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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: protista
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Order: Gonyaulacales
Genus: Gonyaulax

Gonyaulax polyedra

Gonyaulax is a genus of Dinoflagellates with the type species Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède et Lachmann) Diesing. Gonyaulax belongs to red dinoflagellates and commonly causes red tides.[1]

The plate formula in the genus Gonyaulax Diesing was redefined as Po, 3’, 2a, 6”, 6c, 4-8s, 5’”, 1p, 1”” [2]

Gonyaulax spinifera has been related to production of Yessotoxins (YTXs), a group of structurally related polyether toxins, which can accumulate in shellfish and can produce symptoms similar to those produced by Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins.[3]

All species are marine, except for one freshwater species Gonyaulax apiculata.[2]

It previously included several species, which are now considered to belong to a separate genus, e.g. Gonyaulax tamarensis (now: Alexandrium tamarense), Gonyaulax grindleyi (now Protoceratium reticulatum) and Gonyaulax polyedra (now: Lingulodinium polyedrum).[2]


  1. ^ Rollo, Franco; Sassarolil, Stefano; Boni, Laurita; Marota, Isolina (1995-04-28). AQUATIC MICROBIAL ECOLOGY (Aquat microb Eco 9) (PDF) 9. Camerino, Italy. p. 55. Retrieved 2015-04-25. 
  2. ^ a b c Dodge J.D. 1989. Some revisions of the family Gonyaulacaceae (Dinophyceae) based on scanning electron microscope study. Bot. Mar. 32: 275-298.
  3. ^ Paz et al. 2008. Yessotoxins, a Group of Marine Polyether Toxins: an Overview. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 73-102; DOI: 10.3390/md20080005

Further reading[edit]