The Googleplex, Google's original and largest corporate campus
|Founded||September 4, 1998
Menlo Park, California
|Headquarters||Googleplex, Mountain View, California, U.S.|
|Products||List of Google products|
|Revenue||US$66.001 billion (2014)|
|US$16.496 billion (2014)|
|US$14.444 billion (2014)|
|Total assets||US$131.133 billion (2014)|
|Total equity||US$104.5 billion (2014)|
Number of employees
|57,148 (Q2 2015)|
|Subsidiaries||List of subsidiaries|
|Footnotes / references
Google Inc. is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of its profits are derived from AdWords, an online advertising service that places advertising near the list of search results.
Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares but control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. Its mission statement from the outset was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful," and its unofficial slogan was "Don't be evil". In 2004, Google moved to its new headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its interests as a holding company called Alphabet Inc. When this restructuring took place on October 2, 2015, Google became Alphabet's leading subsidiary, as well as the parent for Google's Internet interests.
Rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers online productivity software including email (Gmail), a cloud storage service (Google Drive), an office suite (Google Docs) and a social networking service (Google+). Desktop products include applications for web browsing (Google Chrome), organizing and editing photos, and instant messaging. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system and the browser-only Chrome OS for a class of netbooks known as Chromebooks. Google has moved increasingly into communications hardware: it partners with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its "high-quality low-cost" Nexus devices and acquired Motorola Mobility in May 2012. In 2012, a fiber-optic infrastructure was installed in Kansas City to facilitate a Google Fiber broadband service.
The corporation has been estimated to run more than one million servers in data centers around the world (as of 2007). It processes over one billion search requests and about 24 petabytes of user-generated data each day (as of 2009). In December 2013, Alexa listed google.com as the most visited website in the world. Numerous Google sites in other languages figure in the top one hundred, as do several other Google-owned sites such as YouTube and Blogger. Its market dominance has led to prominent media coverage, including criticism of the company over issues such as search neutrality, copyright, censorship, and privacy.
- 1 History
- 2 Products and services
- 3 Corporate affairs and culture
- 4 Criticism and controversy
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites. They called this new technology PageRank; it determined a website's relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages, that linked back to the original site.
Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Eventually, they changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word "googol", the number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine was intended to provide large quantities of information. Originally, Google ran under Stanford University's website, with the domains google.stanford.edu and z.stanford.edu.
The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in the garage of a friend (Susan Wojcicki) in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee.
In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed one billion for the first time, an 8.4 percent increase from May 2010 (931 million). In January 2013, Google announced it had earned US$50 billion in annual revenue for the year of 2012. This marked the first time the company had reached this feat, topping their 2011 total of $38 billion.
The company has reported fourth quarter (Dec 2014) Earnings Per Share (EPS) of $6.88 – $0.20 under projections. Revenue came in at $14.5 billion (16.9% growth year over year), also under expectations by $110 million.
Financing, 1998 and initial public offering, 2004
The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was incorporated. Early in 1999, while graduate students, Brin and Page decided that the search engine they had developed was taking up too much time and distracting their academic pursuits. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million. He rejected the offer and later criticized Vinod Khosla, one of Excite's venture capitalists, after he negotiated Brin and Page down to $750,000. On June 7, 1999, a $25 million round of funding was announced, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital.
Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later on August 19, 2004. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024. The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. Shares were sold in an online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the deal. The sale of $1.67 bn (billion) gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23bn. By January 2014, its market capitalization had grown to $397bn. The vast majority of the 271 million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefited because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google before the IPO took place.
There were concerns that Google's IPO would lead to changes in company culture. Reasons ranged from shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant paper millionaires. As a reply to this concern, co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised in a report to potential investors that the IPO would not change the company's culture. In 2005, articles in The New York Times and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy. In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on: a flat organization with a collaborative environment. Google has also faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees. In 2013, a class action against several Silicon Valley companies, including Google, was filed for alleged "no cold call" agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees.
The stock performed well after the IPO, with shares hitting $700 for the first time on October 31, 2007, primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market. The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds. The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbols GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1. These ticker symbols will refer to Alphabet Inc., Google's holding company, in the fourth quarter of 2015.
In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California, which is home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology startups. The next year, against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords. In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed, advertisements were solely text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs, with bidding starting at five cents per click.
This model of selling keyword advertising was first pioneered by Goto.com, an Idealab spin-off created by Bill Gross. When the company changed names to Overture Services, it sued Google over alleged infringements of the company's pay-per-click and bidding patents. Overture Services would later be bought by Yahoo! and renamed Yahoo! Search Marketing. The case was then settled out of court; Google agreed to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license.
In 2001, Google received a patent for its PageRank mechanism. The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. The Googleplex interiors were designed by Clive Wilkinson Architects. Three years later, Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet".
The immense popularity of the search engine has led its fans calling themselves 'Googlists' as they follow 'Googlism', the new religion. Devotees of Google have found a non-profit online organization The Church of Google, a website where they worship the search engine giant. The New York Times had discussed the topic "Is Google God?" under its 'opinion' category. On the Internet, there are many blogs that even mention the reasons why Google is God.
Google announced the launch of a new company called Calico on September 19, 2013, which will be led by Apple chairman Arthur Levinson. In the official public statement, Page explained that the "health and wellbeing" company will focus on "the challenge of ageing and associated diseases".
As of September 2013, Google operates 70 offices in more than 40 countries. Google celebrated its 15-year anniversary on September 27, 2013, although it has used other dates for its official birthday. The reason for the choice of September 27 remains unclear, and a dispute with rival search engine Yahoo! Search in 2005 has been suggested as the cause.
The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) was launched in October 2013 and Google is part of the coalition of public and private organisations that also includes Facebook, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google will help to decrease Internet access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.
The corporation's consolidated revenue for the third quarter of 2013 is reported in mid-October 2013 as $14.89 billion, a 12 percent increase compared to the previous quarter. Google's Internet business was responsible for $10.8 billion of this total, with an increase in the number of users' clicks on advertisements.
In November 2013, Google announced plans for a new 1-million-sq-ft (93,000 sq m) office in London, which is due to open in 2016. The new premises will be able to accommodate 4,500 employees and has been identified as one of the biggest ever commercial property acquisitions in Britain.
In October 2014, according to the Interbrand ranking, Google was the second most valuable brand in the world (behind Apple) with a valuation of $107.4 billion. A Millward Brown report from the same year puts the Google brand ahead of Apple's at #1.
Acquisitions and partnerships
Since 2001, Google has acquired many companies, primarily small venture capital-funded firms. In 2004, Google acquired Keyhole, Inc. The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer that gave a three-dimensional view of the Earth. Google renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005. Google acquired Urchin Software in April 2005, using their 'Urchin on Demand' product (along with ideas from Adaptive Path's 'Measure Map') to create Google Analytics in 2006.
In October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006. Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 YouTube revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.
On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, giving Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies. Later that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral for $50 million. The site would later be changed over to Google Voice. On August 5, 2009, Google bought out its first public company, purchasing video software maker On2 Technologies for $106.5 million. Google also acquired Aardvark, a social network search engine, for $50 million, and commented on its internal blog, "we're looking forward to collaborating to see where we can take it". In April 2010, Google announced it had acquired a hardware startup, Agnilux.
In addition to the many companies Google has purchased, the company has partnered with other organizations for research, advertising, and other activities. In 2005, Google partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to build 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of offices. The offices would be used for research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry. Google entered into a partnership with Sun Microsystems in October 2005 to help share and distribute each other's technologies.
The company also partnered with AOL to enhance each other's video search services. Google's 2005 partnerships also included financing the new .mobi top-level domain for mobile devices, along with other companies including Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericsson. Google would later launch "AdSense for Mobile", taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market. Increasing its advertising reach even further, Google and Fox Interactive Media of News Corporation entered into a $900 million agreement to provide search and advertising on the then-popular social networking site MySpace.
