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|Initial release||October 23, 2000|
Google Ads (formerly Google AdWords) is an online advertising platform developed by Google, where advertisers bid to display brief advertisements, service offerings, product listings, or videos to web users. It can place ads both in the results of search engines like Google Search (the Google Search Network) and on non-search websites, mobile apps, and videos (the Google Display Network). Services are offered under a pay-per-click (PPC) pricing model.
Google launched AdWords in 2000. At first, AdWords advertisers paid for the service monthly, and Google would set up and manage their campaign. To accommodate small businesses and those who wanted to manage their own campaigns, Google soon introduced the AdWords self-service portal. In 2005, Google started a campaign management service called Jumpstart.
The AdWords system was initially implemented on top of the MySQL database engine. After the system had been launched, management decided to use Oracle instead but was eventually reverted to MySQL after the system became much slower. Eventually, Google developed a custom distributed Relational database management system (RDBMS) known as Google F1 specifically for the needs of the Ad business. The interface offers Spreadsheet Editing, Search Query Reports, and conversion metrics.
In 2008, Google launched the Google Online Marketing Challenge, an in-class academic exercise for tertiary students. Over 8,000 students from 47 countries participated in the challenge in 2008, over 10,000 students from 58 countries took part in 2009, about 12,000 students in 2010, and almost 15,000 students from 70 countries in 2011. The Challenge runs annually, roughly from January to June.
In April 2013, Google announced plans to add enhanced campaigns for AdWords to aid with campaign management catered to multiple-device users. The enhanced campaigns aimed to include advanced reports about users. This move was controversial among advertisers.
In July 2016, Google unveiled "Showcase Shopping" ads. With this format, retailers can choose to have a series of images that appear in search results related to various search queries and keywords.
In October 2017, Google revised AdWords' daily budget caps, which were previously set at a maximum of 120% of preset daily budgets, to a maximum of 200%. This change was rolled out on the same day it was announced, prompting criticism from paid search professionals, though Google later clarified that this change would affect only short-term campaigns of less than 30 days and that for campaigns running more than 30 days, overage charges would be refunded.
Sales and support for Google's Ads division in the United States is based in Mountain View, California, with major secondary offices in Hyderabad, Dublin, Singapore, Ann Arbor and New York City. The third-largest US facility is the Googleplex, Google's headquarters, which is located in Mountain View, California. Google AdWords engineering is based at the Googleplex, with major secondary offices in Los Angeles and New York.
Google Ads' system is based partly on cookies and partly on keywords determined by advertisers. Google uses these characteristics to place advertising copy on pages where they think it might be relevant. Advertisers pay when users divert their browsing to click on the advertising copy. Adverts can be implemented locally, nationally, or internationally.
Google's text advertisements mimic what the average search result looks like on Google. Image ads can be one of the several different standardized sizes as designated by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB). In May 2016, Google announced Expanded Text Ads, allowing 23% more text.
Besides the Google search engine, advertisers also have the option of enabling their ads to show on Google's partner networks, including AOL search, Ask.com, and Netscape, who receive portion of generated income.
- The Keyword Planner provides data on Google searches and other resources to help plan advertising campaigns.
- AdWords Express (previously "Google Boost") is a feature aimed at small businesses that attempts to reduce the difficulty of managing ad campaigns by automatically managing keywords and ad placement.
- Google Ads Editor is a downloadable program that allows users to make bulk changes to ads and edit ads offline. It also allows users to see ad performance, like the dashboard.[non-primary source needed]
- Google Ads Manager Accounts (previously "My Client Centre (MCC)") allows users to manage multiple accounts from one login and dashboard.[non-primary source needed] This is most commonly used by Marketing and Advertising agencies who manage a large portfolio of client accounts.
