|Genres||Psychedelic rock, space rock, jazz rock, Canterbury Scene |
|Years active||1967–1976, 1977, 1990, 1992–2001, 2003–2006, 2007–present|
|Labels||BYG Actuel, Virgin, Charly, Snapper|
|Associated acts||Daevid Allen, Soft Machine, Pierre Moerlen's Gong, Steve Hillage, Here & Now|
|Past members||See article|
Gong is an international psychedelic rock band known for incorporating elements of jazz and space rock into its musical style. The group was formed in Paris in 1967 by Australian musician Daevid Allen and English vocalist Gilli Smyth. Notable band members have included Didier Malherbe, Pip Pyle, Steve Hillage, Mike Howlett, Pierre Moerlen and Theo Travis. Others who have played on stage with Gong include Don Cherry, Chris Cutler, Bill Bruford, Brian Davison, Dave Stewart and Tatsuya Yoshida.
Gong released its debut album, Magick Brother, in 1970, which featured a psychedelic pop sound. By the following year, the second album, Camembert Electrique, featured the more psychedelic rock/space rock sound with which they would be most associated. Between 1973 and 1974, Gong released their best known work, the allegorical "Radio Gnome Invisible" trilogy, describing the adventures of Zero the Hero, the Good Witch Yoni and the Pot Head Pixies from the Planet Gong, who are green, have propellers on their heads, and fly around space in teapots.
In 1975, Daevid Allen & Gilli Smyth left the band, which continued without them, releasing a series of jazz rock albums under the leadership of drummer Pierre Moerlen. This incarnation of the band became known as Pierre Moerlen's Gong. Meanwhile, Smyth formed Mother Gong while Allen initiated a series of spin-off groups, including Planet Gong, New York Gong and Gongmaison, before returning to lead Gong once again in 1990 until his death in 2015. With Allen's encouragement, the band plans to carry on without him once again.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Early years (1967–72)
- 1.2 Radio Gnome Invisible trilogy (1973–74)
- 1.3 Daevid Allen's departure (1975) and Shamal (1976)
- 1.4 14-year hiatus (1976–90) – Pierre Moerlen's Gong and other offshoots
- 1.5 Reunions (1990–present) and other off-shoots (Gongmaison, Acid Mothers Gong)
- 1.5.1 Reunion (1990)
- 1.5.2 25th anniversary celebration (1994) and worldwide tours (1996–2001)
- 1.5.3 Important line-up changes (2003)
- 1.5.4 One-off reunions (2004–06)
- 1.5.5 Daevid Allen and Gong Global Family (2007)
- 1.5.6 Keeping on recording (2009) and touring (2008–14)
- 1.5.7 I See You, illness and death of Daevid Allen (2014–present)
- 2 Music and lyrics
- 3 Personnel
- 4 Discographies
- 5 Filmography
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Early years (1967–72)
In September 1967, Australian singer and guitarist Daevid Allen, a member of the English psychedelic rock band Soft Machine, was denied re-entry to the United Kingdom for 3 years following a French tour, because his visa had expired. He settled in Paris, where he and London-born Sorbonne professor Gilli Smyth established the first incarnation of Gong, later referred to by Allen as "Protogong", along with Ziska Baum on vocals and Loren Standlee on flute. However, the nascent band came to an abrupt end during the May 1968 student revolution, when Allen and Smyth were forced to flee the country after a warrant was issued for their arrest. They headed for Deià in Majorca, where they had lived for a time in 1966.
In August 1969, film director Jérôme Laperrousaz, a close friend of the pair, invited them back to France to record a soundtrack for a movie he was planning:Continental Circus. This came to nothing at the time, but they were subsequently approached by Jean Karakos of the newly-formed independent label BYG Actuel to record an album, and so set about forming a new Gong band in Paris, recruiting their first rhythm section of Christian Tritsch (bass) and Rachid Houari (drums & percussion) and re-connecting with a saxophonist called Didier Malherbe whom they had met in Deià. Tritsch was not ready in time for the sessions and so Allen played the bass on the album himself, aided by some jazz double bassists supplied by the label. The album, entitled Magick Brother, was completed in October.
The re-born Gong played its debut gig at the BYG Actuel Festival in the small Belgian town of Amougies, on 27 October 1969, joined by Danny Laloux on hunting horn & percussion, and Dieter Gewissler & Gerry Fields on violin, and introduced to the stage by bemused compere Frank Zappa. Magick Brother was released in March 1970, followed in April by a non-album single, "Est-Ce Que Je Suis?/Garçon Ou Fille" b/w "Hip Hip Hypnotise Ya", which again featured Laloux and Gewissler. In October, the band moved into an abandoned 12-room hunting lodge called Pavillion du Hay, near Voisines and Sens, 120 km south-east Paris. They would be based there until early 1974.
