Gonadorelin

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Gonadorelin
Gonadorelin.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesFactrel, HRF, Kryptocur, Lutrelef, Lutrepulse, Relefact, others
SynonymsAbbott 41070; AY-24031; Hoe-471; RU-19847
Routes of
administration
Intravenous injection, subcutaneous injection[1]
Drug classGnRH analogue; GnRH agonist; Progonadotropin
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismHydrolysis[1]
Elimination half-life10–40 minutes[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.046.852 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC55H75N17O13
Molar mass1182.311 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Gonadorelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) which is used in fertility medicine and to treat amenorrhea and hypogonadism.[2][3][4][5][5][6][7] It is also used in veterinary medicine.[3][5] The medication is a form of the endogenous GnRH and is identical to it in chemical structure.[2][3][5][7] It is given by injection into a blood vessel or fat or as a nasal spray.[5][1][7]

Medical uses[edit]

Gonadorelin is used as a diagnostic agent to assess pituitary gland function.[1] It is also used in the treatment of primary hypothalamic amenorrhea, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (e.g., Kallmann syndrome), delayed puberty, cryptorchidism, and infertility.[7][8][1] Unlike other GnRH analogues, it is not used to suppress sex hormone production.[9]

Available forms[edit]

Gonadorelin is available in a portable infusion pump that provides pulsatile subcutaneous administration of the drug.[7][8] The usual dosage delivered is 5 to 20 µg of gonadorelin per pulse every 90 to 120 minutes.[7][8] It is also available in solution form for intravenous or subcutaneous injection and as a nasal spray.[7]

Pharmacology[edit]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Gonadorelin is an agonist of the GnRH receptor and is used to induce the secretion of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland and to increase sex hormone production by the gonads.[7][8]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Gonadorelin has a distribution half-life of 2 to 10 minutes and a very short terminal half-life of 10 to 40 minutes.[1] It is metabolized by hydrolysis into smaller peptide components.[1]

History[edit]

Gonadorelin was available for medical use, under the brand name Factrel, as early as 1978.[10]

Society and culture[edit]

Generic names[edit]

Gonadorelin is the generic name of the drug and its INN, BAN, and JAN, while gonadorelina is its DCIT and gonadoréline is its DCF. The diacetate salt is known as gonadorelin acetate and this is its USAN, BANM, and JAN, while the hydrochloride salt is known as gonadorelin hydrochloride and this is its USAN and BANM.[2][3][5]

Brand names[edit]

Free alcohol gonadorelin has been marketed under the brand names Cryptocur, Cystoréline, Fertagyl, GnRH Serono, Gonadorelin, HRF, Kryptocur, LH-RH, Luforan, Pulstim, Relefact, Relisorm L, Stimu-LH, and Wyeth-Ayest HRF.[3][5] Gonadorelin diacetate has been marketed under the brand names Kryptocur, LHRH Ferring, Lutamin, Lutrelef, Lutrepulse, Relisorm L, and Relisorm.[3][5] GnRH hydrochloride has been marketed under the brand names Factrel, HRF, and Luforan.[3][5] Additional brand names of gonadorelin and its salts include Acegon, Conceptyl, Cystorelin, Enagon, Equity Oestrus Control, Fertagyl Cattle, Fertiral, Gonabreed, Gonadorelin Interpharm, Gonasyn, Gonavet Veyx, Hypocrine, Improvest, LH RH Tanabe, LHRH Ferring, LH-RH Ferring, LH-RH Tanabe, Oestracton, OvaCyst, Ovsynch, OVsynch, Ovurelin, Ovarelin, and Relefact LH-RH.[5] The majority of these brand names are for veterinary use.[3][5]

Availability[edit]

Gonadorelin is available widely throughout the world for clinical and/or veterinary use, including in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, elsewhere throughout Europe, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Taiwan, and in many other countries.[3][5][11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00644
  2. ^ a b c J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 745–. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. 2000. pp. 499–. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  4. ^ I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l https://www.drugs.com/international/gonadorelin.html
  6. ^ Shao WM, Bai WJ, Chen YM, Liu L, Wang YJ (2014). "[Micropump infusion of gonadorelin in the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: cases analysis and literature review]". Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao (in Chinese). 46 (4): 642–5. PMID 25131486.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Gautam N Allahbadia; Monika Malhotra Chawla; Rita Basuray Das; Esther Velilla Garcia, Goral Gandhi, Rubina Merchant (17 July 2017). The Art & Science of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). JP Medical Ltd. pp. 731–. ISBN 978-93-86322-82-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ a b c d David A. Williams; William O. Foye; Thomas L. Lemke (2002). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-683-30737-5.
  9. ^ Louis Sanford Goodman; Alfred Goodman Gilman (January 1996). Goodman & Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division. p. 1379. ISBN 978-0-07-026266-9.
  10. ^ Bain J, Moskowitz JP, Clapp JJ (1978). "LH and FSH response to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in normospermic, oligospermic and azoospermic men". Arch. Androl. 1 (2): 147–52. PMID 367302.
  11. ^ Sweetman, Sean C., ed. (2009). "Sex hormones and their modulators". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press. p. 2106–2108. ISBN 978-0-85369-840-1.