- The Reach Planner allows users to forecast the reach and extent of their video ads across YouTube and Google video partners.[non-primary source needed] The tool allows users to choose their audience, then recommends a combination of video ads that help reach the user's objectives, and see the reach of their ads.[non-primary source needed]
- In addition to location and language targeting, advertisers can specify Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to be excluded. Advertisers can exclude up to 500 IP address ranges per campaign.[non-primary source needed]
- Google Academy for Ads (previously "Google Partners", "Google AdWords Certification Program" and "Google AdWords Certification") provides a qualification to clients who pass a Google Ads Fundamentals exam and one Advanced AdWords exams on search, display, video, shopping, or mobile advertising, or Google Analytics.[non-primary source needed] Google Partners must maintain a minimum spend threshold of US$10,000 over 90 days, with a higher spend threshold for Google Premier Partners.[non-primary source needed]
- Placement-targeted advertisements (formerly Site-Targeted Advertisements) places adverts based on keywords, domain names, topics, and demographic targeting preferences entered by the advertiser. If domain names are targeted, Google also provides a list of related sites for placement. Advertisers bid on a cost-per-impression (CPI/CPM) or cost-per-click (CPC) basis for site targeting.[non-primary source needed] The minimum cost-per-thousand impressions bid for placement-targeted campaigns is 25 cents. There is no minimum CPC bid.
- Remarketing allows marketers to show advertisements to users that have previously visited their website, and allows marketers to create different audience lists based on the behavior of website visitors. Remarketing Lists for Search (RLSA) via Google Analytics became available in Google Ads in early June 2015, allowing for the use of standard GA remarketing lists to plan traditional text search ads.[non-primary source needed] Dynamic remarketing can show past visitors the specific products or services they viewed.[non-primary source needed] While common, some users may find overly overt use intrusive.
- Ad extensions allow advertisers to show extra information with their ads, such as a business address, phone number, links to a web page or app, prices, or sales and promotions. Google Ads may also display automated extensions such as consumer ratings when the system predicts they will improve performance.
- The Google Ad Grants program gives eligible nonprofits US$10,000 per month in Google Ads credits, and has served over 100,000 nonprofits and charities worldwide since its launch in 2003.[non-primary source needed][failed verification]
Restrictions on ad content
The "Family status" of an ad ("family safe", "non-family safe", or "adult") is set by a Google reviewer and indicates what “audiences the ad and website are appropriate for”. This affects when and where, including in which countries, an ad can appear.
As of April 2008, Google AdWords no longer allows for the display URL to deviate from that of the destination URL. Prior to this, paid advertisements could feature different landing page URLs to that of what was being displayed on the search network. Google explained that this policy change stems from both user and advertiser feedback. The concern prompting the restriction change is believed to be the premise on which users clicked advertisements. In some cases, users were being misled and further targeted by AdWords advertisers prior to this change.
As of December 2010, Google AdWords decreased restrictions over sales of hard alcohol. It now allows ads that promote the sale of hard alcohol and liquor. This is an extension of a policy change that was made in December 2008, which permitted ads that promote the branding of hard alcohol and liquor.
Some keywords, such as those related to hacking, are not allowed at all. From June 2007, Google banned AdWords adverts for student essay-writing services, a move which received positive feedback from universities. Google has a variety of specific keywords and categories that it prohibits that vary by type and by country. For example, use of keywords for alcohol related products are prohibited in Thailand and Turkey; keywords for gambling and casinos are prohibited in Poland; keywords for abortion services are prohibited in Russia and Ukraine; and keywords for adult related services or products are prohibited worldwide as of June 2014.
In March 2020, at the beginning of the Coronavirus crisis, Google blocked all face masks keywords from being eligible for ads targeting as part of a policy to prevent companies attempting to capitalise on the pandemic.
Whenever a user conducts a search on Google, AdWords runs an auction to determine which search ads are displayed on the search results page as well as the ad's position. The cost of a Google AdWords campaign therefore depends on a variety of factors, including the maximum amount an advertiser is willing to pay per click, the keywords being bid on, and the relevance and click frequency of ads and ad extensions.
Lawsuits and controversies
Google Ads has been the subject of lawsuits relating to trademark law (Google, Inc. v. Am. Blind & Wallpaper Factory and Rescuecom Corp. v. Google Inc.), fraud (Goddard v. Google, Inc.), and click fraud.
