Type of site
|Key people||Jens Eilstrup Rasmussen
Lars Rasmussen (co-founder)
|Registration||Optional, included with a Google Account|
|Launched||February 8, 2005|
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google. It offers satellite imagery, street maps, 360° panoramic views of streets (Street View), real-time traffic conditions (Google Traffic), and route planning for traveling by foot, car, bicycle (in beta), or public transportation.
Google Maps' satellite view is a "top-down" or "birds eye" view; most of the high-resolution imagery of cities is aerial photography taken from aircraft flying at 800 to 1,500 feet (240 to 460 m), while most other imagery is from satellites. Much of the available satellite imagery is no more than three years old and is updated on a regular basis. Google Maps uses a close variant of the Mercator projection, and therefore cannot accurately show areas around the poles.
The current redesigned version of the desktop application was made available in 2013, alongside the "classic" (pre-2013) version. Google Maps for Android and iOS devices was released in September 2008 and features GPS turn-by-turn navigation along with dedicated parking assistance features. In August 2013, it was determined to be the world's most popular app for smartphones, with over 54% of global smartphone owners using it at least once.
In 2012, Google reported having over 7,100 employees and contractors directly working in mapping.
- 1 Directions
- 2 Implementation
- 3 Extensibility and customization
- 4 History
- 5 Google's use of classic Google Maps
- 5.1 Google Moon
- 5.2 Google Mars
- 5.3 Google Sky
- 5.4 Google Ride Finder
- 5.5 Google Traffic
- 5.6 Google Transit
- 5.7 Google biking directions
- 5.8 Google My Maps
- 5.9 Google Street View
- 5.10 Google Underwater Street View
- 5.11 Google Aerial View
- 5.12 Google Latitude
- 5.13 Google Flu Vaccine Finder
- 5.14 Monopoly City Streets
- 5.15 Indoor Google Maps
- 5.16 Google Maps Business View
- 5.17 My Maps
- 6 Mashups
- 7 Copyright
- 8 Errors
- 9 Potential misuse
- 10 Map projection
- 11 Comparable services
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Extensibility and customization
Using the core engine and the map/satellite images hosted by Google, such tools can introduce custom location icons, location coordinates and metadata, and even custom map image sources into the Google Maps interface. The script-insertion tool Greasemonkey provides a large number of client-side scripts to customize Google Maps data.
Combinations with photo sharing websites, such as Flickr, are used to create "memory maps".[clarification needed What are memory maps?] Using copies of the Keyhole satellite photos, users have taken advantage of image annotation features to provide personal histories and information regarding particular points of the area.
Google Maps API
The Google Maps API is free for commercial use, provided that the site on which it is being used is publicly accessible and does not charge for access, and is not generating more than 25,000 map accesses a day. Sites that do not meet these requirements can purchase the Google Maps API for Business.
The success of the Google Maps API has spawned a number of competing alternatives, including the HERE Maps API, Bing Maps Platform, Leaflet and OpenLayers via self-hosting.. The Yahoo! Maps API is in the process of being shut down.
In September 2011, Google announced it would discontinue a number of its products, including Google Maps API for Flash.
Google Maps for Android and iOS mobile devices
The Android app was first released in September 2008, though the GPS-localization feature had been in testing on cellphones since 2007. Google Maps was Apple's solution for its mapping service on iOS until the release of iOS 6 in September 2012, at which point it was replaced by Apple Maps, with Google releasing its own Google Maps standalone app on the iOS platform the following December.
The Google Maps apps on Android and iOS have many features in common, including turn-by-turn navigation, street view, and public transit information. Updates in June 2012 and May 2014 enabled functionality to let users save certain map regions for offline access, while updates in 2017 have included features to actively help U.S. users find available parking spots in cities, and to give Indian users a two-wheeler transportation mode for improved traffic accessibility.
Google Maps and Street View parameters
In Google Maps, URL parameters are sometimes data-driven in their limits and the user interface presented by the web may or may not reflect those limits. In particular, the zoom level (denoted by the z parameter) supported varies. In less populated regions, the supported zoom levels might stop at around 18. In earlier versions of the API, specifying these higher values might result in no image being displayed. In Western cities, the supported zoom level generally stops at about 20. In some isolated cases, the data supports up to 23 or greater, as in these elephants or this view of people at a well in Chad, Africa. Different versions of the API and web interfaces may or may not fully support these higher levels.
As of October 2010, the Google map viewer updates its zoom bar to allow the user to zoom all the way when centered over areas that support higher zoom levels. In the classic version, customized (split) Map and Street View views can be saved as parametrized URL links and shared by users. In the 2013 redesigned version, a much smaller overview window becomes interactive upon hovering it and enables a user to change the location and rotate the Street View and save a parametrized view, as well.