In 2007, Google began sponsoring NORAD Tracks Santa, displacing former sponsor AOL. NORAD Tracks Santa purports to follow Santa Claus' progress on Christmas Eve, using Google Earth to "track Santa" in 3-D for the first time. Google-owned YouTube gave NORAD Tracks Santa its own channel.
In 2008, Google developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on September 6, 2008. Google also announced in 2008 that it was hosting an archive of Life Magazine's photographs. Some images in the archive were never published in the magazine. The photos were watermarked and originally had copyright notices posted on all photos, regardless of public domain status.
In 2010, Google Energy made its first investment in a renewable energy project, putting $38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The company announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of power, enough to supply 55,000 homes. The farms, which were developed by NextEra Energy Resources, will reduce fossil fuel use in the region and return profits. NextEra Energy Resources sold Google a twenty-percent stake in the project to get funding for its development. In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authorization to buy and sell energy at market rates. The order specifically states that Google Energy—a subsidiary of Google—holds the rights "for the sale of energy, capacity, and ancillary services at market-based rates", but acknowledges that neither Google Energy nor its affiliates "own or control any generation or transmission" facilities. The corporation exercised this authorization in September 2013 when it announced that it will purchase all the electricity produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt Happy Hereford wind farm.
Also in 2010, Google purchased Global IP Solutions, a Norway-based company that provides web-based teleconferencing and other related services. This acquisition enabled Google to add telephone-style services to its list of products. On May 27, 2010, Google announced it had also closed the acquisition of the mobile ad network AdMob. This occurred days after the Federal Trade Commission closed its investigation into the purchase. Google acquired the company for an undisclosed amount. In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy 114 megawatts of energy for 20 years.
On August 15, 2011, Google made its largest-ever acquisition to-date when it announced that it would acquire Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion subject to approval from regulators in the United States and Europe. In a post on Google's blog, Google Chief Executive and co-founder Larry Page revealed that the acquisition was a strategic move to strengthen Google's patent portfolio. The company's Android operating system has come under fire in an industry-wide patent battle, as Apple and Microsoft have sued Android device makers such as HTC, Samsung, and Motorola. The merger was completed on May 22, 2012, after the approval of People's Republic of China.
This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola's considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies to help protect it in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies, mainly Apple and Microsoft, and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android. After the acquisition closed, Google began to restructure the Motorola business to fit Google's strategy. On August 13, 2012, Google announced plans to lay off 4000 Motorola Mobility employees. On December 10, 2012, Google sold the manufacturing operations of Motorola Mobility to Flextronics for $75 million. As a part of the agreement, Flextronics will manufacture undisclosed Android and other mobile devices. On December 19, 2012, Google sold the Motorola Home business division of Motorola Mobility to Arris Group for $2.35 billion in a cash-and-stock transaction. As a part of this deal, Google acquired a 15.7% stake in Arris Group valued at $300 million.
On June 5, 2012, Google announced it acquired Quickoffice, a company widely known for their mobile productivity suite for both iOS and Android. Google plans to integrate Quickoffice's technology into its own product suite.
On February 6, 2013, Google announced it had acquired Channel Intelligence for $125 million. Channel Intelligence, a technology company that helps customers buy products online, is active globally in 31 different countries and works with over 850 retailers. Google will use this technology to enhance its e-commerce business.
Following the acquisition of Waze, Google submitted a "10-Q" filing with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) that revealed that the corporation spent $1.3 billion on acquisitions during the first half of 2013. The filing also revealed that the Waze acquisition cost Google $966 million, instead of the $1.1 billion figure that was initially presented in media sources.
The 2012 acquisition of WIMM Labs, a company that previously made an Android-powered smartwatch, was confirmed in August 2013. As of August 31, 2013, Google has not publicly commented on the news concerning WIMM Labs. The acquisition of Flutter, a creator of hand gesture recognition technology, was confirmed by the corporation in early October 2013. The reported price is $40 million and Google spokesperson stated: "We're really impressed by the Flutter team's ability to design new technology based on cutting-edge research." Flutter's technology allows users to enact hand gestures to control navigation for apps such as iTunes, Windows Media Player, and Winamp.
On January 26, 2014, Google Inc. announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. DeepMind describes itself as having the ability to combine the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build general-purpose learning algorithms. DeepMind's first commercial applications were used in simulations, e-commerce and games. As of December 2013, it was reported that DeepMind had roughly 75 employees. The technology news website Re/code reported that the company was purchased for $400 million though it was not disclosed where the information came from. A Google spokesman would not comment of the price. The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google's recent growth in the artificial intelligence and robotics community.
On January 29, 2014, Google announced it was selling its Motorola Mobility unit to China-based Lenovo, for $2.91bn. The company kept the extensive patent collection used to develop Android products, considered the most valuable part of the original deal. Nonetheless, the sale price was significantly less than the $12.5 billion Google had bought Motorola Mobility for. The $2.91bn price tag consisted of $660 million in cash, $750 million in Lenovo ordinary shares, and a $1.5 billion 3-year promissory note.
Google data centers
As of 2014[update], Google Inc. owned and operated six Google Modular Data Centers across the U.S., one in Chile, one in Finland, one in Ireland, one in Belgium, one in Singapore and one on Taiwan. In 2011, the company had announced plans to build three data centers at a cost of more than $200 million in Asia (Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan) and said they would be operational within two years. In December 2013, Google announced that it had scrapped the plan to build a data center in Hong Kong.
In October 2013, The Washington Post reported that the U.S. National Security Agency intercepted communications between Google's data centers, as part of a program named MUSCULAR. This wiretapping was made possible because Google did not encrypt data passed inside its own network. Google began encrypting data sent between data centers in 2013.
On August 10, 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a holding company, Alphabet Inc., with Google as its leading subsidiary. Google will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google.
Products and services
For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported $10.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only $112 million in licensing and other revenues. In 2011, 96% of Google's revenue was derived from its advertising programs. In addition to its own algorithms for understanding search requests, Google uses technology from the company DoubleClick, to project user interest and target advertising to the search context and the user history.
Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website, for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page. Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. The sister service, Google AdSense, allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website and earn money every time ads are clicked.
One of the criticisms of this program is the possibility of click fraud, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being interested in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were fraudulent or invalid.
In February 2003, Google stopped showing the advertisements of Oceana, a non-profit organization protesting a major cruise ship's sewage treatment practices. Google cited its editorial policy at the time, stating "Google does not accept advertising if the ad or site advocates against other individuals, groups, or organizations." The policy was later changed. In June 2008, Google reached an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages. The alliance between the two companies was never completely realized because of antitrust concerns by the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result, Google pulled out of the deal in November 2008.
According to market research published by comScore in November 2009, Google Search is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a market share of 65.6%. Google indexes billions of web pages, so that users can search for the information they desire through the use of keywords and operators.
In 2003, The New York Times complained about Google's indexing, claiming that Google's caching of content on its site infringed its copyright for the content. In this case, the United States District Court of Nevada ruled in favor of Google in Field v. Google and Parker v. Google. The publication 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has compiled a list of words that the web giant's new instant search feature will not search.
Google Watch has criticized Google's PageRank algorithms, saying that they discriminate against new websites and favor established sites. The site has also alleged that there are connections between Google and the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Google also hosts Google Books. The company began scanning books and uploading limited previews, and full books where allowed, into its new book search engine. The Authors Guild, a group that represents 8,000 U.S. authors, filed a class action suit in a New York City federal court against Google in 2005 over this service. Google replied that it is in compliance with all existing and historical applications of copyright laws regarding books. Google eventually reached a revised settlement in 2009 to limit its scans to books from the U.S., the UK, Australia, and Canada. Furthermore, the Paris Civil Court ruled against Google in late 2009, asking it to remove the works of La Martinière (Éditions du Seuil) from its database. In competition with Amazon.com, Google sells digital versions of new books.