Houari left the band in the spring of 1971 and was replaced by English drummer Pip Pyle, whom Allen had been introduced to by Robert Wyatt during the recording of his debut solo album, Banana Moon. The new line-up recorded a soundtrack for the Continental Circus movie and played at the second Glastonbury Festival, later documented on the Glastonbury Fayre album. They then recorded their second studio album, Camembert Electrique, followed by a UK tour in the autumn. By the end of the year, Pyle had left the group, to be replaced by another Englishman, Laurie Allan.
Radio Gnome Invisible trilogy (1973–74)
In late 1972, Gong were one of the first acts to sign to Virgin Records and arrived at The Manor Studio in Oxfordshire on New Year's Day 1973 to record a new album, where they were played a rough mix of Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells. Now augmented by lead guitarist Steve Hillage, former Magma bass player Francis Moze, synthesizer player Tim Blake and returning percussionist Rachid Houari, they made the album Flying Teapot, released in May, the first installment in their "Radio Gnome Invisible" trilogy, which expounded upon the (previously only hinted at) Gong mythology developed by Allen. The second part, Angel's Egg, followed in December, now with the 'classic' rhythm section of Mike Howlett on bass and Pierre Moerlen on drums. In early 1974, the band moved from their French base at Pavillion du Hay to an English one, at Middlefield Farm, near Whitney, Oxfordshire. The same line-up completed the trilogy with You, released in October 1974, by which time Moerlen had departed, to be replaced on stage by numerous short-lived replacements: Chris Cutler, Laurie Allen, Bill Bruford and Brian Davison, who stayed the longest, until July 1975.
In June 1974, Camembert Electrique was given a belated UK release by Virgin, priced at 59p, the price of a typical single; a promotional gimmick which they had used before for Faust and would use again for a reggae compilation in 1976. These ultra-budget albums sold in large quantities because of the low price, but this pricing made them ineligible for placement on the album charts. The intention was that purchasers would be encouraged to buy the groups' other albums at full price.
Daevid Allen's departure (1975) and Shamal (1976)
At a gig in Cheltenham in April 1975, Allen refused to go on stage, claiming that a "wall of force" was preventing him, and left the band. With both Smyth, who wanted to spend more time with her two children, and synth player Tim Blake having already left in previous months, this marked the end of the 'classic' line-up.
Pierre Moerlen was persuaded to return once again in August, and the band continued, adding Mireille Bauer on percussion and Jorge Pinchevsky on violin. They toured the UK in November 1975, as documented on the 2005 release Live in Sherwood Forest '75, and worked on material for their next album, Shamal. However, both Hillage, who had been the band's de facto leader since Allen's exit, and his partner Miquette Giraudy, who had taken over from Smyth in late 1974, left before Shamal was released in February 1976, although they participated in it as guests. Both re-joined Gong briefly for the 1977 Reunion concert in Paris, along with Allen, Smyth, Malherbe, Blake, Howlett and Moerlen, documented on the live album Gong est Mort, Vive Gong.
14-year hiatus (1976–90) – Pierre Moerlen's Gong and other offshoots
Drummer Pierre Moerlen, who had been persuaded by Virgin to rejoin Gong in 1975 as a co-leader with Howlett (after his spell with the French contemporary ensemble Les Percussions de Strasbourg), gradually took over sole leadership, until Howlett left in 1976. When Malherbe, the only remaining founding member, finally left in 1977, Moerlen formed a new percussion-based line-up with American bassist Hansford Rowe and percussionists Mireille Bauer and his brother Benoit Moerlen. To avoid confusion, it became known as Gong-Expresso, and from 1978 on, as Pierre Moerlen's Gong up to 2002 with the recording of their last album Pentanine and 2005 with Pierre Moerlen's death.
Allen, however, continued to develop the Gong mythology from the late seventies up until the nineties in his solo work, and with bands such as Euterpe, Planet Gong (which comprised Allen and Smyth playing with the British festival band Here & Now), and New York Gong (comprising Allen and the musicians who would later become known as Material). Meanwhile, Smyth formed a separate band, Mother Gong, with Jean-Paul Vivini from Can am des puig (author of The Book of AM produced by Daevid Allen), playing in Spain and England. Allen delighted in this proliferation of groups and considered his role at this time to be that of an instigator, traveling around the world leaving active Gong-related bands in his wake.