Google Maps first started as a C++ program designed by two Danish brothers, Lars and Jens Eilstrup Rasmussen, at the Sydney-based company Where 2 Technologies. It was first designed to be separately downloaded by users, but the company later pitched the idea for a purely Web-based product to Google management, changing the method of distribution. In October 2004, the company was acquired by Google Inc. where it transformed into the web application Google Maps. In the same month, Google acquired Keyhole, a geospatial data visualization company (with controversial investment from the CIA), whose marquee application suite, Earth Viewer, emerged as the highly successful Google Earth application in 2005 while other aspects of its core technology were integrated into Google Maps. In September 2004 Google acquired ZipDash, a company that provided realtime traffic analysis.
The application was first announced on the Google Blog on February 8, 2005, and was located at Google. It originally only supported users of Internet Explorer and Mozilla web browsers. Support for Opera and Safari was added on February 25, 2005, however, later browser requirements excluded Opera as a supported browser. It was in beta for six months before becoming part of Google Local on October 6, 2005.
In April 2005, Google created Google Ride Finder using Google Maps. In June 2005, Google released the Google Maps API. In July 2005, Google began Google Maps and Google Local services for Japan, including road maps. On July 22, 2005, Google released "Hybrid View". Together with this change, the satellite image data was converted from plate carrée to Mercator projection, which makes for a less distorted image in the temperate climes latitudes. In July 2005, in honor of the thirty-sixth anniversary of the Apollo Moon landing, Google Moon was launched. In September 2005, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Google Maps quickly updated its satellite imagery of New Orleans to allow users to view the extent of the flooding in various parts of that city. (Oddly, in March 2007, imagery showing hurricane damage was replaced with images from before the storm; this replacement was not made on Google Earth, which still uses post-Katrina imagery.)
From January 2006, Google Maps featured road maps for the United States, Puerto Rico, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, and certain cities in the Republic of Ireland. Coverage of the area around Turin was added in time for the 2006 Winter Olympics. On January 23, Google Maps was updated to use the same satellite image database as Google Earth. On March 12, Google Mars was launched, which features a draggable map and satellite imagery of the planet Mars. In April, Google Local was merged into the main Google Maps site. On April 3, version 2 of the Maps API was released. On June 11, Google added geocoding capabilities to the API, satisfying the most developer-requested feature for this service. On June 14, Google Maps for Enterprise was officially launched. As a commercial service, it features intranet and advertisement-free implementations. Also in June, textured 3D building models were added into Google Earth.
In July, Google started including Google Maps business listings in the form of Local OneBoxes in the main Google search results. In December, Google integrated a feature called Plus Box into the main search results. On December 19 Google added a feature that lets one add multiple destinations to their driving directions. Beginning in February 2007, buildings and subway stops are displayed in Google Maps "map view" for parts of New York City, Washington, D.C., London, San Francisco, and some other cities.
On January 29, 2007, Local Universal results were upgraded and more data included in the main Google results page. On February 28, Google Traffic info was officially launched to automatically include real-time traffic flow conditions to the maps of 30 major cities in the United States. On March 8, the Local Business Center was upgraded. On May 16, Google rolled out Universal search results, including more Map information on the main Google results page. On May 18, Google added neighborhood search capabilities. On May 29, Google driving directions support was added to the Google Maps API. The same day saw the launch of Street View, which gave a ground-level 360-degree view of streets in the major cities of the United States.
On June 19, reviews were allowed to be added directly to businesses on Google Maps. On June 28, draggable driving directions were introduced. On July 31, support for the hCard microformat was announced. On August 21, Google announced a simple way to embed Google Maps into other websites. On September 13, 54 new countries were added to Google Maps in Latin America and Asia.
On October 3, Google Transit was integrated to make public transportation routing possible on Google Maps. On October 27, Google Maps started mapping the geoweb and showing the results in Google Maps. On October 27, Google Maps added a searchable interface for coupons in the business listings. November 27 saw the launch of "Terrain" view, showing basic topographic features. The button for "Hybrid" view was removed, and replaced with a "Show labels" checkbox under the "Satellite" button to switch between "Hybrid" and "Satellite" views.
