Gonorynchiformes

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Gonorynchiformes
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous - Recent
Milkfish.jpg
Milkfish, Chanos chanos
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Superorder: Ostariophysi
Order: Gonorynchiformes
L. S. Berg, 1940
Families

Chanidae (milkfish)
Gonorynchidae (beaked salmons)
Kneriidae (shellears)
Phractolaemidae (hingemouths)

The Gonorynchiformes are an order of ray-finned fish that includes the important food source, the milkfish (Chanos chanos, family Chanidae), and a number of lesser-known types, both marine and freshwater.

The alternate spelling "Gonorhynchiformes", with an "h", is frequently seen but not official.

Gonorynchiformes have small mouths and no teeth. They are the sole group in the clade Anotophysi, a subgroup of the superorder Ostariophysi. They are characterized by a primitive Weberian apparatus formed by the first three vertebrae and one or more cephalic ribs within the head. This apparatus is believed to be a hearing organ, and is found in a more advanced and complex form in the related cypriniform fish, such as carp.[1] Also like the cypriniforms, the gonorynchiforms produce a substance from their skin when injured that dissolves into the water and acts an alarm signal to other fish.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Although many of the families are rather small, there are several fossil genera. This listing of the groups of Gonorynchiformes includes fossil fish with a short description.[1] They are listed in approximate order of how primitive their characteristics are.

Phylogeny of living Gonorynchiformes[3]
Gonorynchiformes
Gonorynchidae

Gonorynchus

Chanidae

Chanos

Kneriidae
Phractolaeminae

Phractolaemus

Kneriinae

Kneria

Parakneria

Cromeriini

Cromeria

Grasseichthys

Timeline of genera[edit]

QuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneCretaceousHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneLate CretaceousEarly CretaceousNeohalecopsisChanos chanosNotogoneusCoelogasterHalecopsisCharitosomusSalminopsLusitanichthysRamallichthysJudeichthysCharitopsis (fish)CaeusTharrhiasDastilbeChanopsisRubiesichthysAethalionopsisQuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneCretaceousHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneLate CretaceousEarly Cretaceous

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
  2. ^ Banister, Keith F. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  3. ^ Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburga, Matt Friedman (2014): Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.07.013
  4. ^ Mikko Haaramo. "Gonorynchiformes". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 2013-10-26.