SES-5, Global Medical Excellence Cluster (GMEC) and MedCity. The term, originally coined to describe a group of universities with a large research income, is now also used as a short-hand for the members' perceived prestige and reputation.
Golden triangle universities possess some of the largest UK university financial endowments, allowing the universities sufficient resources in delivering their academic programmes as well as research initiatives. As of 2014, University of Cambridge has an endowment of £5.89 billion. Further, each university receives millions of pounds in research fundings and other grants from the UK government.
|Institution||Arms||Location||Undergraduate enrollment||Graduate enrollment||Total enrollment||2015 Endowment||Academic staff||Colors||Motto|
|University of Cambridge||Cambridge,
|12,230 (2014/15)||7,285 (2014/15)||19,515 (2014/15)||£5.9 billion (including colleges)||6,645||
||Hinc lucem et pocula sacra
(From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge)
|Imperial College London||London,
|9,015 (2014/15)||7,595 (2014/15)||16,610 (2014/15)||£113.6 million||3,692||
||Scientia imperii decus et tutamen
(Knowledge is the adornment and protection of the Empire)
|King's College London||London,
|17,610 (2014/15)||11,120 (2014/15)||28,730 (2014/15)||£179.4 million||4,520||
||Sancte et Sapienter
(With Holiness and Wisdom)
|London School of Economics||London,
|4,415 (2014/15)||6,185 (2014/15)||10,600 (2014/15)||£112.9 million||1,303||
||Rerum cognoscere causas
(To Know the Causes of Things)
|University College London||London,
|16,830 (2014/15)||18,785 (2014/15)||35,615 (2014/15)||£103.6 million||7,070||
||Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae
(Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward)
|University of Oxford||Oxford,
|11,703 (2014/15)||10,173 (2014/15)||22,348 (2014/15)||£4.8 billion (including colleges)||3,700||
||Dominus Illuminatio Mea
(The Lord is my Light)
|University||THE World (2015/16)||QS World (2015/16)||ARWU World (2015)||US News Global (2014/15)||Global Employability Ranking (2015)|
|Imperial College London||8||8||23||12||15|
|King's College London||27||19||55||61||43|
|London School of Economics||23||35||101-150||328||45|
|University College London||14||7||18||21||30|
|University of Cambridge||4||3||5||6||2|
|University of Oxford||2||6||10||5||3|
|University||THE Table of Tables (2016)||Complete (2017)||Guardian (2016)||The Times (2016)||UK Employability (2015)|
|Imperial College London||4||4||8||3||3|
|King's College London||29||21||36||27||5|
|London School of Economics||8||3||13||9||6|
|University College London||12||10||12||10||8|
|University of Cambridge||1||1||1||1||2|
|University of Oxford||2||2||2||2||1|
|Rank||University||Research income (£,000)|
|1||University of Oxford||478,300|
|2||University College London||374,503|
|3||University of Cambridge||371,200|
|4||Imperial College London||350,900|
|7||King's College London||171,547|
|43||London School of Economics||27,038|
|Golden Triangle (Universities)|
- Research-intensive cluster
- Global Medical Excellence Cluster
- Ivy League
- MedCity (London)
- Russell Group
- "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005.: "No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub."
- "Oxbridge windfall". Times Higher Education. 4 August 1995.: "A large amount of the cash awarded to humanities postgraduates still goes to the "Golden Triangle" of Oxford, Cambridge and London, British Academy figures reveal."
- Kershaw, Alison. "UK universities slip in rankings", The Independent, 4 October 2012: "Rankings editor Phil Baty said: "Outside the golden triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge, England's world-class universities face a collapse into global mediocrity."
- "Investment in the UK Biotech Golden Triangle". Oxford Biotech. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- For LSE, see two articles by Zoe Corbyn.
- "In research, small is just as beautiful", Times Higher Education, 26 November 2009: "The findings reveal the full extent of the dominance of the golden triangle: papers from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, King's College London, and the London School of Economics were cited far more often than the world average," and
- "'Golden triangle' to win funding riches", Times Higher Education, 11 February 2010: "The other institutions in the Cambridge-Oxford-London 'golden triangle' - University College London, Imperial College London and the London School of Economics - will also receive big cash windfalls, as will the University of Manchester."
- For King's, see
- Grant, Malcolm (1 March 2005). "The future of the University of London: a discussion paper from the Provost of UCL" (PDF): 6.
- Wiggins, Kaye. "The World Reputation Rankings: UK's university 'golden triangle' strengthens grip".
- The golden triangle consists of Oxford, Cambridge and London's Imperial College, King's College and University College, see "Johnson floats £10bn biotech fund for London", Andrew Ward, Financial Times, 25 June 2015: "MedCity was launched last year to increase collaboration between Imperial College, King’s College and University College London — the capital’s three main science universities — and promote the broader 'golden triangle' between London, Cambridge and Oxford to investors."