On January 22, 2008, Google expanded the Local One box from three business listings to ten. On February 20, Google Maps allowed searches to be refined by User Rating and neighborhoods. On March 18, Google allowed end users to edit business listings and add new places; the following day, unlimited category options were added to the Local Business Center. On April 2, Google added contour lines to the Terrain view. In April, a button to view recent Saved Locations was added to the right of the search field. In May, a "More" button was added alongside the "Map", "Satellite", and "Terrain" buttons, permitting access to geographically related photos on Panoramio and articles on Wikipedia. On May 15, Google Maps was ported to Flash and ActionScript 3 as a foundation for richer internet applications. On July 22, walking directions were added. On August 4, Street View expanded to Japan and Australia. On August 5, the user interface was redesigned.
On August 29, Google signed a deal under which Geo Eye would supply them with imagery from a satellite, and introduced the Map Maker tool, which allows any user to improve the map data seen by all. On September 19, 2008, a reverse business lookup feature was added. On September 26, information for the New York City Metropolitan Transit Authority was added. On October 7, GeoEye-1 took its first image, a bird's-eye view of Kutztown University in Pennsylvania. On October 26, reverse geocoding was added to the Maps API. On November 11, Street View expanded to Spain, Italy, and France. On November 23, AIR support for the Maps API for Flash was added. On November 14, a new user interface for Street View was introduced. On November 28, maps, local business information, and local trends for China were introduced. On December 9, 2008, 2x Street View coverage was introduced.
On March 19, 2009 Street View was launched in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In May, a new Google Maps logo was introduced. In early October, Google replaced Tele Atlas as their primary supplier of geo spatial data in the US version of Maps and use their own data. Later that month, the railroad design was updated, and maps in several areas were changed to include paper streets and lot lines showing up on the map interface.
On February 11, 2010, Google Maps Labs was added. On March 11, 2010, Street View in Hong Kong and Macau were launched. On May 25, 2010, public transportation routing for Denmark was added by integrating with Rejseplanen.dk. As of December 2010[update] Internet Explorer 7.0+, Firefox 3.6+, Safari 3.1+, and Google Chrome are supported.
On April 8, 2011 Google announced that it would begin charging for API usage by commercial sites over a limit. They also introduced a premium licensed service.
On April 19, 2011, Map Maker was added to the American version of Google Maps, allowing any viewer to edit and add changes to Google Maps. This provides Google with local map updates almost in real time instead waiting for digital map data companies to release more infrequent updates.
On January 31, 2012, Google, due to offering its Maps for free, was found guilty of abusing the dominant position of its Google Maps application and ordered by a court to pay a fine and damages to Bottin Cartographer, a French mapping company.
On May 30, 2012, Google Places was replaced by Google+ Local, which now integrates directly with the Google+ service to allow users to post photos and reviews of locations directly to its page on the service. Additionally, Google+ Local and Maps also now feature detailed reviews and ratings from Zagat, which was acquired by Google in September 2011.
In June 2012, Google started mapping Britain's rivers and canals in partnership with the Canal and River Trust. The company has stated that it will update the program during the year to allow users to plan trips which include locks, bridges and towpaths along the 2,000 miles of river paths in the UK.
It was announced on October 11 that Google updated 250,000 miles of roads in the US.
In December 2012, the Google Maps application was separately made available in the App Store, after Apple removed it from its default installation of the mobile operating system version iOS 6. In the face of numerous complaints about the newly released Apple Maps application, Apple CEO Tim Cook was forced to make an apology and recommend other similar applications.
On April 23, 2013, Street View was launched in Hungary and Lesotho, expanding the coverage of Google Maps' 360-degree mapping imagery to fifty countries. During the same time period, Google also completed the "largest single update of Street View imagery" ever, with photos of over 350,000 miles (560,000 km) of road across fourteen countries.
Google announced on its Google Maps blog on May 15, 2013 that a new upgraded version of Google Maps is available for use by those registered Google users who request an invitation. The new Google Maps can create a customized map that is specific to the behavior of each user, revealing highlights that are based on the information that is entered, and providing useful local information such as restaurants. A new feature is a carousel that gathers all Google Maps imagery in one location and contains an Earth view that directly integrates the 3D experience from Google Earth into the new maps. The new version is also more closely connected to Google+ and the local businesses that are displayed are based on each user's Google+ network. Advertisements in the new Google Maps have been redesigned and short sections of advertisements are placed directly onto the map itself, alongside the business name.
On February 21, 2014 Google introduced a new Google Maps interface, although it is not the default interface as of December 2014.
On April 12, 2014, Google Maps was updated to reflect the 2014 Crimean crisis. Crimea is shown as the Republic of Crimea in Russia and as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine. All other versions show a dotted disputed border.
In April 2015, on a map near the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi, imagery of the Android logo urinating on the Apple logo was added via Map Maker and appeared on Google Maps. The vandalism was soon removed and Google publicly apologized. However, as a result, Google disabled user moderation on Map Maker, and on May 12, disabled editing worldwide until it can devise a new policy for approving edits and avoiding vandalism.