On July 21, 2010, in response to Bing, Google updated its image search to display a streaming sequence of thumbnails that enlarge when pointed at. Though web searches still appear in a batch per page format, on July 23, 2010, dictionary definitions for certain English words began appearing above the linked results for web searches.
The "Hummingbird" update to the Google search engine was announced in September 2013. The update was introduced over the month prior to the announcement and allows users ask the search engine a question in natural language rather than entering keywords into the search box.
Gmail, a free webmail service provided by Google, was launched as an invitation-only beta program on April 1, 2004, and became available to the public on February 7, 2007. The service was upgraded from beta status on July 7, 2009, at which time it had 146 million users monthly. The service was the first online email service with one gigabyte of storage. It was also the first to keep emails from the same conversation together in one thread, similar to an Internet forum. The service offers over 15 GB of free storage, shared with other Google Apps, with additional storage ranging from 20 GB to 16 TB available for $0.25 per 1 GB per year.
Gmail uses AJAX, a programming technique that allows web pages to be interactive without refreshing the browser. Steve Ballmer (Microsoft's former CEO), Liz Figueroa, Mark Rasch, and the editors of Google Watch have criticised the privacy of Gmail, but Google claims that mail sent to or from Gmail is never read by a human being beyond the account holder and is only used to improve relevance of advertisements.
In 2004, Google started open source software project hosting, called Google Code, which allows developers to download in-development programs at no charge. Google Drive, another part of Google's productivity suite, allows users to create, edit, and collaborate on documents in an online environment, similar to Microsoft Word. The service was originally called Writely, but was obtained by Google on March 9, 2006, and was released as an invitation-only preview. On June 6 after the acquisition, Google created an experimental spreadsheet editing program, which was combined with Google Docs on October 10.
Google for Work is a service from Google that provides customizable enterprise versions of several Google products using a domain name provided by the customer. It features several Web applications with similar functionality to traditional office suites, including Gmail, Hangouts, Google Calendar, Drive, Docs, Sheets, Slides, Groups, News, Play, Sites, and Vault. It was the vision of Rajen Sheth, a Google employee who later developed Chromebooks.
Google Search Appliance was launched in February 2002, targeted toward providing search technology for larger organizations. Google launched the Mini three years later, which was targeted at smaller organizations. Late in 2006, Google began to sell Custom Search Business Edition, providing customers with an advertising-free window into Google.com's index. The service was renamed Google Site Search in 2008.
Google Apps allows organizations to bring Google's web application offerings, such as Gmail and Google Docs, into their own domains. The service is available in several editions: a basic free edition (formerly known as Google Apps Standard edition), Google Apps for Business, Google Apps for Education, and Google Apps for Government. In the same year Google Apps was launched, Google acquired Postini and proceeded to integrate the company's security technologies into Google Apps under the name Google Postini Services.
Google Translate is a server-side machine translation service, which can translate between 80 different languages. For some languages, handwriting recognition, or speech recognition can be used as input, and translated text can be pronounced through speech synthesis. The software uses corpus linguistics techniques, where the program "learns" from professionally translated documents, specifically UN and European Parliament proceedings.
Google launched its Google News service in 2002, an automated service which summarizes news articles from various websites. In March 2005, Agence France Presse (AFP) sued Google for copyright infringement in federal court in the District of Columbia, a case which Google settled for an undisclosed amount in a pact that included a license of the full text of AFP articles for use on Google News.
In 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project, with plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more American cities. On March 30, 2011, Google announced that Kansas City, Kansas would be the first community where the new network would be deployed. In July 2012, Google completed the construction of a fiber-optic broadband Internet network infrastructure in Kansas City, and after building an infrastructure, Google announced pricing for Google Fiber. The service will offer three options including a free broadband Internet option, a 1Gbit/s Internet option for $70 per month, and a version that includes television service for $120 per month.
In 2007, reports surfaced that Google was planning the release of its own mobile phone, possibly a competitor to Apple's iPhone. The project, called Android, turned out not to be a phone but an operating system for mobile devices, which Google acquired and then released as an open source project under the Apache 2.0 license. Google provides a software development kit for developers so applications can be created to be run on Android-based phones. In September 2008, T-Mobile released the G1, the first Android-based phone. On January 5, 2010, Google released an Android phone under its own company name called the Nexus One. A report in July 2013 stated that Google's share of the global smartphone market, led by Samsung products, was 64% in March 2013.
Other projects Google has worked on include a new collaborative communication service, a web browser, and a mobile operating system. The first of these was first announced on May 27, 2009. The company described Google Wave as a product that helps users communicate and collaborate on the web. The service is Google's "email redesigned", with realtime editing, the ability to embed audio, video, and other media, and extensions that further enhance the communication experience. Google Wave was initially in a developer's preview, where interested users had to be invited to test the service, but was released to the public on May 19, 2010, at Google's I/O keynote. On September 1, 2008, Google pre-announced the upcoming availability of Google Chrome, an open source web browser, which was then released on September 2, 2008. On July 7, 2009, Google announced Google Chrome OS, an open source Linux-based operating system that includes only a web browser and is designed to log users into their Google account.
Google Goggles is a mobile application available on Android and iOS used for image recognition and non-text-based search. In addition to scanning QR codes, the app can recognize historic landmarks, import business cards, and solve Sudoku puzzles. While Goggles could originally identify people as well, Google has limited that functionality as a privacy protection.
In 2011, Google announced Google Wallet, a mobile application for wireless payments. In late June 2011, Google soft-launched a social networking service called Google+. On July 14, 2011, Google announced that Google+ had reached 10 million users just two weeks after it was launched in this "limited" trial phase. After four weeks in operation, it reached 25 million users.
At a launch event on July 24, 2013, in San Francisco, a newer version of the Nexus 7 Google tablet device was released to the public, alongside the Chromecast dongle that allows users to stream YouTube and Netflix videos via smartphones.
On February 3, 2014, Google released its first Chromecast SDK.
Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service, offered by the search engine company Google. The service sends emails to the user when it finds new results—such as web pages, newspaper articles, or blogs—that match the user's search term.
Google Camera is a camera application developed by Google for Android. It is supported on Android 4.4 KitKat and higher versions of Android. It was released on the Google Play Store on April 16, 2014.
Project Fi enables communication across Wi-Fi and cell networks. In July 2015 Google released DeepDream, an image recognition software capable of creating psychedelic images using a convolutional neural network.
Google APIs are a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) developed by Google which allow communication with Google Services and their integration to other services. Examples of these include Search, Gmail, Translate or Google Maps. Third-party apps can use these APIs to take advantage of or extend the functionality of the existing services.
Google Developers is Google's site for software development tools, APIs, and technical resources. The site contains documentation on using Google developer tools and APIs—including discussion groups and blogs for developers using Google's developer products.
Google Labs was a page created by Google to demonstrate and test new projects.
Corporate affairs and culture
On Fortune magazine's list of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012 and fourth in 2009 and 2010. Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world's most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index. Google's corporate philosophy includes principles such as "you can make money without doing evil," "you can be serious without a suit," and "work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun."
After the company's IPO in 2004, founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt requested that their base salary be cut to $1. Subsequent offers by the company to increase their salaries were turned down, primarily because their main compensation continues to come from owning stock in Google. Before 2004, Schmidt made $250,000 per year, and Page and Brin each received an annual salary of $150,000.
