Google Native Client
|Initial release||16 September 2011|
|Written in||C, C++|
|Operating system||Windows, Linux, macOS, Chrome OS|
|Platform||x86, ARM, MIPS|
|Type||Sandbox in web browsers for native code|
Google Native Client (NaCl) is a sandboxing technology for running either a subset of Intel x86, ARM, or MIPS native code, or a portable executable, in a sandbox. It allows safely running native code from a web browser, independent of the user operating system, allowing web apps to run at near-native speeds, which aligns with Google's plans for Chrome OS. It may also be used for securing browser plugins, and parts of other applications or full applications such as ZeroVM.
To demonstrate the readiness of the technology, on 9 December 2011, Google announced the availability of several new Chrome-only versions of games known for their rich and processor-intensive graphics, including Bastion (no longer supported on the Chrome Web Store). NaCl runs hardware-accelerated 3D graphics (via OpenGL ES 2.0), sandboxed local file storage, dynamic loading, full screen mode, and mouse capture. There are also plans to make NaCl available on handheld devices.
Portable Native Client (PNaCl) is an architecture-independent version. PNaCl apps are compiled ahead-of-time. PNaCl is recommended over NaCl for most use cases. The general concept of NaCl (running native code in web browser) has been implemented before in ActiveX, which, while still in use, has full access to the system (disk, memory, user-interface, registry, etc.). Native Client avoids this issue by using sandboxing.
On 12 October 2016, a comment on the Chromium issue tracker indicated that Google's Pepper and Native Client teams had been destaffed. On 30 May 2017, Google announced deprecation of PNaCl in favor of WebAssembly. Although initially Google planned to remove PNaCl in first quarter of 2018, and later in the second quarter of 2019, it is currently planned for removal in June 2022 (together with Chrome Apps).
Native Client is an open-source project being developed by Google. To date, Quake, XaoS, Battle for Wesnoth, Doom, Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light, From Dust, and MAME, as well as the sound processing system Csound, have been ported to Native Client. Native Client has been available in the Google Chrome web browser since version 14, and has been enabled by default since version 31, when the Portable Native Client (PNaCl, pronounced: pinnacle) was released.
To run an application portably under PNaCl, it must be compiled to an architecture-agnostic and stable subset of the LLVM intermediate representation bytecode. The executables are called PNaCl executables (pexes). The PNaCl Toolchain makes .pexe files; NaCl Toolchain .nexe files. The magic number of .nexe files is 0x7F 'E' 'L' 'F', which is ELF. In Chrome, they are translated to architecture-specific executables so that they can be run.
NaCl uses software fault detection and isolation for sandboxing on x86-64 and ARM. The x86-32 implementation of Native Client is notable for its novel sandboxing method, which makes use of the x86 architecture's rarely used segmentation facility. Native Client sets up x86 segments to restrict the memory range that the sandboxed code can access. It uses a code verifier to prevent use of unsafe instructions such as those that perform system calls. To prevent the code from jumping to an unsafe instruction hidden in the middle of a safe instruction, Native Client requires that all indirect jumps be jumps to the start of 32-byte-aligned blocks, and instructions are not allowed to straddle these blocks. Because of these constraints, C and C++ code must be recompiled to run under Native Client, which provides customized versions of the GNU toolchain, specifically GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), GNU Binutils, and LLVM.
Native Client is licensed under a BSD-style license.
NaCl denotes sodium chloride, common table salt; as a pun, the name of pepper was also used. Pepper API is a cross-platform, open-source API for creating Native Client modules. Pepper Plugin API, or PPAPI is a cross-platform API for Native Client-secured web browser plugins, first based on Netscape's NPAPI, then rewritten from scratch. It is currently used in Chromium and Google Chrome to enable the PPAPI version of Adobe Flash and the built-in PDF viewer.
On 12 August 2009, a page on Google Code introduced a new project, Pepper, and the associated Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI), "a set of modifications to NPAPI to make plugins more portable and more secure". This extension is designed specifically to ease implementing out-of-process plugin execution. Further, the goals of the project are to provide a framework for making plugins fully cross-platform. Topics considered include:
- Uniform semantics for NPAPI across browsers.
- Execution in a separate process from the renderer-browser.
- Standardize rendering using the browser's compositing process.
- Defining standardized events, and 2D rasterizing functions.
- Initial attempt to provide 3D graphics access.
- Plugin registry.
As of 13 May 2010[update], Google's open source browser, Chromium, was the only web browser to use the new browser plug-in model. As of 2020, Pepper is supported by Chrome, Chromium and Blink layout engine-based browsers such as Opera and Microsoft Edge.
In August 2020, Google announced that support for PPAPI would be removed from Google Chrome and Chromium in June 2022.
PPAPI in Firefox
Firefox developers stated in 2014 that they would not support Pepper, as there is no full specification of the API beyond its implementation in Chrome, which itself is designed for use with Blink layout engine only, and has private APIs specific to the Flash Player plugin which are not documented. In October 2016 Mozilla announced that it had re-considered and was exploring whether to incorporate the Pepper API and PDFium in future releases of Firefox, however no such steps were taken.
Some groups of browser developers support the Native Client technology, but others do not.
Id Software's John D. Carmack praised Native Client at QuakeCon 2012, saying: "if you have to do something inside a browser, Native Client is much more interesting as something that started out as a really pretty darn clever x86 hack in the way that they could sandbox all of this in user mode interestingly. It's now dynamic recompilation, but something that you program in C or C++ and it compiles down to something that's going to be not your -O4 optimization level for completely native code but pretty damn close to native code. You could do all of your evil pointer chasings, and whatever you want to do as a to-the-metal game developer."
