Good Wife, Wise Mother
Derived from an idealized traditional role for women, the four-character phrase Good Wife, Wise Mother or Wise Wife, Good Mother (Japanese: 良妻賢母, Hepburn: ryōsai kenbo, Chinese: 賢妻良母/賢母良妻; pinyin: xián qī liáng mù/xián mù liáng qī) was coined by Nakamura Masanao in 1875.
It represented the ideal for womanhood in the East Asian area like Japan, China and Korea in the late 1800s and early 1900s and its effects continue to the modern day. Women were expected to master domestic skills such as sewing and cooking, as well as develop the moral and intellectual skills to raise strong, intelligent sons for the sake of the nation.
Childbearing was considered a "patriotic duty", and although in Japan this philosophy declined after World War II, feminist historians have argued it existed in Japan even as recently as the 1980s.
Traditionally in Chinese feudal society, a wife must consider her husband's family more important than her own. This sentiment is prevalent to this day, particularly in the rural areas. The relationship between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law and the relationship between father and son is more important than the relationship between husband and wife. A wife must always be submissive to her husband, and she can neither be offensive nor jealous. The husband has duties outside of the home and the wife has duties inside, and they do not interfere with the tasks of each other. To fulfill the role of "good wife, wise mother," the woman must educate her children accordingly. Since Chinese families puts emphasis on prosperity, a wife should also not only be fertile, she need to produce sons and educate them so that they can succeed in the society.
The phrase "good wife, wise mother" appeared in the latter part of the Meiji period in the late 19th century. During World War II it was taught to promote conservative, nationalistic, and militaristic state policies and to help a developing capitalistic economy. From the late 1890s to the end of World War II, the phrase became increasingly prevalent in mass media and higher levels of public and private girl's schools. During the 1890s, "good wife and wise mother" was taught only in the higher levels where elite, upper-class girls attended. It was introduced to elementary schools’ curriculum when the 1911 revision of the ethics textbooks came out.
Women were taught to fulfill this role because of nationalism. The Empire wanted to prevent Western invasion. When Western countries were making improvements in women's social rights, such as suffrage, Japan was just beginning to confront women's movements. Japan tried to establish the woman's role and control new social movements through regularized education and prohibiting social and political rights.
Currently, the phrase has conflicting meanings. While some people use it to refer to a woman having good motherly and wife characters, many others use it to criticize prejudice against women. In fact, the phrase was derogatory in its origin. Recent years have witnessed a derogatory trend.
For feminists, the idea of "Good Wife, Wise Mother" disguises the real intention of denial of women's equity in education, profession, and marriage.
- Barefoot and pregnant
- Bluestocking (magazine)
- Kinder, Küche, Kirche
- Proverbs 31 (eshet chayil)
- Three Obediences and Four Virtues
- Yamato nadeshiko
- Women in Japan
- Women in China
- Women in Taiwan
- Women in South Korea
- See Sharon Sievers, Flowers in Salt: The Beginnings of a Feminist Consciousness in Modern Japan, 1983, 22.
- McLelland, Mark (January 2010). "Constructing the 'Modern Couple' in Occupied Japan". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific (23). ISSN 1440-9151.
- Fengxian, Wang (2012). "The "Good Wife And Wise Mother" As A Social Discourse Of Gender". Chinese Studies in History. 45 (4): 58–70. doi:10.2753/csh0009-4633450404.
- Fujimura-Fanselow, Kumiko. "The Japanese Ideology of ‘Good Wives and Wise Mothers’: Trends in Contemporary Research." Gender and History 3.3 (1991): 345-349. 2 Apr 2007. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.
- Nocedo, Ana Micaela Araújo. "The "Good Wife and Wise Mother" Pattern: Gender Differences in Today‘s Japanese Society." Crítica Contemporánea. Revista De Teoría Politica 2 (Nov 2012): 1-14. Web. 19 Nov. 2014.
- Lu, Xun (2006). Tombs. Beijing, China: People's Literature Publishing House. ISBN 9787020058358.
- Making Village Women into "Good Wives and Wise Mothers" in Prewar Japan