In 2007 and early 2008, several top executives left Google. In October 2007, former chief financial officer of YouTube Gideon Yu joined Facebook along with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer. In March 2008, Sheryl Sandberg, then vice-president of global online sales and operations, began her position as chief operating officer of Facebook. At the same time, Ash ElDifrawi, formerly head of brand advertising, left to become chief marketing officer of Netshops. On April 4, 2011, Larry Page became CEO and Eric Schmidt became Executive Chairman of Google. In July 2012, Google's first female employee, Marissa Mayer, left Google to become Yahoo!'s CEO.
As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy often called Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google's newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors. In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new product launches in the second half of 2005 had originated from the Innovation Time Off.
Office locations and headquarters
- Mountain View
Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California, is referred to as "the Googleplex", a play on words on the number googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. The lobby is decorated with a piano, lava lamps, old server clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways are full of exercise balls and bicycles. Many employees have access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered throughout the campus and include a workout room with weights and rowing machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room, assorted video games, table football, a baby grand piano, a billiard table, and ping pong. In addition to the recreation room, there are snack rooms stocked with various foods and drinks, with special emphasis placed on nutrition. Free food is available to employees 24/7, with the offerings provided by paid vending machines prorated based on and favoring those of better nutritional value.
Google's extensive amenities are not available to all of its workers. Temporary workers such as book scanners do not have access to shuttles, Google cafes, or other perks.
- New York City
In 2006, Google moved into 311,000 square feet (28,900 m2) of office space in New York City, at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan. The office was specially designed and built for Google and houses its largest advertising sales team, which has been instrumental in securing large partnerships. The New York headquarters is similar in design and functionality to its Mountain View headquarters, and includes a game room, micro kitchens, and a video game area. As of February 2012, a significant engineering team is based in New York City. As of September 2013, Google's East Coast office is located at 76 Ninth Ave, New York City, New York.
- Other U.S. cities
By late 2006, Google established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping-related advertisement coding and smartphone applications and programs. Other office locations in the U.S. include Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Boulder, Colorado; Cambridge, Massachusetts; San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; Reston, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. Google has several international offices.
In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy needs. The system will be the largest solar power system constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world. In addition, Google announced in 2009 that it was deploying herds of goats to keep grassland around the Googleplex short, helping to prevent the threat from seasonal bush fires while also reducing the carbon footprint of mowing the extensive grounds. The idea of trimming lawns using goats originated from Bob Widlar, an engineer who worked for National Semiconductor. In 2008, Google faced accusations in Harper's Magazine of being an "energy glutton". The company was accused of employing its "Don't be evil" motto and its public energy-saving campaigns to cover up or make up for the massive amounts of energy its servers require.
On May 12, 2015, Google announced the setting up of its largest campus outside the United States in Hyderabad, India. The proposed campus can accommodate 6500 employees.
Since 1998, Google has been designing special, temporary alternate logos to place on their homepage intended to celebrate holidays, events, achievements and people. The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man Festival of 1998. The doodle was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then-intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. From that point onward, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed "Doodlers".
Easter eggs and April Fools' Day jokes
Google has a tradition of creating April Fools' Day jokes. On April 1, 2000, Google MentalPlex allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web. In 2007, Google announced a free Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet. Also in 2007, Google's Gmail page displayed an announcement for Gmail Paper, allowing users to have email messages printed and shipped to them. In 2008, Google announced Gmail Custom time where users could change the time that the email was sent.
In 2010, Google changed its company name to Topeka in honor of Topeka, Kansas, whose mayor changed the city's name to Google for a short amount of time in an attempt to sway Google's decision in its new Google Fiber Project. In 2011, Google announced Gmail Motion, an interactive way of controlling Gmail and the computer with body movements via the user's webcam.
Google's services contain easter eggs, such as the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, "Hacker" or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, Pirate, and Klingon as language selections for its search engine. The search engine calculator provides the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything from Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. When searching the word "recursion", the spell-checker's result for the properly spelled word is exactly the same word, creating a recursive link.
When searching for the word "anagram," meaning a rearrangement of letters from one word to form other valid words, Google's suggestion feature displays "Did you mean: nag a ram?" In Google Maps, searching for directions between places separated by large bodies of water, such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, results in instructions to "kayak across the Pacific Ocean." During FIFA World Cup 2010, search queries including "World Cup" and "FIFA" caused the "Goooo...gle" page indicator at the bottom of every result page to read "Goooo...al!" instead.
AtGoogleTalks is a series of presentations by invited speakers sponsored by Google given at various Google offices throughout the world. The series has feature categories such as Authors@Google, Candidates@Google, Women@Google, Musicians@Google and others. For technical topics, there is Google Tech Talks (also known as EngEDU) which is dedicated to exploring areas of technology and science. Guest speakers range from present and past world leaders to little-known poets and artists. Talks range from about 40 to 70 minutes. As of February 2009[update], there had been over 1700 guest speakers.
In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic Google.org, with a start-up fund of $1 billion. The mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program's executive director in 2004, and the current director is Megan Smith.
In 2008, Google announced its "project 10100" which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.
In 2011, Google donated 1 million euros to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the next five annual International Mathematical Olympiads (2011–2015). On July 2012, Google launched a "Legalize Love" campaign in support of gay rights.
Google uses various tax avoidance strategies. Out of the five largest American technology companies, it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues. The company accomplishes this partly by licensing technology through subsidiaries in Ireland, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the Netherlands. This has reportedly sparked a French investigation into Google's transfer pricing practices.
Following criticism of the amount of corporate taxes that Google paid in the United Kingdom, Chairman Eric Schmidt said, "It's called capitalism. We are proudly capitalistic." During the same December 2012 interview, Schmidt "confirmed that the company had no intention of paying more to the UK exchequer." In 2013, Schmidt responded to questions about taxes paid in the UK by pointing to the advertising fees Google charged UK companies as a source of economic growth.
Since 2007, Google has aimed for carbon neutrality in regard to its operations. Google disclosed in September 2011 that it "continuously uses enough electricity to power 200,000 homes", almost 260 million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear power plant. Total carbon emissions for 2010 were just under 1.5 million metric tons, most due to fossil fuels that provide electricity for the data centers. Google said that 25 percent of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in 2010. An average search uses only 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all global searches are only 12.5 million watts or 5% of the total electricity consumption by Google.
In June 2013, The Washington Post reported that Google had donated $50,000 to the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a libertarian think tank that calls human carbon emissions a positive factor in the environment and argues that global warming is not a concern.
In July 2013, it was reported that Google had hosted a fundraising event for Oklahoma Senator Jim Inhofe, who has called climate change a "hoax". In 2014 Google cut ties with the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) after pressure from the Sierra Club, major unions and Google's own scientists, because of ALEC's stance on climate change and opposition to renewable energy.
Google has been involved in a number of lawsuits.
Criticism and controversy
- Comparison of web search engines
- Don't Be Evil
- Google (verb)
- Google Balloon Internet
- Google Catalogs
- Google China
- Google Chrome Experiments
- Google logo
- Google Maps
- Google platform
- Google Street View
- Google tax
- Google Ventures – venture capital fund
- Google X
- Life sciences division of Google X
- Googlebot – web crawler
- List of Google apps for Android
- List of Google domains
- List of mergers and acquisitions by Google
- Outline of Google
- "Company". Google. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- Claburn, Thomas. "Google Founded By Sergey Brin, Larry Page... And Hubert Chang?!?". InformationWeek. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Locations - Google Jobs". Google.com. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "Google Inc. 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 12, 2014.
- "Google Inc. Announces Second Quarter and Fiscal Year 2015 Results". Google.
- "Google Inc. Annual Reports". Google Inc. July 28, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
- See: List of Google products.
- "Financial Tables". Google, Inc. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- Vise, David A. (October 21, 2005). "Online Ads Give Google Huge Gain in Profit". The Washington Post.