Other IT professionals are more critical of this sandboxing technology as it has substantial or substantive interoperability issues.
Mozilla's vice president of products, Jay Sullivan, said that Mozilla has no plans to run native code inside the browser, as "These native apps are just little black boxes in a webpage. [...] We really believe in HTML, and this is where we want to focus."
Mozilla's Christopher Blizzard criticized NaCl, claiming that native code cannot evolve in the same way that the source code-driven web can. He also compared NaCl to Microsoft's ActiveX technology, plagued with DLL Hell.
Håkon Wium Lie, Opera's CTO, believes that "NaCl seems to be 'yearning for the bad old days, before the web'", and that "Native Client is about building a new platform – or porting an old platform into the web [...] it will bring in complexity and security issues, and it will take away focus from the web platform."
The second generation of sandboxing developed in Google is gVisor. It is intended to replace NaCl in Google Cloud, to be more exact in Google App Engine. Google also has been promoting WebAssembly.
- Application virtualization
- Sandboxie, running Windows programs in a sandbox
- WebAssembly, a bytecode standard for web browsers
- XAML Browser Applications (XBAP)
- "Google's Native Client goes live in Chrome". The Register. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Metz, Cade (12 September 2011). "Google Native Client: The web of the future – or the past?". The Register. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "ZeroVM Architecture". Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Rosenblatt, Seth (9 December 2011). "Native Client turns Chrome into high-end gaming platform". CNET. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- "Google Code Blog: Games, apps and runtimes come to Native Client". Googlecode.blogspot.com. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "NaCl and PNaCl".
- "Bugs.chromium.org". 12 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Goodbye PNaCl, Hello WebAssembly!". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "WebAssembly Migration Guide - Google Chrome". developer.chrome.com. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- "Changes to the Chrome App Support Timeline". Chromium Blog. 10 August 2020.
- "Google Native Client on Google Code". Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- davemichael. "GitHub - davemichael/NaCl-Quake: Quake for Native Client (based on the SDL Quake port)". GitHub.
- "The Battle for Wesnoth".
- "Index of /".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "From Dust". Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Chen, Brad (8 December 2008). "Native Client: A Technology for Running Native Code on the Web". Google-code-updates.blogspot.com. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "The Chromium Blog: Native Client Brings Sandboxed Native Code to Chrome Web Store Apps". Blog.chromium.org. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Google Code Blog: Portable Native Client: The "pinnacle" of speed, security, and portability". blog.chromium.org. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Google's Native Client goes ARM and beyond". The H. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "PNaCl: Portable Native Client Executables" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Sehr, David; Muth, Robert; Biffle, Cliff L.; Khimenko, Victor; Pasko, Egor; Yee, Bennet; Schimpf, Karl; Chen, Brad (2010). "Adapting Software Fault Isolation to Contemporary CPU Architectures". 19th USENIX Security Symposium. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- Yee, Bennet; Sehr, David; Dardyk, Greg; Chen, Brad; Muth, Robert; Ormandy, Tavis; Okasaka, Shiki; Narula, Neha; Fullagar, Nicholas (2009). "Native Client: A Sandbox for Portable, Untrusted x86 Native Code". IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Oakland'09). Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- "Native Client: Building". developer.chrome.com. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Technical Overview".
- "Pepper Plugin API project at". Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Chrome Source: Index of /trunk/src/ppapi". Src.chromium.org. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "The road to safer, more stable, and flashier Flash". 8 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Metz, Cade (18 June 2010). "Google hugs Adobe harder with Chrome-PDF merge". The Register. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Getting Started: Background and Basics – The Chromium Projects". Chromium.org. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Pepper.wiki". 24 February 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Release Notes".
- Metz, Cade (13 May 2010). "Google heats up native code for Chrome OS". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Anthony Laforge (10 August 2020). "Changes to the Chrome App Support Timeline". Chromium Blog.
- Zbarsky, Boris. "Bug 729481 - Support the "Pepper" Plugin api". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Metz, Cade (3 October 2016). "Project Mortar". Mozilla. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "The Go Playground".
- "Inside the Go Playground - The Go Blog". blog.golang.org. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Austin, Chad (8 January 2011). "Chad Austin: In Defense of Language Democracy (Or: Why the Browser Needs a Virtual Machine)". Chadaustin.me. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
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- Avram, Abel (31 May 2017). "Google Is to Remove Support for PNaCl". InfoQ. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
As a replacement, Google is now pushing WebAssembly.
- Official website, Google Project (expired, project has moved)
- Official website, developers
- on YouTube
- on YouTube – Technical talk at Google I/O 2009
- A list of OSS projects ported to Native Client
- Native Client source code in Git
- PNaCl examples (runs in Chrome 31+, PNaCl, i.e. no installation needed)
- Native Client SDK Gallery
- torapp.info, vector editor, especially powerful for security printing (not PNaCl)
- NACLBox, a port of DOSBox to Native Client (PNaCl)
- SodaSynth, a synthesizer for Native Client (not PNaCl)
- pnacl-amiga-emulator, a port of UAE, an Amiga 500 emulator
- Abadía del crimen, a port of the SDL version of Vigasoco (remake of La Abadía del Crimen) to Native Client (PNaCl)
- Bennugd, a port of Bennugd Videogames examples to Native Client (PNaCl)