Golovin–Sivtsev table

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Golovin–Sivtsev Table

The Golovin–Sivtsev Table (Russian: Таблица Головина-Сивцева) is a standardized table for testing visual acuity, which was developed in 1923 by Soviet ophthalmologists Sergei Golovin and D. A. Sivtsev.[1] In the USSR It was the most common table of its kind, and as of 2008 its use is still widespread in several post-Soviet states.[2]

The table consists of two parts with 12 rows each. A value D indicated to the left of each row gives the distance in meters from which a person with a visual acuity of 1.0 can read the corresponding row. A value V indicated to the right gives the minimum visual acuity needed to read the row from a distance of 5 meters. The rows represent visual acuity values between 0.1 and 2.0.[3]

The left part consists of series of the Cyrillic letters Ш, Б, М, Н, К, Ы, and И in a definite order. In the first row the size of a character is 70 mm, in the second row it is 35 mm, and 7 mm in the last row. The width of each character is equal to its height.

The right part of the table consists of series of Landolt C symbols.


  1. ^ (in Russian) Refraction and acuity
  2. ^ (in Russian) Golovin–Sivtsev Table for determining the visual acuity
  3. ^ (in Russian) Some information on Golovin–Sivtsev Table — that website as a whole doesn't seem to be reliable, but it seems to present reliable information on Golovin-Sivtsev Table dimensions