Gonda, Uttar Pradesh
|This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2015)|
|• Type||UP government|
|Area rank||---> 43|
|Elevation||120 m (390 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Gonda is a city and municipal board of Gonda district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated 125 km north east of the state capital Lucknow. Gonda is divided into four tahsils named Gonda, Colonelganj, Tarabganj and Mankapur.
Gonda is located at  It has an average elevation of 120 metres (393 feet). The holy rivers Sarayu and Ghaghara pass through the district. Other important rivers are Terhi and Kuawano. The Ghaghara River splits the entire district into two parts - the northern and southern part. The town of Gonda falls in the northern part with Ghaghara bordering the district's entire southern boundary. Temperature ranges from 0 degrees in January to more than 47 degrees Celsius in May. Average Annual precipitation is very high as the district lies in the Terai region along the Himalayas. Rainfall varies from 1500 mm to 2000 mm. Annual devastating floods during monsoons is very common because of heavy precipitation and flowing currents from the Shivalik mountains. The highest temperature recorded in the Uttar Pradesh was 49.9°C on 8 May 1958 at Gonda..
The name of this district comes from the Sanskrit - Hindi word of Goshala, meaning cowshed. The cowsheds of the royal lineage of Ayodhya viz. Ikshavaku (Raghukul) of the Solar dynasty were located here. The territory covered by the present district of Gonda is a part of the ancient Kosala Kingdom. After the departure of Lord Rama to Saket dham, the celebrated sovereign of the Solar line who ruled Kosala, the kingdom was divided into two portions defined by the Ghaghara river. The northern portion was then ruled by his son, Lava with the city of Sravasti as his capital. Sravasti was prosperous and progressive during Buddhas time.
During the medieval period, the first Muslim invasion of the region, to the north of the Ghaghara River, took place in the second quarter of 11th century under Syed Salar Masood. The rulers of Gonda and surrounding districts formed a league to offer united resistance to Masood. Masood could not withstand of the league of more than 13 local kings and was surrounded by their armies all around and was defeated. In the second half of the 13th century Gonda was included in the government of Bahraich by the early Muslim rulers, and hence has no independent history of its own. Further, there is no specific reference about the district until the reign of the Tughlaqs.
In 1394, the district came under the rule of Khwaja Jahan Malik Sarwar, the founder of the Sharqi dynasty of Jaunpur. From earliest days of Muslim domination till the advent of Akbar, the history of Gonda district is primarily the history of local clans. During the early phase of this period the whole of Gonda and much of the surrounding region was ruled by Bhars, Pasi kings who come are categorized into lower social order(SC/ST). The district formed an integral part of the empire of Akbar (1556–1605).
Gonda played a significant role in the Indian struggle for independence. So many people from the region actively participated including Maharaja Devi Bakhsha Singh, who escaped later to Nepal. Revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad also took shelter here and one of his partymen Rajendra Lahiri was incarcerated and hanged in the Gonda Jail on 17 December 1927 in Kakori Conspiracy.
As per provisional data of 2011 census, Gonda urban agglomeration had a population of 138,929, out of which males were 71,475 and females were 67,454. The literacy rate was 80.32 per cent.
Gonda is also known for Ghagh, a legendary agriculture and weather specialist of folk culture. Mahakavi Ghagh, Adam Gondavi, Suresh Mokalpuri, Shiva Kant Mishra 'Vidrohi', Satish Arya - the poets of Hindi literature belong to this district. Urdu poet Niyaz Ahmed "Saher" (1939–2010)- the adopted son of Jigar Moradabadi, also belong to Gonda. The founder of the Swaminarayan Sampradaya, Swaminarayan was born as Ghanshyam Pandey in the village Chhapaiya of Gonda district. As a child, he also lived in Ayodhya and visited the town of Gonda on a pilgrimage with his parents. The Swaminarayan Akshardham temple in New Delhi is dedicated to him, as Akshardham is his divine abode. Acharya Patanjali born 200 years before the Christian Era, who is called as Father or founder of Yoga hailed from Gonda in Uttar Pradesh.
Swaminarayan Chhapaiyā: The village of Chhapaiya is situated at a distance of 50 km from the district headquarters. The chief interest of the place is Swaminarayan temple which marks the birthplace of Swaminarayan, or Sahajanand Swami, who was born here on 2 April 1781 as Ghanshyam Pande. Ghanshyam left Chhapaiya at the age of 11 to travel to the pilgrimage sites around India. He completed his pilgrimage in Western Gujarat, where he assumed the leadership of Swaminarayan Sampradaya. The very famous Akshardham temples in New Delhi and in Gandhinagar, Gujarat built by his spiritual successor, Pramukh Swami Maharaj, are both dedicated to him. His followers consider him to be a manifestation of the Supreme Godhead. There have been many movies about the Swaminarayan filmed in this temple in Chhapaiya and in nearby places in the district.
- Baba Gayadeen Vaidya Babu Ram Mahavidyalaya
- Baikunth Nath Mahavidyalaya
- Bhagirathi Singh Memorial Mahavidyalaya, wazirganj Gonda
- Chandra Shekhar Shyamraji Mahavidyalaya
- Dashrath Singh Memorial Mahavidyalay
- Dr. Bheem Rao Ambedkar Mahavidyalaya
- Hakikullah Chaudhary Mahavidyalaya
- Jagdamba Sharan Singh Educational Institute
- Kamta Prasad Mathura Prasad Janta Mahavidyalaya
- Kisan Degree College
- L.B.S. Mahavidyalaya (in Gonda town)
- Lakhan Lal Sharan Singh Mahavidyalaya
- Maa Gayatri Ram Sukh Pandey Mahavidyalaya
- Mahakavi Tulsidas Mahavidyalaya
- Nandini Nagar Mahavidyalaya Nawabgang
- Nandini Nagar Vidhi Mahavidyalaya Nawabgang
- Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gramoday Mahavidyalaya
- Pt. Jag Narain Shukla Gramoday Mahavidyalaya
- Pt. Ram Dutt Shukla Mahavidyalaya
- Raghoram Diwakar Dutt Gyanoday Mahavidyalaya
- Raja Raghuraj Singh Mahavidyalaya Mankapur
- Ram Nath Memorial Mahavidyalaya
- Ravindra Singh Memorial Mahavidyalaya
- Saraswati Devi Nari Gyansthali Mahavidyalaya (in Gonda town)
- Sardar Mohar Singh Memorial Mahila Mahavidyalaya Mankapur
- Saryu Degree College situated in tehshil Colonelganj of Gonda district.
- Smt. J. Devi Mahila Mahavidyalaya
- Sri Raghukul Mahila Vidyapeeth (in gonda town)
- Subhash Chandra Bose Memorial Mahavidyalaya
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Gonda
- Gonda District at The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908, v. 12, p. 312.
- India Divine
- 1857:The Oral Tradition, Pankaj Rag, Rupa Publication,2010
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Dave, Ramesh (2010). Ghanshyam Charitra (7th ed.). Amdavad: Swaminarayan Aksharpith. p. 43. ISBN 81-7526-338-5.
- Williams, Raymond (2001). An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-521-65422-7.
- Official Web Site Of the District Gonda
- www.gondvi.com * Other Web Site Of the District Gonda