Reunions (1990–present) and other off-shoots (Gongmaison, Acid Mothers Gong)
After spending most of the eighties in his native Australia, Allen returned to the UK in 1988 with a new project, the Invisible Opera Company of Tibet, whose revolving cast included the likes of violinist Graham Clark and saxophonist Didier Malherbe. This morphed into Gongmaison in 1989 and in 1990 the Gong name was revived for a one-off U.K. T.V. appearance. In April 1992 the band became Gong once again and recorded the album Shapeshifter (subsequently dubbed Radio Gnome Invisible part 4), followed by extensive touring.
25th anniversary celebration (1994) and worldwide tours (1996–2001)
In 1994, Gong celebrated its 25th birthday in London, including a performance by most of the 'classic' line-up, including the returning Gilli Smyth and bassist Mike Howlett. This formed the basis of the "Classic Gong" band which toured worldwide from 1996 to 2001 (Pierre Moerlen returning to the band in 1997 through 1999) and released Zero to Infinity in 2000 (by Allen, Smyth, Howlett and Malherbe plus new recruits Theo Travis on sax and Chris Taylor on drums).
Important line-up changes (2003)
However, 2003 saw a radical new line-up including Acid Mothers Temple member Kawabata Makoto and University of Errors guitarist Josh Pollock. Allen and Smyth's son Orlando Allen drummed on the album Acid Motherhood (2004), but the drummer on most of the band's live dates was Ruins drummer Tatsuya Yoshida. Members of Gong and Acid Mothers Temple later worked together under the name "Acid Mothers Gong".
One-off reunions (2004–06)
The "Classic Gong" line-up retired from regular touring in 2001, but there were one-off reunions subsequently, most notably at the "Gong Family Unconvention" (Uncon), the first of which was held in 2004 in the Glastonbury Assembly rooms as a one-day event and featured many ex members and Gong family bands including Here and Now, House of Thandoy, Thom the Poet, Invisible Opera, Andy Bole, Bubbledub and Joie Hinton. The 2005 Uncon was a 2-day affair featuring several Gong-related bands such as Here & Now, System 7, House of Thandoy and Kangaroo Moon. The most recent Uncon was a 3-day event held at the Melkweg in Amsterdam on 3–5 November 2006, with practically all Gong-related bands present: classic Gong (with Allen, Smyth, Malherbe, Hillage, Blake and Howlett, plus Miquette Giraudy, Chris Taylor and Theo Travis), System 7, Steve Hillage Band, Hadouk, Tim Blake & Jean-Philippe Rykiel, University of Errors, Here & Now, Mother Gong, Zorch, Eat Static,Sacred Geometry Band, Acid Mothers Gong and many others. These events have all been compèred by "Thom the Poet (now Thom Moon 10)".
Daevid Allen and Gong Global Family (2007)
In November 2007, Daevid Allen held a series of concerts in Brazil, with a branch of Gong, which was called Daevid Allen and Gong Global Family (Daevid Allen on vocals and guitar, Josh Pollock on guitar, megaphone and percussion; Fred Barley on drums and percussion; Fabio Golfetti of Violeta de Outono fame on guitar, Gabriel Costa, also from Violeta de Outono, on bass, Marcelo Ringel on flute and tenor saxophone), along with his other band University of Errors (Allen, Josh Pollock, Michael Clare, Fred Barley). The presentations took place in São Paulo on 21 and 22 November and São Carlos on 24 November. These musicians – less Marcelo – recorded some new songs in the studio Mosh, in São Paulo. The show of 21 November was then released only in England as DVD and CD by Voiceprint Records.
Keeping on recording (2009) and touring (2008–14)
In June 2008, Gong played two concerts in London: Queen Elizabeth Hall on the Southbank (opening Massive Attack's Meltdown festival) and the Forum, with Allen, Smyth, Hillage, Giraudy, Howlett, Taylor and Travis among the line-up. This line-up then released new album 2032 in 2009 and toured in support. They played the Glade stage at Glastonbury Festival with Steve Hillage and Miquette Giraudy. Gong played at the Big Chill festival in the UK on 9 August 2009 with Allen, Smyth, Hillage, Giraudy, Travis, Taylor and Dave Sturt on bass, at the Beautiful Days Festival in Devon, 23 August 2009 and at the Lounge on the Farm festival near Canterbury in the summer of 2009.
Gong played four UK live shows in September 2010 with Allen, Smyth, Hillage, Giraudy, Sturt, Taylor and Ian East. O2 ABC Glasgow (9th), Manchester Academy (10th), HMV Forum London (11th) and HMV Institute Birmingham (20th). Support for these shows was provided by Nik Turner's Space Ritual.
