Gongduk language

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Gongduk
Gongdukpa Ang
དགོང་འདུས་
Region Bhutan
Native speakers
2,000 (2006)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
  • Gongduk
Tibetan script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 goe
Glottolog gong1251[2]

Gongduk or Gongdu (Tibetan: དགོང་འདུས་Wylie: Dgong-'dus, it is also known as Gongdubikha[3]) is an endangered Sino-Tibetan language spoken by about 1,000 people in a few inaccessible villages located near the Kuri Chhu river in the Gongdue Gewog of Mongar District in eastern Bhutan. The names of the villages are Bala, Dagsa, Damkhar, Pam, Pangthang, and Yangbari (Ethnologue).

Gongduk has complex verbal morphology, which Ethnologue considers a retention from Proto-Tibeto-Burman,[1] and is lexically highly divergent.[4] On this basis, it is apparently not part of any major subgroup and will probably have to be assigned to its own branch.[4][5]

The people are said to have come from hunters that would move from place to place at times.[6]

Currently, George van Driem is working towards the completion of a description of Gongduk based on his work with native speakers in the Gongduk area.[5]

Classification[edit]

George van Driem (2001:870)[7] proposes that the Greater Bumthang (East Bodish) languages, including Bumthang, Khengkha, and Kurtöp, may have a Gongduk substratum. Gongduk itself may also have a non-Tibeto-Burman substrate.

Gerber (2018)[8] notes that Gongduk has had extensive contact with Black Mountain Mönpa before the arrival of East Bodish languages in Bhutan. Gongduk also has many Tshangla loanwords. The following comparative vocabulary table from Gerber (2018: 13-16) compares Gongduk, Black Mountain Mönpa, and Bjokapakha, which is a divergent Tshangla variety.

Gloss Gongduk Black Mountain Mönpa Bjokapakha
hair (on head) θɤm guluŋ tsham
tongue dəli ’liː
eye mik mek ~ mik miŋ
ear nərəŋ naktaŋ nabali
tooth ɤn ’aː ~ waː sha
bone rukɤŋ ɦɤtphok ~ yöphok khaŋ-
blood winiʔ kɔk yi
hand/arm gur lɤk ~ lok gadaŋ
leg/foot bidɤʔ dɤkpɛŋ ~ tɛ̤kɛŋ bitiŋ
faeces ki cok khɨ
water dɤŋli cö, khe ri
rain ghö ŋamtsu
dog oki cüla ~ khula khu
pig don pɔk phakpa
fish kuŋwə nye̤ ŋa
louse dɤr θæːk shiŋ
bear bekpələ wɤm ~ wom omsha
son ledə bæθaː za
house kiŋ mhiː̤ ~ mhe̤ː phai
fire mi ’aːmik ~ ’aːmit
to hear lə yu- goː- nai tha
to see tɤŋ- tuŋ- thoŋ-
to look məl- ~ mɤt- mak- gotto
to sit mi- ~ mu- buŋ- ~ bæŋ- laŋ-
to die komθ- θɛː- ~ θɛʔ- shi-
to kill tɤt- θüt- ~ θut- ~ θit- she-
1sg pronoun ðə jaŋ
2sg pronoun gi nan
3sg pronoun gon hoʔma (mas.); hoʔmet (fem.) dan
1pl pronoun ðiŋ ɔŋdat (incl.); anak (excl.) ai
2pl pronoun giŋ iŋnak nai
3pl pronoun gonmə hoʔoŋ dai

Grammar[edit]

Morphology[edit]

Gongduk has productive suffixal morphology (van Driem 2014).[9]

<-məˀtⁿ> ‘plural suffix in human nouns’

Examples:

  • oloˀŋməˀtⁿ ‘children’ < oloˀk ‘child’ + -məˀtⁿ
  • ŋidɤməˀtⁿ ‘people’ < ŋidɤ ‘person’ + -məˀtⁿ
  • aroˀŋməˀtⁿ ‘friends’ < aroˀk ‘friend’ + -məˀtⁿ


However, non-human plural nouns do not take on any suffixes, and remain the same:

  • kurtə ‘horse, horses’
  • kəitɤ ‘bird, birds’
  • kiŋ ‘house, houses’


<-e ~ -ðe ~ -θe> ‘ergative and possessive suffix’

Examples:

  • bɤʔlɤpə-e ‘the people of Bɤʔlɤ [ergative]’
  • choŋnən-ðe me ‘the seed of the maize’
  • nor-θe taɦ ‘meat of the cow [beef]’
  • rek-θe rukɤŋ ‘head bone [skull]’
  • aroʔk-te-θe ‘the friend [ergative]’
  • əp drəkpə-e ‘Ap Drakpa [ergative]’
  • θok-θe əkəm ‘egg of offering (sacrificial egg)’
  • lei-ti-ðe juʔmə ‘after one month’


<-gi> ‘ablative suffix’

Examples:

  • ðiŋ goŋduʔ-gi əna ‘We are from Gongduk’
  • nikkələŋ-gi ‘by way of the stairs’
  • dəkθə-gi ‘from Daksa’
  • kidu-gi ‘as a kidu [government gift]’
  • bɤʔlɤ-gi ‘from Bɤʔlɤ’
  • deŋkəle wɤŋ-gi ‘from Dengkalé Dale’
  • doʔmoŋ-gi ‘from "Black Roof" village’
  • phəjoŋ pəm-gi ‘from Phajong Pam’


<-gu ~ -go ~ -ku ~-ko> ‘dative / locative suffix’

Examples:

  • gərəŋ-go ‘to whom’
  • ohaŋ duʔ-gu ‘in that village’
  • rek-ko ‘to [his] head’
  • ðə-go ‘to me’
  • jə-go ‘to India’
  • gaoŋ-go ‘whereto, where precisely’
  • pəkpək-ko ‘at times, sometimes’
  • thimphu-gu ‘to Thimphu’

Demonstratives[edit]

Gongduk demonstratives precede head nouns.[9]

ohaŋ ‘that (demonstrative)’

Examples:

  • ohaŋ ŋidɤ ‘that person’
  • ohaŋ koŋ ‘that tree’
  • ohaŋ duʔgu ‘in that village’

Personal pronouns[edit]

Gongduk has the following personal pronoun paradigm.[9]

singular (absolutive) singular (ergative & genitive) plural (absolutive) plural (ergative & genitive) dual (absolutive) dual (ergative & genitive)
first person ðə ðe ðiŋ ðiŋ, ðiŋ ŋəŋpoe
second person gi gi giŋ giŋ, giŋ ŋəŋpoe
third person gon gonðe gonmə gonməe, gonma ŋəŋpoe
inclusive iθi, iθirəŋ gəŋpo dei, dei gəŋpoe

van Driem (2014) compares the Gongduk first person singular personal pronoun ðə 'I, me' to Kathmandu Newar dʑiː ~ dʑĩ- 'I, me' and Tshangla dʑaŋ ~ dʑi- ~ dʑiŋ- 'I, me'. He also compares the Gongduk first person plural personal pronoun ðiŋ 'we, us' to Kathmandu Newar dʑʰai ~ dʑʰĩ- 'we, us'.

Vocabulary[edit]

The Gongduk words and phrases below are from van Driem (2014).[9]

Basic vocabulary[edit]

  • rek ‘head’
  • rukɤŋ ‘bone’
  • əŋ ‘language, mouth’
  • dɤŋli ‘water’
  • wɤ ‘rain’
  • yər ‘cliff’
  • dɤ ‘salt’
  • ɤn ‘tooth’
  • koŋ ‘tree’
  • diŋ ‘wood’
  • me ‘seed’
  • dola ‘cooked Setaria or rice’
  • choŋnən ‘maize’
  • ɤwɤ ‘banana’
  • taɦ ‘meat’
  • wərə ‘highland paddy, ghaiyā’
  • khərəŋ ‘cooked Panicum or maize’
  • don ‘pig’
  • nor ‘cow’
  • kurtə ‘horse’
  • kəitɤ ‘bird’
  • əkəm ‘egg’
  • jə ‘day (24-hour period)’
  • lei ‘month’
  • oloʔk ‘child’
  • ŋidɤ ‘person’
  • aroʔk ‘friend’
  • duʔ ‘village’
  • kiŋ ‘house’
  • nikkələŋ ‘stairs’
  • θok ‘offering’
  • goŋduʔ ‘Gongduk’

Numerals[edit]

  • ti ‘1’
  • niktsə ‘2’
  • towə ‘3’
  • diyə, piyə ‘4’
  • ŋəwə ‘5’
  • qukpə ‘6’
  • ðukpə ‘7’
  • yitpə, hetpə ‘8’
  • ɢuwə ‘9’
  • deyə ‘10’
  • deθəti ‘11’
  • deθəniktsə ‘12’
  • deθətowə ‘13’
  • khəe ‘score (20)’
  • khəe ŋəwə ‘five score, i.e. one hundred’

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

  • gərəŋ ‘who’
  • gərəe ‘whose’
  • θəpo ‘what’
  • ko ‘when’
  • gaoŋ ‘where, whither’
  • qəti ‘how much, how many’
  • gainəŋ ‘which, whence’
  • qətigu ‘at what time’
  • θəu, θəudi ‘why, how come’
  • gora, gorapəm ‘how, in which way’
  • ohaŋ ‘that (demonstrative)’

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gongduk at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gongduk". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "Gongduk". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  4. ^ a b Blench, R. & Post, M. W. (2013). Rethinking Sino-Tibetan phylogeny from the perspective of Northeast Indian languages
  5. ^ a b Himalayan Languages Project. "Gongduk". Himalayan Languages Project. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  6. ^ "Languages and Ethnic Groups of Bhutan". www.languagesgulper.com. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  7. ^ van Driem, George. 2001. Languages of the Himalayas. Leiden: Brill
  8. ^ Gerber, Pascal. 2018. Areal features in Gongduk, Bjokapakha and Black Mountain Mönpa phonology. Unpublished draft.
  9. ^ a b c d van Driem, George. 2014. Gongduk Nominal Morphology and the phylogenetic position of Gongduk. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 16 July 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dzongkha Development Authority; Dasho Sangay Dorji; Col. Wangdi Tshering; Namgay Thinley; Gyembo Dorji; Phuntsho Wangdi; Lekyi Tshering; Sangay Phuntsho (2005). དགོང་འདུས་རྫོང་ཁ་ཨིན་སྐད་ཤན་སྦྱར་ཚིག་མཛོད། (Gongduk-Dzongkha-English Dictionary). Thimphu: Dzongkha Development Authority. p. 115. ISBN 99936-663-1-9. 
  • van Driem, George L; et al. (Karma Tshering of Gaselô) (1998). Dzongkha. Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region. Leiden: Research School CNWS, School of Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies. pp. 32–33. ISBN 90-5789-002-X. 
  • van Driem, George L (2007). "Endangered languages of Bhutan and Sikkim". In Brenzinger, Matthias. Language diversity endangered. Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 314–15. ISBN 3-11-017050-7. 
  • van Driem, George. 2014. Gongduk Nominal Morphology and the phylogenetic position of Gongduk. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 16 July 2014.

External links[edit]