- The golden triangle consists of Oxford, Cambridge and London's Imperial College, King's College, LSE and University College, see "London top city in global university rankings", Sean Coughlan, BBC News, 3 October 2013: "The so-called 'golden triangle' of UK universities - Oxford, Cambridge and leading London institutions - is seen as a breakaway elite group, with these universities consolidating their international reputations. Imperial College, University College London, LSE and King's College London are all in the top 40."
- Also talking about Oxford, Cambridge and London's Imperial College, King's College, LSE and University College, see "Golden Triangle pulls ahead in REF shake-out: UCL and KCL ascend power rankings, Manchester and Leeds fall", Miriam Frankel, Alison Goddard and Gretchen Ransow, Research Fortnight, 18 December 2014: "The top six universities in the so-called golden triangle--Oxford, UCL, Cambridge, Imperial, KCL and the London School of Economics and Political Science--have done particularly well in the Power Ratings."
- London's Imperial College, KCL, LSE and UCL, as well as Cambridge and Oxford, see "UK confirmed as 'global education superpower' in international university rankings", Rebecca Marriage, ReLocate Global, 11 March 2015: "The 'golden triangle' of Oxford, Cambridge and London strengthened its grip on UK higher education: As well as Cambridge and Oxford rising closer to the summit, University College London moved up from 25th to 17th, the London School of Economics rose two places to 22nd and King’s College London jumped eight places from 43rd to 31st."
- Jha, Alok. "Gold rush", The Guardian, 3 June 2003: "The golden triangle of Oxford, Cambridge, University College London and Imperial College, show no sign of slowing down in their race away from the rest of the sector when it comes to research funding."
- OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation, North of England, UK, OECD, 2008, p. 222: "The "Golden Triangle" of ... the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Imperial College and University College of London ..."
- Mullins, Justin. "England's golden triangle", New Scientist, 23 April 2005: "Take a look at any of the various league tables ranking universities around the world ... Oxford and Cambridge are in the top handful, while London's University College and Imperial College sit comfortably in the top 25. ... London, Oxford and Cambridge are a 'golden triangle' of academic success."
- Clark, Paul. "The golden triangle holds the secret", Times Higher Education, 1 March 2002: "Suppose, for the sake of argument, that the four institutions comprising the 'golden triangle' - Cambridge, Imperial College, Oxford and University College London - elect not to receive their block Higher Education Funding Council for England grant for teaching."
- That the golden triangle consists of Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College, see The future sustainability of the higher education sector, House of Commons, Education and Skills Committee, The Stationery Office, 2007, p. 241.
- "Super elite in secret bid for cash boost". Times Higher Education. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Research heavyweights deny 'ganging up'". Times Higher Education. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Collaborate and listen, The Guardian, Tuesday 19 December 2006"
- "MedCity launched to promote South East's science 'golden triangle'". BBC News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Espinoza, Javier. "Britain climbs up world university rankings". The Telegraph.
- Staley, Oliver (30 June 2014). "Accounts of colleges". Cambridge University. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "2014/15 Students by HE provider, level, mode and domicile" (XLSX). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Facts and Figures January 2014" (PDF). Cambridge University. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Identity Guidelines – Colour" (PDF). University of Cambridge Office of External Affairs and Communications. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Annual Report and Accounts 2014-15" (PDF). Imperial College London. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Financial Statements for the year to 31 July 2015" (PDF). King's College London. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "2014/15 Staff by HE provider" (XLSX). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Branding Essentials" (PDF). Branding Essentials 2015-08-10. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2015" (PDF). London School of Economics. p. 22. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
- "LSE Shop". Shop.edirectory.co.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2015" (PDF). University College London. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Oxford University Facts and figures". Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Oxford University Financial Statements 2014-15" (PDF). Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "The brand colour – Oxford blue". Ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "World University Rankings 2015-16". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "QS World University Rankings 2015/16". Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "US News Rankings". http://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/search?region=europe&subject=&name=. External link in
- "The 2015 Global University Employability Ranking". Emerging/Trendence. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "LSE in university league tables". London School of Economics. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
But we remain concerned that all of the global rankings - by some way the most important for us, given our highly international orientation - suffer from inbuilt biases in favour of large multi-faculty universities with full STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) offerings, and against small, specialist, mainly non-STEM universities such as LSE.
- "THE 'Table of Tables' 2016: University of Cambridge top for fifth year running". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Top UK University League Tables and Rankings 2017". Complete University Guide. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
- "University guide 2016: University league table". The Guardian. 21 May 2015.
- "The Times and Sunday Times University League Table 2016". The Times and Sunday Times. Retrieved 15 October 2015.(subscription required)
- "The best UK universities chosen by major employers". Times Higher Education (London). 12 November 2015.
- (PDF). Times Higher Education. 27 April 2014 https://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/sites/default/files/Attachments/2015/04/27/k/g/p/institutions-finances-compared-2013-2014-300415.pdf. Retrieved 30 June 2015. Missing or empty