- "Google Corporate Information". Google, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "Google Code of Conduct". Google, Inc. April 8, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Lenssen, Philip (July 16, 2007). "Paul Buchheit on Gmail, AdSense and More". Google Blogoscoped. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "Google history in depth".
- Womack, Brian (August 10, 2015). "Google Creates New Company Called Alphabet, Restructures Stock". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Rushe, Dominic; Thielman, Sam (August 10, 2015). "Google Creates Parent Company Called Alphabet in Restructuring". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Dougherty, Conor (August 10, 2015). "Google to Reorganize in Move to Keep Its Lead as an Innovator". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- "Chromebook". Google. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Ricker, Thomas. "Google: Nexus program explained, unfazed by Motorola acquisition". theverge.com. Vox Media. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Kleinman, Jacob. "Google Exec: New Nexus Coming". technobuffalo.com. TechnoBuffalo. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Brad Stone; Peter Burrows (May 22, 2012). "It's Official: Google Is Now a Hardware Company". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Hesseldahl, Arik (July 26, 2012). "Google Gets Into the Cable TV Business, for Real". AllThingsD.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- Miller, Rich (August 1, 2011). "Report: Google Uses About 900,000 Servers". Data Center Knowledge.
- Kuhn, Eric (December 18, 2009). "CNN Politics – Political Ticker... Google unveils top political searches of 2009". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "MapReduce". Portal.acm.org. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Czajkowski, Grzegorz (November 21, 2008). "Sorting 1PB with MapReduce". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Kennedy, Niall (January 8, 2008). "Google processes over 20 petabytes of data per day". Niall Kennedy. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Schonfeld, Erick (January 9, 2008). "Google Processing 20,000 Terabytes A Day, And Growing". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
- "Alexa Traffic Rank for Google (three month average)". Alexa Internet. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "Google ranked 'worst' on privacy". BBC News. June 11, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Rosen, Jeffrey (November 30, 2008). "Google's Gatekeepers". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Williamson, Alan (January 12, 2005). "An evening with Google's Marissa Mayer". Alan Williamson. Archived from the original on September 21, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Google Milestones". Google, Inc. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- Page, Lawrence; Brin, Sergey; Motwani, Rajeev; Winograd, Terry (November 11, 1999). "The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web". Stanford University. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- "Technology Overview". Google, Inc. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- Page, Larry (August 18, 1997). "PageRank: Bringing Order to the Web". Stanford Digital Library Project. Archived from the original on May 6, 2002. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Battelle, John (August 2005). "The Birth of Google". Wired. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Trex, Ethan. "9 People, Places & Things That Changed Their Names". Mental Floss. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Backrub search engine at Stanford University". Archived from the original on December 24, 1996. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Koller, David (January 2004). "Origin of the name "Google"". Stanford University. Archived from the original on July 4, 2012. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Hanley, Rachael (February 12, 2003). "From Googol to Google". The Stanford Daily (Stanford University). Retrieved February 15, 2010.[dead link]
- "Google! Beta website". Google, Inc. Archived from the original on February 2, 1999. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- "Google! Search Engine". Stanford University. Archived from the original on November 11, 1998. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- "Google! Search Engine". Stanford University. Archived from the original on December 1, 1998. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- "WHOIS – google.com". Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Craig Silverstein's website". Stanford University. Archived from the original on October 2, 1999. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Kopytoff, Verne (September 7, 2008). "Craig Silverstein grew a decade with Google". San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications, Inc.). Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- "Google's new record, 1 billion visitors in May | It's All Tech". Itsalltech.com. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Fiegerman, Seth. January 22, 2013. "Google Has Its First $50 Billion Year". http://mashable.com/2013/01/22/google-q4-earnings/
- "Google Stock Could Soar 50% Over the Next Three and Half Years". financeninvestments.com. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- "Google Server Assembly". Computer History Museum. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Kopytoff, Verne (April 29, 2004). "For early Googlers, key word is $$$". San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco: Hearst Communications). Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- "Google Receives $25 Million in Equity Funding" (Press release). Palo Alto, Calif.: Google. June 7, 1999. Archived from the original on March 9, 2000. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- Lashinsky, Adam (January 29, 2008). "Google wins again". Fortune (Time Warner). Retrieved January 22, 2011.
- Elgin, Ben (August 19, 2004). "Google: Whiz Kids or Naughty Boys?". BusinessWeek (Bloomberg, L.P.). Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- "2004 Annual Report" (PDF). Mountain View, California: Google, Inc. 2004. p. 29. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- La Monica, Paul R. (April 30, 2004). "Google sets $2.7 billion IPO". CNN Money. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- Kawamoto, Dawn (April 29, 2004). "Want In on Google's IPO?". ZDNet. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- Webb, Cynthia L. (August 19, 2004). "Google's IPO: Grate Expectations". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.). Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- "Google Overview". Marketwatch. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- "Quirky Google Culture Endangered?". Wired. Associated Press. April 28, 2004. Retrieved November 27, 2010.[dead link]
- Olsen, Stefanie; Kawamoto, Dawn (April 30, 2004). "Google IPO at $2.7 billion". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Richard Utz, "The Good Corporation? Google's Medievalism and Why It Matters." Studies in Medievalism 23 (2013): 21-28.
- Rivlin, Gary (August 24, 2005). "Relax, Bill Gates; It's Google's Turn as the Villain". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Gibson, Owen; Wray, Richard (August 25, 2005). "Search giant may outgrow its fans". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Ranka, Mohit (May 17, 2007). "Google – Don't Be Evil". OSNews. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Mills, Elinor (April 30, 2007). "Google's culture czar". ZDNet. Retrieved November 27, 2010.[dead link]
- Kawamoto, Dawn (July 27, 2005). "Google hit with job discrimination lawsuit". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Google accused of ageism in reinstated lawsuit". CTV Television Network. Associated Press. October 6, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Judge approves first payout in antitrust wage-fixing lawsuit". CNET. CBS Interactive.
- Hancock, Jay (October 31, 2007). "Google shares hit $700". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- La Monica, Paul R. (May 25, 2005). "Bowling for Google". CNN. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
- Pramuk, Jacob (August 10, 2015). "Google to become part of new company, Alphabet". CNBC. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Fried, Ian (October 4, 2002). "A building blessed with tech success". CNET (CBS Interactive). Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- Stross, Randall (September 2008). "Introduction". Planet Google: One Company's Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know. New York: Free Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-4165-4691-7. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- Sullivan, Danny (July 1, 1998). "GoTo Going Strong". SearchEngineWatch. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Pelline, Jeff (February 19, 1998). "Pay-for-placement gets another shot". CNET (CBS Interactive). Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Olsen, Stephanie (August 9, 2004). "Google, Yahoo bury the legal hatchet". CNET (CBS Interactive). Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- US patent 6285999, Page, Lawrence, "Method for node ranking in a linked database", issued September 4, 2001, assigned to The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
- Olsen, Stephanie (July 11, 2003). "Google's movin' on up". CNET (CBS Interactive). Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- "Google to buy headquarters building from Silicon Graphics". Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal (San Jose: American City Business Journals). June 16, 2006. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- Krantz, Michael (October 25, 2006). "Do You "Google"?". Google, Inc. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- Bylund, Anders (July 5, 2006). "To Google or Not to Google". msnbc.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2006. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- "Is Googlism The New Religion?". APCMag.com. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "The Official Church of Google". TheChurchofGoogle.org.
- "Is Googlism The New Religion?". nytimes.com. Retrieved June 29, 2003.