On April 29, 2015, users of the classic Google Maps were forwarded to the new Google Maps with the option to revert removed from the interface. The old url schemes also forwarded to the new Google Maps, making it impossible for users to use the classic version. However, on various blogs users have found workarounds to continue using the classic Google Maps. One blogger also launched a petition directed to Google CEO Larry Page, asking him to give back the option to use the classic Maps, which has received over 17,000 signatures.
On June 27, 2016, Google rolled out new satellite imagery worldwide sourced from Landsat 8, comprising over 700 trillion pixels of new data. In September 2016, Google Maps acquired mapping analytics startup Urban Engines.
On February 6, 2017, Google Maps for Android was updated with new UI including improvement of transit times, traffic data, local places and recommendations feature.
On October 16, 2017, Google Maps was updated with accessible imagery of several planets and moons such as Titan, Mercury, and Venus, as well as direct access to imagery of the Moon and Mars.
On November 15, 2017, Google announced a significant update to the Google Maps formatting. Locations and points of interests will change based on the perceived user intent. The example they used was of a driver seeing gas stations on their map where a transit user using Google Maps in the same location would get train stations.
Google's use of classic Google Maps
In honor of the 36th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing on July 20, 1969, Google took public domain imagery of the Moon, integrated it into the Google Maps interface, and created a tool called Google Moon. By default this tool, with a reduced set of features, also displays the points of landing of all Apollo spacecraft to land on the Moon. It also included an Easter egg, displaying a Swiss cheese design at the highest zoom level, which Google has since removed. A collaborative project between NASA Ames Research Center and Google called the Planetary Content Project integrates and improves the data that is used for Google Moon. Google Moon was linked from a special commemorative version of the Google logo displayed at the top of the main Google search page for July 20, 2005 (UTC).
Google Mars provides a visible imagery view, like Google Moon, as well as infrared imagery and shaded relief (elevation) of the planet Mars. Users can toggle between the elevation, visible, and infrared data, in the same manner as switching between map, satellite, and hybrid modes of Google Maps. In collaboration with NASA scientists at the Mars Space Flight Facility located at Arizona State University, Google has provided the public with data collected from two NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor and 2001 Mars Odyssey.
Now, with Google Earth 5 it is possible to access new improved Google Mars data at a much higher resolution, as well as being able to view the terrain in 3D, and viewing panoramas from various Mars landers in a similar way to Google Street View.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2010)
On August 27, 2007, Google introduced Google Sky, an online space mapping tool that allows users to pan through a map of the visible universe, using photographs taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.
Google Ride Finder
Google launched an experimental Google Maps-based tool called Ride Finder, tapping into in-car GPS units for a selection of participating taxi and limousine services. The tool displays the current location of all supported vehicles of the participating services in major US cities, including Chicago and San Francisco, on a Google Maps street map. As of 2009[update] the tool seems to be discontinued.
In 2007, Google Maps began offering traffic data in real-time, using a colored map overlay to display the speed of vehicles on particular roads. Crowdsourcing is used to obtain the GPS-determined locations of a large number of cellphone users, from which live traffic maps are produced.
In December 2005, Google launched public transport route planner Google Transit on Google Labs, a 20% project of Chris Harrelson and Avichal Garg. Google Transit launched initially with support for Portland, Oregon, and now includes hundreds of cities in the United States, Canada, Europe, Africa and Australasia. The service calculates route, transit time and cost, and can compare the trip to one using a car. In October 2007 Google Transit graduated from Google Labs and became fully integrated into Google Maps. Google has provided real-time transit updates for selected locations since 2011. Google created the General Transit Feed Specification (formerly 'Google Transit Feed Specification') as a simple way of exchanging transit information. GTFSs are needed for information to be provided on Maps.
The coverage of Google Transit is publicly available. It is spread worldwide, in hundreds of cities and sometimes in entire countries such as China, Great Britain, Japan and Switzerland. Information is also available for most major cities in the United States and in Canada. In other areas, Google Transit only provides routing for some agencies or modes, for example in Paris. In others only the Transit map Layer is available, but no routing, for example in Vienna because local providers refuse to provide GTFS data.
Google biking directions
On March 10, 2010, Google added the possibility to search for biking directions on Google Maps. Optimal routes are calculated from traffic, elevation change, bike paths, bike lanes, and preferred roads for biking. An optional layer also shows different types of biking paths, from bike-only trails to preferred roads. This service is available in the US and Canada, and is in beta testing in some other countries such as Singapore. In May 2013, Google Maps' biking direction added 6 more European countries: France, Ireland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Poland.
