Angle of the mandible
|Angle of the mandible|
Human skull. Position of angle of the mandible shown in red.
1870s American male skull. The angle of the mandible is visible just above the white number.
The angle of the mandible, which may be either inverted or everted, is marked by rough, oblique ridges on each side, for the attachment of the masseter laterally, and the pterygoideus internus (medial pterygoid muscle) medially; the stylomandibular ligament is attached to the angle between these muscles.
The forensic term for the midpoint of the mandibular angle is the gonion. The gonion is a cephalometric landmark located at the lowest, posterior, and lateral point on the angle.This site is at the apex of the maximum curvature of the mandible, where the ascending ramus becomes the body of the mandible.
The mandibular angle has been named as a forensic tool for gender determination, but recent studies have called into question whether there is any significant sex difference in humans in the angle.
Mandible bone. Position of angle shown in red.
- Upadhyay, RB; et al. (January 2012). "Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods.". PubMed.
- Gungor, Kahraman; et al. (2007). "Evaluation of the Gonial Angle in the Anatolian Populations: From Past to Present" (PDF).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Angle of the mandible.|
- lesson4 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University)
- Anatomy photo:34:st-0202 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Oral Cavity: Bones"
- Anatomy diagram: 34256.000-2 at Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, Elsevier
- Anatomy image: skel/mandible2 at Human Anatomy Lecture (Biology 129), Pennsylvania State University
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