- "Google is God -Here are the Reasons". AllISayIs.com. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- Jane Wakefield (September 19, 2013). "Google spin-off Calico to search for answers to ageing". BBC News. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- "Google locations". Google Company. Google, Inc. September 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- Sullivan, Danny (September 14, 2007). "Google Is 10 Years Old? Finding The Real Google Birthday". Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Peterson, Andrea (September 27, 2013). "Is today really Google's birthday?". Washington Post. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- John Hall (September 26, 2013). "Google celebrates 15th birthday with interactive piñata 'doodle'". The Independent (London). Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Samuel Gibbs (October 7, 2013). "Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet". The Guardian. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- Reuters (October 17, 2013). "Google earnings up 12% in third quarter even as Motorola losses deepen". The Guardian. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- Leo Mirani (November 1, 2013). "Inside Google's new 1-million-square-foot London office—three years before it's ready". Quartz. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- Technology titans lead ranking of most valuable brands, NYTimes.com, October 8, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Google Acquires Keyhole Corp" (Press release). Google, Inc. October 27, 2004. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Reuters (November 14, 2006). "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". Retrieved July 5, 2010.[dead link]
- Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008). "GooTube". Forbes. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Story, Louise; Helft, Miguel (April 17, 2007). "Google Buys DoubleClick for $3.1 Billion". The New York Times (New York). Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Chan, Wesley (July 2, 2007). "All aboard". Google, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Google to Acquire On2 Technologies". Google Press release. August 5, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Google Acquires Aardvark". Google, Inc. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
we're excited to announce that we've acquired Aardvark, a unique technology company.
- Letzing, John (April 21, 2010). "Google buys stealthy start-up Agnilux". MarketWatch. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Mills, Elinor (September 29, 2005). "Can Google beat the new-office curse?". CNET. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Kessler, Michelle; Acohido, Byron (October 3, 2005). "Google, Sun make 'big deal' together". USA Today (Gannett Co. Inc.). Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Mills, Elinor (December 28, 2005). "What the Google-AOL deal means for users". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Lunden, Ingrid (February 12, 2010). "DotMobi Sells .Mobi Domain-Name Operator". Yahoo!. Retrieved February 26, 2010.[dead link]
- "Google AdSense for Mobile unlocks the potential of the mobile advertising market". Google, Inc. September 17, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Fox Interactive Media Enters into Landmark Agreement with Google Inc.; Multi-Year Pact Calls for Google to Provide Search and Advertising across Fox Interactive Media's Growing Online Network Including the MySpace Community". B Net. August 7, 2006. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Tracking Santa: NORAD & Google Team Up For Christmas, Dec 1, 2007, Danny Sullivan". Search Engine Land. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Behind the scenes: NORAD's Santa tracker for Thur, Dec 21, 2009 By Daniel Terdiman, CNET". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- "Instructions On Tracking Santa With NORAD & Google: The 2007 Edition, Dec 24, 2007, Danny Sullivan". Search Engine Land. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea (September 6, 2008). "GeoEye launches high-resolution satellite". Washington: Reuters. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Google gives online life to Life mag's photos". Mountain View, California. Associated Press. November 20, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
Google Inc. has opened an online photo gallery that will include millions of images from Life magazine's archives that have never been seen by the public before.
- Greg Stirling (November 18, 2008). "Google Hosting Time-Life Photo Archive, 10 Million Unpublished Images Now Live". Search Engine Land. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Morrison, Scott; Sweet, Cassandra (May 4, 2010). "Google Invests in Two Wind Farms". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Google Energy can now buy and sell energy, on Cnet.com.
- Candace Lombardi (February 19, 2010). "Google gets go-ahead to buy, sell energy". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Todd Woody (September 18, 2013). "Google is on the way to quietly becoming an electric utility". Quartz. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Gomes, Lee (May 18, 2010). "Google's Latest Telephony Play". Forbes. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Albanesius, Chloe (May 27, 2010). "Google Closes Acquisition of AdMob". AppScout. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- Albanesius, Chloe (November 9, 2010). "Google Acquires Mobile Display Ad Firm AdMob". PC Magazine (Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc.). Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- "Google buys power from Iowa wind farm". News.techworld.com. July 21, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- "Bid for Nortel patents marks Google's new push into mobile world". Globe and Mail (Toronto). April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.[dead link]
- Tsukayama, Hayley (August 15, 2011). "Google agrees to acquire Motorola Mobility". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "Google to Acquire Motorola Mobility — Google Investor Relations". Google. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Hughes, Neil. "Google CEO: 'Anticompetitive' Apple, Microsoft forced Motorola deal". AppleInsider. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "Google". BBC News. May 22, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- Page, Larry. "Official Google Blog: Supercharging Android: Google to Acquire Motorola Mobility". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Cheng, Roger (August 15, 2011). "Google to buy Motorola Mobility for $12.5B".
- "Google to cut 4,000 Motorola Mobility jobs, shares rise". Reuters. August 13, 2012.
- "Motorola's retreat continues, sells factories in China and Brazil to Flextronics for $75 million". December 11, 2012.
- "Flextronics acquires Motorola Mobility's plants in China, Brazil". December 11, 2012.
- "Arris To Acquire Motorola Home Business For $2.35 Billion In Cash And Stock" (PDF). December 19, 2012.
- Lardinois, Frederic. June 5, 2012. "Google Acquires Mobile Productivity Company Quickoffice." http://techcrunch.com/2012/06/05/google-acquires-mobile-productivity-company-quickoffice/
- February 6, 2013. Lunden, Ingrid. "Google Acquires Channel Intelligence For $125M To Boost Product Referrals And E-Commerce With Users." http://techcrunch.com/2013/02/06/google-acquires-channel-intelligence-to-boost-product-recommendations-and-e-commer-with-users/
- Ingrid Lunden (June 11, 2013). "Google Bought Waze For $1.1B, Giving A Social Data Boost To Its Mapping Business". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Rip Empson (July 29, 2013). "Yahoo And Google Are Both Spending Big Money On Acquisition Sprees And What That Says About Their Futures". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Avi Schneider (June 11, 2013). "Google and Waze seal the deal on their $1.1B purchase acquisition.". Geektime. Geektime. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Natasha Lomas (August 31, 2013). "Google Confirms It Has Acquired Android Smartwatch Maker WIMM Labs". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Jennifer Clegg (October 3, 2013). "Google Acquires Flutter, Creator of Hand Gesture Recognition Technology". Search Engine Watch. Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- Chowdhry, Amit (January 27, 2014). "Google To Acquire Artificial Intelligence Company DeepMind". Forbes. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Helgren, Chris (January 27, 2014). "Google to buy artificial intelligence company DeepMind". Reuters. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Ribeiro, Jon (January 27, 2014). "Google buys artificial intelligence company DeepMind". PC World. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Opam, Kwame (January 27, 2014). "Google buying AI startup DeepMind for a reported $400 million". The Verge. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- "US Moto X production plant of Motorola to be shut down by year end". Fort Worth News.Net. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- By Devindra Hardawar, VentureBeat."/ Google buys Green Throttle Games, which could be a big part of its Android set-top box." March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- "Google Acquires Quest Visual, Maker of 'Word Lens' App: Image-Based Translation Works With iOS, Android, Glass". LatinPost. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- "Google buys satellite firm Skybox Imaging for $500m". BBC News. June 10, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Google buys Songza, a Pandora-like player where context is king". CNET. CBS Interactive. July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Datacenter locations". Google. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- "UPDATE: Google To Build Three Data Centers In Asia, Investment To Exceed $200M". The Wall Street Journal. September 28, 2011.[dead link]
- "Google to Build Three Data Centers in Asia". Datacenterknowledge.com. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Yun-Hee Kim. "Google Scraps Plan to Build Hong Kong Data Center". WSJ.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (October 30, 2013). "NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Savage, Charlie; Miller, Claire; Perlroth, Nicole (October 30, 2013). "N.S.A. Said to Tap Google and Yahoo Abroad". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Gallagher, Sean (October 31, 2013). "How the NSA's MUSCULAR tapped Google's and Yahoo's private networks". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Miller, Claire (October 31, 2013). "Angry Over U.S. Surveillance, Tech Giants Bolster Defenses". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Page, Larry (August 10, 2015). "G is for Google". Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on August 10, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- "SEC Filing (Form 8-K) by Alphabet Inc.". October 2, 2015.