Google My Maps
In April 2007, My Maps was a new feature added to Google's local search maps. My Maps lets users and businesses create their own map by positioning markers, polylines and polygons onto a map. The interface is a straightforward overlay on the map. A set of eighty-four pre-designed markers is available, ranging from bars and restaurants to webcam and earthquake symbols. Poly line and Polygon color, width and opacity are selectable. Maps modified using My Maps can be saved for later viewing and made public or marked as unlisted, in which case a user will need the saved URL with a 42-character unique ID.
Each element added to a My Map has an editable tag. This tag can contain text, rich text or HTML. Embeddable video and other content can be included within the HTML tag.
Upon the launch of My Maps there was no facility to embed the created maps into a webpage or blog. A few independent websites have now produced tools to let users embed maps and add further functionality to their maps. This has been resolved with version 2.78.
Google Street View
On May 25, 2007, Google released Google Street View, a new feature of Google Maps which provides 360° panoramic street-level views of various locations. On the date of release, the feature only included five cities in the US. It has since expanded to thousands of locations around the world. In July 2009, Google began mapping college campuses and surrounding paths and trails.
Street View garnered much controversy after its release because of privacy concerns about the uncensored nature of the panoramic photographs. Since then, Google has begun blurring faces and license plates through automatic and face detection. A side effect of this is that many unrelated objects, such as traffic signs, road information, and street advertising, have often been blurred.
Google Underwater Street View
In late 2014, Google launched Google Underwater Street View, including 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) of the Australian Great Barrier Reef in 3D. The images are taken by special cameras which turn 360 degrees and shoot in every 3 seconds.
Google Aerial View
In December 2009, Google released Aerial View, consisting of angled aerial imagery, offering a "bird's eye view" of cities. The first cities available were San Jose and San Diego. This feature was available only to developers via the Google Maps API. In February 2010 it was introduced as an experimental feature in Google Maps Labs.
In July 2010, Aerial View was made available in Google Maps in select cities in the United States and worldwide.
Google Latitude was a feature from Google that lets users share their physical locations with other people. This service was based on Google Maps, specifically on mobile devices. There was an iGoogle widget for Desktops and Laptops as well. Some concerns were expressed about the privacy issues raised by the use of the service. On August 9, 2013, this service was discontinued, and in Mar 22, 2017, Google incorporated the features from Latitude into the Google Maps app. 
Google Flu Vaccine Finder
Monopoly City Streets
Indoor Google Maps
In March 2011, indoor maps were added to Google Maps for Android, giving users the ability to navigate themselves within buildings such as airports, museums, shopping malls, big-box stores, universities, transit stations, and other public spaces (including underground facilities). In July 2013, a revised version of Google Maps added support for Apple iOS devices, including iPads and iPhones. Google encourages owners of public facilities to submit floor plans of their buildings in order to add them to the service. Map users can view different floors of a building or subway station by clicking on a level selector that is displayed near any structures which are mapped on multiple levels.
Google Maps Business View
Originally called Google Business Photos, initially offered in April 2010 to select cities around the United States, Google Business View has expanded to 27 different countries, including over 180 cities in the United States. The program is run by Google but the photography is taken by specially certified photographers (called Google Trusted Photographers). The regions currently being served are the US, Canada, Spain, Italy, the UK, France, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Ireland, Australia, Germany, Russia, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland, Belgium, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, India and New Zealand. Photographers can take up to 200 panoramas per business location. Google has set up a website where interested businesses can get more information.
Previous versions of Google Maps (now called "classic maps") had a feature called 'My Places', allowing users to create maps with many locations saved as markers or 'pins'. These maps were used to reference places frequently visited or planned to be visited, planning or recording trip itineraries, etc. For example, a person could create a map of their favorite restaurants and share it with friends. Users could customize the look of markers, add comments to each marker, create routes, etc. These maps could easily be shared and were accessible from any browser when signed in, and from the mobile app for android. Multiple users could also collaborate on editing maps, and formerly maps could be made public to search by other users.
In 2013 Google started phasing out the 'My Places' features, including 'my maps'. My Places is not included in the 'New Google Maps' for browsers, or in the Android app since version 7 launched in July 2013. Currently users can revert to 'Classic Maps' from web browsers to access, edit, and download their maps, this will not be possible once the option to revert to classic maps is removed. Google initially stated that the feature would be returned to future versions of the mobile app when version 7 was launched. However, since then there have been no indications that google plans to do so, and as of version 7.7 in March 2014, the feature has not been added. Many users have complained about the lack of this feature, with no response from Google. Some users have downloaded prior versions of the Google Maps app, before version 7, which still support 'My Maps', though the feature can be unreliable.