Gong toured Europe in the fall of 2012 with the line-up of Allen, Smyth, Sturt, East, Orlando Allen on drums, and Fabio Golfetti on guitar. Gong also played in Brazil in May 2013 with the line-up of Daevid Allen, Sturt, East, Orlando Allen and Golfetti and in 2014 with the addition of Kavus Torabi on guitar.
I See You, illness and death of Daevid Allen (2014–present)
On 10 November 2014, Gong released a new album entitled I See You featuring the 2014 line-up with Gilli Smyth guesting. Due to Daevid Allen's illness and an extensive period of recuperation further to radiation therapy, Gong toured Europe without him in the fall of 2014 in support of the new album. Thus, while Allen was recovering, the then line-up was Sturt, East, Golfetti, Torabi and a "mystery drummer" now revealed as Cheb Nettles (along with Mark Robson on vocals on "Oily Way / Temples" on certain dates). Entitled "I See You Tour 2014", this 7-date short tour of France (Châteauroux, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Lille, Sélestat) and the UK (London, Manchester) began on 11 November 2014 and ended on 5 December 2014.
On 5 February 2015, Allen released a statement announcing that the cancer had returned to his neck and had also spread to his lungs, and that he was "not interested in endless surgical operations"; leaving him with "approximately six months to live". Just over a month after the initial announcement, on 13 March 2015, Daevid's son, Orlando Monday Allen, announced through Facebook that Allen had died.
It was revealed on 11 April 2015 that Daevid Allen had written an email to the band prior to his death, expressing that he wished the five remaining members of the lineup to continue performing following his passing; although whether the band will continue is at present unclear. The email suggests that Kavus Torabi is to become the new frontman of the band.
Music and lyrics
Style and influences
Gong's music fuses many influences into a distinctive style which has been variously described by critics and journalists as experimental rock, jazz fusion, jazz rock, progressive rock, psychedelic rock and space rock. Gong has also been associated with the Canterbury scene of progressive rock bands.
The Gong mythology is a light-hearted collection of recurring characters, themes, and ideas that permeate the albums of Gong and Daevid Allen, and to a lesser extent the early works of Steve Hillage. The story is based on a vision which Allen had during the full moon of Easter 1966, in Deià, Majorca, in which he claimed he could see his future laid out before him. The mythology is hinted at through Gong's earlier albums but is not the central theme until the "Radio Gnome Invisible" trilogy (1973–1974). The mythology contains many similarities to concepts from Buddhist philosophy, e.g. the search for self, the denial of absolute reality and the search for the path to enlightenment.
Flying Teapot (1973): Radio Gnome Invisible, Part 1
The story begins on the album Flying Teapot (1973), when a pig-farming Egyptologist called Mista T Being is sold a "magick ear ring" by an "antique teapot street vendor & tea label collector" called Fred the Fish. The ear ring is capable of receiving messages from the Planet Gong via a pirate radio station called Radio Gnome Invisible. Being and Fish head off to the hymnalayas of Tibet (sic) where they meet the "great beer yogi" Banana Ananda in a cave. Ananda tends to chant "Banana Nirvana Mañana" a lot and gets drunk on Foster's Australian Lager.
Meanwhile, the mythology's central character, Zero the Hero, is going about his everyday life when he suddenly has a vision in Charing Cross Road. He is compelled to seek heroes and starts worshiping the Cock Pot Pixie, one of a number of Pot Head Pixies from the Planet Gong. These pixies are green with propellers on their heads, and they fly around in teapots, an idea inspired by [Bertrand] Russell's teapot.
Zero is soon distracted by a cat which he offers his fish and chips to. The cat is actually the Good Witch Yoni, who gives Zero a potion. This concludes the first part of the story.
Angel's Egg (1973): Radio Gnome Invisible, Part 2
The second part, Angel's Egg (1973), begins with Zero falling asleep under the influences of the potion and finding himself floating through space. After accidentally scaring a space pilot called Captain Capricorn, Zero locates the Planet Gong, and spends some time with a prostitute who introduces him to the moon goddess Selene.
Zero's (drug-induced) trip to the Planet Gong continues, and the Pot Head Pixies explain to him how their flying teapots fly (a system known as Glidding). He is then taken to the One Invisible Temple of Gong.
Inside the temple, Zero is shown the Angel's Egg — the physical embodiment of the 32 Octave Doctors (descendants of the Great God Cell). The Angel's Egg is the magic-eye mandala that features on much of the band's sleeve-art. It is also a sort of recycling plant for Pot Head Pixies.