- "Form 10-K – Annual Report". SEC. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Google Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 26, 2012" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (August 12, 2008). "Some Web Firms Say They Track Behavior Without Explicit Consent". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Helft, Miguel (March 11, 2009). "Google to Offer Ads Based on Interests". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Bright, Peter (August 27, 2008). "Surfing on the sly with IE8's new "InPrivate" Internet". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "AdSense". Retrieved October 11, 2009.
- Mills, Elinor. "Google to offer advertisers click fraud stats." CNET. July 25, 2006. Retrieved July 29, 2006.
- "Google Somewhat Lifts Oceana Ad Ban". webpronews.com.
- "Google AdSense Online Standard Terms and Conditions". Google AdSense.
- Mclntyre, Douglas (October 31, 2008). "Yahoo and Google may dump their deal". Bloggingstocks.com. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- Drummond, David (November 5, 2008). "Ending our agreement with Yahoo!". Google, Inc. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- "Google Demo Slam". Google, Inc. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "comScore Releases November 2009 U.S. Search Engine Rankings". December 16, 2006. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Arrington, Michael (July 25, 2008). "Google's Misleading Blog Post: The Size Of The Web And The Size Of Their Index Are Very Different". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- Olsen, Stefanie (July 9, 2003). "Google cache raises copyright concerns". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Field v. Google, CV-S-04-0413-RCJ-LRL (Nevada District Court January 19, 2006).[dead link]
- Parker v. Google, 04-CV-3918 (Eastern Pennsylvania District Court March 10, 2006).
- Bosker, Bianca (September 29, 2010). "Google Instant Censorship: The Strangest Terms Blacklisted By Google". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- Farhad Manjoo (August 30, 2002). "Conspiracy Researcher Says Google's No Good". AlterNet. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Dave Gussow (April 14, 2003). "Despite popularly, Google under fire for privacy issues". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
- Martin, China (November 26, 2007). "Google hit with second lawsuit over Library project". InfoWorld.
- Pettersson, Edvard (November 20, 2009). "Google Wins Preliminary Approval of Online Books Settlement". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Smith, Heather (December 18, 2009). "Google's French Book Scanning Project Halted by Court". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Rich, Motoko (May 31, 2009). "Preparing to Sell E-Books, Google Takes on Amazon". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Mayer, Marissa (July 25, 2010). "This Week in Search 7/25/10". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- Samuel Gibbs (September 27, 2013). "Google introduces the biggest algorithm change in three years". Guardian. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- Cashmore, Pete (April 1, 2010). "Six ways Gmail revolutionized e-mail". London, England: Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Chitu, Ionut Alex. (February 7, 2007). "More People Can Sign up for a Gmail Account". Google Operating System Blog. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Glotzbach, Matthew (July 7, 2009). "Google Apps is out of beta (yes, really)". Google, Inc. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Zibreg, Christian (February 11, 2010). "Facebook strikes back at Google, integrates its chat with AOL Instant Messenger". Geek.com. para. 5. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
While Gmail's 146 million monthly users are no match for Facebook's 400+ million-strong user base, not all of them use built-in chat.
- Lee, Elvin (November 10, 2009). "Twice the storage for a quarter of the price". Google, Inc. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Marshall, Gary (April 1, 2010). "Happy sixth birthday, Google Mail!". TechRadar. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Microsoft's Ballmer: Google Reads Your Mail[dead link] ChannelWeb, October 2007
- "Google's Gmail could be blocked". Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- Rasch, Mark (June 15, 2004). "Google Gmail: Spook Heaven". The Register. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- "Gmail is too creepy". Google Watch. Archived from the original on September 21, 2011.
- Mazzon, Jen (March 9, 2006). "Writely so". Google, Inc. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- "Google Announces limited test on Google Labs: Google Spreadsheets" (Press release). Google, Inc. June 6, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Arrington, Michael (October 10, 2006). "Google "Docs & Spreadsheets" Launches". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Metz, Cade (October 7, 2011). "Article in Wired". Wired. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Sterling, Greg (June 3, 2008). "Google Rebrands Custom Search "Business Edition" As "Google Site Search"". Search Engine Land. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- Girouard, Dave (September 13, 2007). "We've Officially Acquired Postini". Google, Inc. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- "Google Adds Postini's Security and Compliance Capabilities to Google Apps" (Press release). Google, Inc. October 3, 2007. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
- "Postini". Google, Inc. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- "Find out how our translations are created". translate.google.com. Google. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- "Google Translate Help". Google. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Helft, Miguel (March 8, 2010). "Google's Computing Power Refines Translation Tool". The New York Times. para. 15. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Macht, Joshua (September 30, 2002). "Automatic for the People". Time.
- Travis, Hannibal (2008). "Opting Out of the Internet in the United States and the European Union: Copyright, Safe Harbors, and International Law". Notre Dame Law Review, vol. 55, pp. 391–92 (President and Trustees of Notre Dame University in South Bend, IN). Retrieved June 4, 2010.
- "Google WiFi for Mountain View". Google, Inc. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- HELFT (March 21, 2010). "Hoping for Gift From Google? Go Jump in the Lake". The New York Times.
- "Ultra high-speed broadband is coming to Kansas City, Kansas". Google.com.
- Smith, David (December 17, 2006). "The future for Orange could soon be Google in your pocket". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Ltd.). Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- Orlowski, Andrew (March 16, 2007). "Google Phone – it's for real". The Register. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- Ricker, Thomas (January 18, 2007). "The Google Switch: an iPhone killer". Engadget. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- "Licenses". Google, Inc. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Lee, Nicole (September 23, 2008). "T-Mobile G1 details, price, and launch date revealed". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Siegler, MG (January 5, 2010). "The Droid You're Looking For: Live from the Nexus One Event". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Ingrid Lunden (July 1, 2013). "Android, Led By Samsung, Continues To Storm The Smartphone Market, Pushing A Global 70% Market Share". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Pichai, Sundar (September 1, 2008). "A fresh take on the browser". Google, Inc. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- Pichai, Sundar (July 7, 2009). "Introducing the Google Chrome OS". Google, Inc. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- Alex, Pham; Hirsch, Jerry (July 9, 2009). "Google sees window of opportunity to launch operating system". Los Angeles Times.
- T3 website: Goggles can now solve sudoku puzzles, January 11, 2011. Visited August 6, 2011
- Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything. Perseus Books/Vanguard Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-1593157203.
- Bernard, Tara Siegel (May 27, 2011). "Google Unveils App For Paying With Phone". The New York Times. p. 3.
- Parr, Ben (June 28, 2011). "Google Launches Google+ To Battle Facebook [PICS]". Mashable.com. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- "Google+ grows to 10 million users". CNN. July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Wasserman, Todd (July 21, 2011). "Google+ Hits 25 Million Visitors, Gets More Sticky [STUDY]".
- Reuters (July 25, 2013). "Ads Not by This Site Google unveils Chromecast along with slimmer Nexus 7 tablet". The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- Somerville, Heather (September 25, 2013). "Google same-day delivery makes public debut". Mercury News.
- By Tom Cheredar, VentureBeat."/ Google finally releases a Chromecast SDK." February 3, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- "What are Google Alerts?". Google. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "How to Use Google Alerts for a Live Job Search". The Under Cover Recruiter.
- "This Little Service Absolutely Crushes Google Alerts". Forbes.
- Kellex (April 16, 2014). "Google Camera Quick Look and Tour". Droid Life.