Google 'My Maps' allow user to download and print high resolution maps.
Google Maps interface links through the "Wikipedia layer" to the geo-tags placed in English Wikipedia articles, but does not support non-English ones, reducing its usefulness in non-English languages and in non-English speaking territories. It also links to photos with GPS tags from Panoramio.
The Google Maps terms and conditions state that usage of material from Google Maps is regulated by Google Terms of Service and some additional restrictions. Google has either purchased local map data from established companies, or has entered into lease agreements to use copyrighted map data. The owner of the copyright is listed at the bottom of zoomed maps. For example, street maps in Japan are leased from Zenrin. Street maps in China are leased from AutoNavi. Russian street maps are leased from Geocentre Consulting and Tele Atlas. Data for North Korea is sourced from the companion project Google Map Maker.
Fixing and reporting errors
In areas where Google Map Maker was available, for example, much of Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe as well as the United States and Canada, anyone who logged into their Google account could directly improve the map by fixing incorrect driving directions, adding biking trails, or adding a missing building or road. General map errors in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States could be reported using the Report a Problem link in Google Maps and would be updated by Google. For areas where Google used Tele Atlas data, map errors could be reported using Tele Atlas map insight.
If imagery was missing, outdated, misaligned, or generally incorrect, one could notify Google through their contact request form.
In November 2016, Google announced the discontinuation of Google Map Maker as of March 2017.
Google Maps has difficulty processing ZIP code data when dealing with cross-boundary situations. For example, users are unable to obtain a route from Hong Kong to Shenzhen via Shatoujiao, because Google Maps does not display and plan the road map of two overlapping places.
Sometimes the names of geographical locations are inaccurate. An example of this type of error could be found in Google Maps Laona, Wisconsin. In this instance Google Maps identified one of the town's two major lakes as "Dawson Lake"; the USGS, State of Wisconsin, and local government maps all identify that map feature as "Scattered Rice Lake". Another example was Samoa, labeled with "Western Samoa", accurate only as recently as 1997.
Users are allowed to suggest corrections using the "Send feedback" button. These suggestions are reviewed, and either accepted or declined; the user is informed when this decision occurs.
Google collates business listings from multiple on-line and off-line sources. To reduce duplication in the index, Google's algorithm combines listings automatically based on address, phone number, or geocode, but sometimes information for separate businesses will be inadvertently merged with each other, resulting in listings inaccurately incorporating elements from multiple businesses.
Google has also recruited volunteers to check and correct ground truth data.
Google Maps can easily be manipulated by businesses which aren't physically located in the area they record a listing. There are cases of people abusing Google Places to overtake their competition where they place a number of unverified listings on online directory sites knowing the information will roll across to Google (duplicate sites). The people that update these listings do not use a registered business name. Keywords and location details are placed on their Google Places business title which overtake credible business listings. In Australia in particular, genuine companies and businesses are noticing a trend of fake business listings in a variety of industries.
Street map overlays, in some areas, may not match up precisely with the corresponding satellite images. The street data may be entirely erroneous, or simply out of date: "The biggest challenge is the currency of data, the authenticity of data," said Google Earth representative Brian McClendon. As a result, in March 2008 Google added a feature to edit the locations of houses and businesses.
Restrictions have been placed on Google Maps through the apparent censoring of locations deemed potential security threats. In some cases the area of redaction is for specific buildings, but in other cases, such as Washington, D.C., the restriction is to use outdated imagery. These locations are fully listed on Satellite map images with missing or unclear data.
Google Maps in China
Within China, the State Council mandates that all maps of China use the GCJ-02 coordinate system, which is offset from the WGS-84 system used in most of the world. google.cn/maps (formerly Google Ditu) uses the GCJ-02 system for both its street maps and satellite imagery. google.com/maps also uses GCJ-02 data for the street map, but uses WGS-84 coordinates for satellite imagery, causing the so-called China GPS shift problem.
Frontier alignments also present some differences between google.cn/maps and google.com/maps. On the latter, sections of the Chinese border with India and Pakistan are shown with dotted lines, indicating areas or frontiers in dispute. However, google.cn shows the Chinese frontier strictly according to Chinese claims with no dotted lines indicating the border with India and Pakistan. For example, the South Tibet region claimed by China but administered by India as a large part of Arunachal Pradesh is shown inside the Chinese frontier by google.cn, with Indian highways ending abruptly at the Chinese claim line. Google.cn also shows Taiwan and the South China Sea Islands as part of China. As of May 2009[update], Google Ditu's street map coverage of Taiwan also omits major state organs, such as the Presidential Palace, the five Yuans, and the Supreme Court.[needs update]
Feature-wise, google.cn/maps does not feature My Maps. On the other hand, while google.cn displays virtually all text in Chinese, google.com/maps displays most text (user-selectable real text as well as those on map) in English. This behavior of displaying English text is not consistent but intermittent – sometimes it is in English, sometimes it is in Chinese. The criteria for choosing which language is displayed are not known publicly.