Overture Services, Inc. sued Google for patent infringement in April 2002 in relation to the AdWords service. The suit was settled in 2004 after Yahoo! acquired Overture; Google agreed to issue 2.7 million shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license under the patent.
In 2006, Google settled a click fraud lawsuit for US$90 million.
In May 2011, Google cancelled the AdWord advertisement purchased by a Dublin sex worker rights group named "Turn Off the Blue Light" (TOBL), claiming that it represented an "egregious violation" of company ad policy by "selling adult sexual services". However, TOBL is a nonprofit campaign for sex worker rights and is not advertising or selling adult sexual services. After TOBL members held a protest outside Google's European headquarters in Dublin and sent in written complaints, Google reviewed the group's website. Google found the website content to be advocating a political position, and restored the AdWord advertisement.
In June 2012, Google rejected the Australian Sex Party's ads for AdWords and sponsored search results for the July 12 by-election for the state seat of Melbourne, saying the Australian Sex Party breached its rules which prevent solicitation of donations by a website that did not display tax exempt status. Although the Australian Sex Party amended its website to display tax deductibility information, Google continued to ban the ads. The ads were reinstated on election eve after it was reported in the media that the Australian Sex Party was considering suing Google. On September 13, 2012, the Australian Sex Party lodged formal complaints against Google with the US Department of Justice and the Australian competition watchdog, accusing Google of "unlawful interference in the conduct of a state election in Victoria with corrupt intent" in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
In December 2019, France fined Google €150 million for advertiser suspensions on Google Ads, arguing it had "abused its dominant position by adopting opaque and difficult to understand rules" which it was then free to "interpret and modify" at its own discretion.
Google has come under fire for allowing AdWords advertisers to bid on trademarked keywords. In 2004, Google started allowing advertisers to bid on a wide variety of search terms in the US and Canada, including trademarks of their competitors and in May 2008 expanded this policy to the UK and Ireland. Advertisers are restricted from using other companies' trademarks in their advertisement text if the trademark has been registered with Advertising Legal Support team.
In March 2010, Google was involved with a trademark infringement case involving three French companies that own Louis Vuitton trademarks. The lawsuit concerned if Google was responsible for advertisers purchasing keywords that violate trademark infringement. Ultimately, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that Google AdWords were “not a breach of EU trade mark law, but that the content of some advertisements that are linked by Google keywords may well be in breach depending upon the particular facts of the case.”  Additionally, in some American jurisdictions, the use of a person's name as a keyword for advertising or trade purposes without the person's consent has raised Right to Privacy concerns.
In 2013, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals held in 1-800 Contacts, Inc. v. Lens.com, Inc. that online contact lens seller Lens.com did not commit trademark infringement when it purchased AdWords and other search advertisements using competitor 1-800 Contacts' federally registered 1800 CONTACTS trademark as a keyword. In August 2016, the Federal Trade Commission filed an administrative complaint against 1-800 Contacts alleging that its search advertising trademark enforcement practices have unreasonably restrained competition in violation of the FTC Act. 1-800 Contacts has denied all wrongdoing and is scheduled to appear before an FTC administrative law judge in April 2017.
IT support ban
In 2018, Google implemented a policy change which restricts the advertising of consumer technical support, including, "troubleshooting, security, virus removal, internet connectivity, online accounts (for example, password resets or login support), or software installation", Google's Director of Global Product Policy, David Graff stated that the policy was intended to "address abuse" and "fraudulent activity" from third-party technical support providers, and that a verification program for legitimate providers would be rolled out "in the coming months". This is yet to manifest, resulting in an effective ban on all IT support and repair related services on the Google Ads platform. Commentators have expressed concerns that this is an attempt by Google to stifle consumers' right to repair electronic devices.
- List of Google products
- Click fraud
- Search engine marketing
- Dynamic keyword insertion
- Central ad server
- Performance-based advertising
- Digital marketing
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