- "Project Fi". Google. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- Szegedy, Christian; Liu, Wei; Jia, Yangqing; Sermanet, Pierre; Reed, Scott; Anguelov, Dragomir; Erhan, Dumitru; Vanhoucke, Vincent; Rabinovich, Andrew (2014). "Going Deeper with Convolutions" (PDF). Computing Research Repository. arXiv:1409.4842.
- Mordvintsev, Alexander; Olah, Christopher; Tyka, Mike (2015). "DeepDream - a code example for visualizing Neural Networks". Google Research. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015.
- Mordvintsev, Alexander; Olah, Christopher; Tyka, Mike (2015). "Inceptionism: Going Deeper into Neural Networks". Google Research. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015.
- James Titcomb (July 2, 2015). "Google unleashes machine dreaming software on the public, nightmarish images flood the internet". The Telegraph. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- Levering, Robert; Moskowitz, Milton (January 22, 2007). Serwer, Andrew, ed. "In good company". Fortune Magazine (Cable News Network) 155 (1). Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- Levering, Robert; Moskowitz, Milton (February 4, 2008). Serwer, Andrew, ed. "The 2008 list". Fortune Magazine (Cable News Network) 157 (2). Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "The 2012 list". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
- Levering, Robert; Moskowitz, Milton (February 2, 2009). Serwer, Andrew, ed. "The 2009 list". Fortune Magazine (Cable News Network) 159 (2). Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- Levering, Robert; Moskowitz, Milton (February 8, 2010). Serwer, Andrew, ed. "The 2010 list". Fortune Magazine (Cable News Network) 161 (2). Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "The World's Most Attractive Employers 2010". Universum Global. September 28, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Our Philosophy". Google, Inc. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
- John Micco: Continuous Integration at Google Scale, EclipseCon 2013 (p.2)
- La Monica, Paul R. (March 31, 2006). "Google leaders stick with $1 salary". Cable News Network. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
- "Another Googler goes to Facebook: Sheryl Sandberg becomes new COO". Venture Beat. March 4, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Moritz, Scott (March 4, 2008). "Top Google exec jumps to Facebook". Fortune. Retrieved March 31, 2008.[dead link]
- Liedtke, Michael (March 5, 2008). "Facebook Raids Google for Executive". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- "Netshops Inc. Appoints Ash ElDifrawi as Company's First Chief Marketing Officer" (Press release). NetShops. March 26, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- "Google Announces Fourth quarter and Fiscal Year 2010 Results and Management Changes". Google. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Rushie, Dominic (July 16, 2012). "Google executive Marissa Mayer to become Yahoo CEO in surprise move". The Guardian (London). Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Noogler chez Google" (in French).
- Mediratta, Bharat (October 21, 2007). "The Google Way: Give Engineers Room". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
- Mayer, Marissa (speaker) (June 30, 2006). Marissa Mayer at Stanford University (Seminar). Martin Lafrance. Event occurs at 11:33. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
Fifty percent of what Google launched in the second half of 2005 actually got built out of 20% time.
- "About the Googleplex." Google. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Marion Nestle (July 2011). "What Google's Famous Cafeterias Can Teach Us About Health". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Barry Schwartz (May 2, 2011). "Does Google Have A Class System For Googlers?". SearchEngineLand. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Reardon, Marguerite. "Google takes a bigger bite of Big Apple." CNET. October 2, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2006.
- Annie Georgia Greenberg (September 11, 2012). "The Ultimate Office: Inside Google's NYC Compound". Refinery29. Refinery29. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- Emily Glazer (February 29, 2012). "Google Web Grows in City". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "Google New York". Google Jobs. Google, Inc. September 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "Inside Google's Michigan Office". InformationWeek. October 24, 2007.
- "Google Completes Pittsburgh Office, Holds Open House". WTAE. November 17, 2006. Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
- Olson, Thomas (December 8, 2010). "Google search: Tech-minded workers". Trib Total Media. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- Richmond, Riva. "Google plans to build huge solar energy system for headquarters." MarketWatch. October 17, 2006. Retrieved October 17, 2006.
- "Official Google Blog: Mowing with goats". Google. May 1, 2009.
- Siegler, MG (May 3, 2009). "My Day With The Google Goats". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Sheep Mow Lawns". National Semiconductor. Archived from the original on May 6, 1999. Retrieved July 5, 2010.[dead link]
- Strand, Ginger. "Keyword: Evil." Retrieved April 9, 2008.
- "Biggest Google Campus outside USA in Hyderabad". Preview Tech. May 13, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Doodle 4 Google". Google.com. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- "Burning Man Festival". Google.com. August 30, 1998. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- "Meet the people behind the Google Doodles". The Guardian. April 12, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
- "Google MentalPlex". Google, Inc. April 1, 2000. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Welcome to Google TiSP". Google, Inc. April 1, 2007. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Google Paper". Google, Inc. April 1, 2000. Retrieved July 4, 2010.[dead link]
- "Gmail Custom Time: Google makes custom time". Google. April 14, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- Schmidt, Eric (April 1, 2010). "A different kind of company name". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "April Fools: Google Changes Name to Topeka". CBS News. April 1, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Google's GMail Motion launched April 1". GMA News. April 1, 2011.
- "Language Tools". Google, Inc. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Google Search Results for 'answer to life the universe and everything'". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Google Search Results for 'recursion'". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "anagram search". Google, Inc. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- Chan, John (June 9, 2010). "Google celebrates World Cup with Gooooooooooal!". CNET Asia. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "Top 10 Google Tech Talks | A Beautiful WWW". Abeautifulwww.com. February 17, 2007. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "About the Foundation". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 16, 2010.[dead link]
- Hafner, Katie (September 14, 2006). "Philanthropy Google's Way: Not the Usual". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- Helft, Miguel (February 23, 2009). "Philanthropy Google's Way: Not the Usual". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- "Project 10 to the 100th". Google, Inc. Retrieved July 16, 2010.[dead link]
- Van Burskirk, Elliot (June 28, 2010). "Google Struggles to Give Away $10 million". Wired. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
- Twohill, Lorraine (September 24, 2010). "$10 million for Project 10^100 winners". Google, Inc. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
- "Google donating 1 million euros to IMO". January 20, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- "Google launches 'Legalise Love' gay rights campaign". PinkNews.co.uk. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- Metz, Cade. "Google slips $3.1bn through 'Double Irish' tax loophole." The Register, October 22, 2010.
- Leach, Anna (October 31, 2012). "French gov 'plans to hand Google €1bn tax bill' – report.". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Kumar, Nikhil; Wright, Oliver (December 13, 2012). "Google boss: I'm very proud of our tax avoidance scheme". London: The Independent. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Arthur, Charles (April 22, 2013). "Google chairman Eric Schmidt defends tax avoidance policies". London: The Guardian. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Brid-Aine Parnell, May 17, 2013 (May 17, 2013). "'I think you DO do evil, using smoke and mirrors to avoid tax'.". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Jack McGrath (May 18, 2011). "Google's Green Initiative: Environmentally Conscious Technology". TechnoBuffalo. TechnoBuffalo LLC. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- "Home". Google Green. Google, Inc. 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Glanz, James (September 8, 2011). "Google Details, and Defends, Its Use of Electricity". NY Times. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- Juliet Eilperin (June 20, 2013). "Anatomy of a Washington dinner: Who funds the Competitive Enterprise Institute?". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Suzanne Goldenberg (July 9, 2013). "Google hosts fundraiser for climate change denying US senator". The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- EVAN HALPER (September 23, 2014). "Google pulls out of conservative group amid environmentalist pressure". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- Hamburger, Tom; Gold, Matea (April 13, 2014). "Google, once disdainful of lobbying, now a master of Washington influence". The Washington Post.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Official website (Mobile)
- Google website at the Wayback Machine (archived November 11, 1998)
- Google at DMOZ
- Google at CrunchBase
- Google companies grouped at OpenCorporates