In 2005 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) complained about the potential for terrorists to use the satellite images in planning attacks, with specific reference to the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor; however, the Australian Federal government did not support the organization's concern. At the time of the ANSTO complaint, Google had colored over some areas for security (mostly in the US), such as the rooftop of the White House and several other Washington, D.C., US buildings.
In October 2010, Nicaraguan military commander Edén Pastora stationed Nicaraguan troops on the Isla Calero (in the delta of the San Juan River), justifying his action on the border delineation given by Google Maps. Google has since updated its data which it found to be incorrect.
On January 27, 2014, documents leaked by Edward Snowden revealed that the NSA and the GCHQ intercepted Google Maps queries made on smartphones, and used them to locate the users making these queries. One leaked document, dating to 2008, stated that "[i]t effectively means that anyone using Google Maps on a smartphone is working in support of a GCHQ system."
- Apple Maps – Apple's map service was launched in 2012 with iOS 6 to replace the Google Maps application on iOS devices
- Bing Maps – Microsoft's mapping service with road maps and aerial/satellite imagery
- Géoportail – a French rival offering detailed aerial photographs of French territories
- Here – a map service developed by Navteq and Nokia and since 2015 owned by a German automobile consortium
- Mapbox – an online service to build custom maps based on OpenStreetMap
- NearMap – Australia specific aerial photography, regularly updated (paid subscription service)
- OpenStreetMap – a royalty free, editable map of the world
- Terralink International
- Waze – similar to Google Maps but also offers right of way indication in satellite mode, along with traffic incidents
- Yahoo! Maps (defunct as of June 2015)
- Yandex Maps
- Comparison of web map services
- Google Apps for Work
- Google Maps Road Trip (live-streaming documentary)
- Indoor positioning system
- Wikiloc, a mashup that shows trails and waypoints on Google Maps
- WikiMapia, a mashup combining Google Maps and a wiki aimed at "describing the whole planet earth"
- "Google Company: Our history in depth". google.co.uk. Google. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- "What is the Google Maps API?".
- Perez, Sarah. "Google to shut down Map Maker, its crowdsourced map editing tool | TechCrunch". Retrieved 2017-06-23.
- "Blurry or Outdated Imagery".
- "How Often is Google Maps and Google Earth Updated?". Technicamix.com. October 18, 2011. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- "Google+ Smartphone App Popularity". Business Insider. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
- Carlson, Nicholas. "To Do What Google Does In Maps, Apple Would Have To Hire 7,000 People". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Luckerson, Victor (February 9, 2015). "10 Google Maps Tricks You Need to Know". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- "Get directions and show routes". Google Maps Help. Google. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Gautham A. S. "Google Revises Their Map, Adds Offline Version and 3D Imaging". TechGau.org. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- "Step inside the map with Google MapsGL". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Arthur, Charles (March 20, 2009). "Where the streets all have Google's name". The Guardian. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Use indoor maps to view floor plans - Computer - Google Maps Help".
- Ian Rose. "PHP and MySQL: Working with Google Maps". Syntaxxx. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "A fresh new look for the Maps API, for all one million sites". googlegeodevelopers.google.com. May 15, 2013.
- "ProgrammableWeb API dashboard". www.programmableweb.com. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "Google Maps API FAQ".
- "Google Maps API FAQ Usage Limits".
- "Google Maps API for Business".
- "We are shutting down this service". Yahoo!.