A grand plan is revealed to Zero. There will be a Great Melting Feast of Freeks which Zero must organise on Earth. When everyone is enjoying the Feast, a huge global concert, the Switch Doctor will turn everybody's third eye on, ushering in a New Age on Earth. The Switch Doctor is the Earth's resident Octave Doctor, who lives near Banana Ananda's cave, in a "potheadquarters" called the Invisible Opera Company of Tibet (C.O.I.T.) and transmits all the details to the Gong Band via the Bananamoon Observatory.
You (1974): Radio Gnome Invisible, Part 3
In the third instalment, You (1974), Zero must first return from his trip. He asks Hiram the Master Builder how to structure his vision and build his own Invisible Temple. Having done this, Zero establishes that he must organise the Great Melting Feast of Freeks on the Isle of Everywhere, Bali.
The event is going well, and the Switch Doctor switches on everyone's third eyes except for Zero's. For Zero is out the back, indulging in Earthly pleasures (fruitcake).
Zero has missed out on the whole third eye revelation experience and is forced to continue his existence spinning around on the wheel of births and deaths and slowly converging on the Angel's Egg in a way which, to a certain extent, resembles Buddhist reincarnation.
The album Shapeshifter (1992) is the fourth installment in the saga, in which Zero meets an urban shaman who agrees to take him to the next level of awareness on the proviso that Zero spends nine months on an aeroplane traveling where he wants, but not using money or eating anything other than airline food. Zero eventually dies in Australia under mysterious circumstances.
The next installment is the album Zero to Infinity (2000), which sees Zero's spirit enjoying a body-free and virtual existence. During the course of this he becomes an android spheroid Zeroid. With the help of a strange animal called a gongalope, he learns that all the wisdom of the world exists within him and practices Lafta yoga and tea making. At the end he becomes one with an Invisible Temple and has a lot of fun.
The final installment of the story, 2032 (2009), is set in that year, one which Daevid Allen had seen as significant for the enlightenment of humanity. The planet Gong now serves as more of a digital portal for a humanity still grappling with contemporary issues of life.
Gong's mythology is not universally serious. Great amounts of the story pertain in some way to the production and consumption of tea (perhaps suggesting mushroom tea, although the word tea has also long been used to describe cannabis, especially in the 1940s and 1950s). The characters in the story are often based on, or used as pseudonyms for, band members.
Influence on other artists
Gong's influence has been seen in artists such as Ozric Tentacles and Insane Clown Posse, whose member Violent J listened to Gong's music for inspiration during the recording of ICP's 2009 album Bang! Pow! Boom! Gong's music has also found fandom in the ambient music scene.
American hard rock band Raging Slab has covered Gong's "The Pot Head Pixies" for NORML's Hempilation release. Japanese psych-rock band Acid Mothers Temple frequently covers Gong's "Master Builder", titled as "Om Riff", and have released 2 full albums dedicated to album-length renditions of the song; 2005's "IAO Chant From The Cosmic Inferno" and 2012's "IAO Chant From The Melting Paraiso Underground Freak Out".
Hip hop artists have sampled Gong's music. Madlib samples Gong's music frequently, including "Eat That Phone Book Coda" on his song ""Maingirl", "You Never Blow Yr Trip Forever" on "Bullyshit", and "Shamal" on "Mr. Two-Faced". Insane Clown Posse has also frequently sampled Gong, including "The Pot Head Pixies" on "Ringmaster's Word" and "Toy Box", as well as "Selene" on "The Dead One" and "Bambooji" on "For The Maggots".
Actor Sherman Hemsley, best known for his role on The Jeffersons, was an avowed Gong fanatic, going so far as to have a Flying Teapot (album) room in his house. The room, which had darkened windows played Flying Teapot continuously via tape loops.
- Current members
- Fabio Golfetti – lead guitar (2007, 2012–present)
- Dave Sturt – bass (2009–present)
- Ian East – saxophone, flute (2010–present)
- Kavus Torabi – guitar, vocals (2014–present)
- Cheb Nettles – drums (2014–present)
(Daevid Allen's) Gong albums
(Daevid Allen free) Gong albums
Pierre Moerlen's Gong albums
Mother Gong albums
Current Line-up albums
New York Gong
- 2015: Romantic Warriors III: Canterbury Tales (DVD)
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gong (band).|
- Official web site for Gong, GAS & Gliss
- Gong at Calyx, The Canterbury Music Website, by Aymeric Leroy - includes detailed chronology
- "Not Just Another Gong Website" – comprehensive tapeography
- The Archive – Archival photos of Gong, Mother Gong, Steve Hillage, Nik Turner, Here & Now, Hawkwind and many Free Festivals from the 1960s–1980s
- Acid Motherhood voted weirdest album cover of all time