- Alan Eustace (September 2, 2011). "A fall spring-clean". Google. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- Vanlerberghe, Mac (September 23, 2008). "Google on Android". Google Mobile Blog. Google. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Tseng, Erick (September 23, 2008). "The first Android-powered phone". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Google Announces Launch of Google Maps for Mobile With "My Location" Technology". News from Google. Google. November 28, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Marshall, Matt (November 28, 2007). "Google releases useful "my location" feature for cellphones". VentureBeat. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick (November 28, 2007). "Google Mobile Maps PinPoints Your Location Without GPS". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Gates, Sara (June 11, 2012). "Apple Maps App Officially Debuts, Google Maps Dropped (PHOTOS)". HuffPost. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Chen, Brian X.; Wingfield, Nick (September 19, 2012). "Apple's iPhone Update Leaves Out Google's Maps". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Olanoff, Drew (December 12, 2012). "Google Launches Native Maps For iOS, And Here's The Deep Dive On Navigation, Info Sheets And More". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Bohn, Dieter (December 12, 2012). "Google Maps for iPhone is here: how data and design beat Apple". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Musil, Steven (December 12, 2012). "Google Maps returns to iOS as an app after Apple's removal". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Ingraham, Nathan (June 27, 2012). "Google Maps for Android now supports saving maps for offline use". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Lawler, Richard (June 27, 2012). "Google Maps offline for Android is available today in version 6.9, also Compass Mode for Street View". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (May 6, 2014). "Google Maps for iOS and Android add offline support, lane guidance, and Uber integration". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Siegal, Jacob (May 6, 2014). "Google Maps just got a huge update – here are the 5 best new features". BGR. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Welch, Chris (January 26, 2017). "Google Maps now tells you how hard it is to park in some cities". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Haselton, Todd (April 26, 2017). "How to use a new Google Maps feature to help you find your parked car". CNBC. NBCUniversal News Group. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Sawers, Paul (April 26, 2017). "Google Maps now makes it easier to remember where you parked your car". VentureBeat. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (August 29, 2017). "Google Maps will now help you find parking". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (December 5, 2017). "Google Maps' new two-wheeler mode shows faster routes for beating traffic on your bike". The Next Web. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Jonnalagadda, Harish (December 5, 2017). "Google Maps gets a dedicated two-wheeler mode in India". Android Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- "Baig: Google Maps app - welcome return of an old friend". USA Today. Gannett Company. December 13, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Fowler, Bree (December 16, 2012). "App review: Google Maps on iOS is back with a bang". FirstPost. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Tweney, Dylan (August 17, 2014). "Yes, Google Maps is tracking you. Here's how to stop it". VentureBeat. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Mirani, Leo (April 3, 2014). "Google's sneaky new privacy change affects 85% of iPhone users—but most of them won't have noticed". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Google mapper: Take browsers to the limit – CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Kiss, Jemima (June 17, 2009). "Secrets of a nimble giant – guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- Orlowski, Andrew (October 28, 2004). "Google buys CIA-backed mapping startup". The Register. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- Michael Bazeley (March 30, 2005). "Google acquires traffic info start-up Zipdash". SiliconBeat. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "Google Maps announcement on Google Blog". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Google accused of airbrushing Katrina history". msnbc. March 30, 2007.
- "Google Restores Katrina's Scars To Google Earth". Information Week. April 2, 2007.
- "Google Mars". Mars.google.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Google Maps API Version 2". Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "Geocoding at Last". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Maps for Enterprise". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "A Brief History of Google Maps". Archived from the original on June 5, 2013.
- "The prodigal son of a search engine comes home". blumenthals.com. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "New Google UI feature: Plus Box". Matt Cutts.
- "Google Maps With Multiple Destinations". Philipp Lenssen. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "Google Maps adds subway stops, building outlines to cities". CNET.
- "Find and Compare Local Businesses". Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- Wang, David (February 28, 2007). "Stuck in traffic?". Google.
- "Google Upgrades Local Business Center". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Local Businesses in Universal Search". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Neighborhood Search Capability". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Driving Directions Support Added to Google Maps". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Maps Launches Street View". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Add Your Reviews to Businesses on Google Maps". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "It's Click and Drag Situation". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Microformats in Google Maps". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google announces a simple new way to embed Google Maps". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "More of the World for You to Explore". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Transit Graduates from Labs". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Community Maps in your Search Results". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Coupons Now Has Searchable Interface". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Maps New Local Onebox 10 Pack Now Live". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Maps Offers Refine by User Rating Option". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "It's Your World, Map It". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Google Local Business Center Upgrade: Unlimited Category Options". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Last Summer Somewhere in Adirondacks". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- Jade (January 13, 2009). "Do you know how many Maps features have been launched in the past 6 months?". Google Maps Water Cooler. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- Shankland, Stephen (August 29, 2008). "Google to buy GeoEye satellite imagery | Digital Media – CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Chen, Brian X. (October 8, 2008). "Google's Super Satellite Captures First Image | Wired Science | Wired.com". Blog.wired.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Street View cures the homesick blues".
- "New logo look".
- "Google Replaces Tele Atlas Data in US with Google StreetView Data". blumenthals.com. October 12, 2009.
- "Street View in Hong Kong and Macau, March 11, 2010 at 2:05 PM".
- "Nu kan du tage bussen med Google Maps i Danmark" (in Danish).
- "Google Maps Help". Maps.google.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Mitchell, Thor (April 8, 2011). "Updates to the Google Maps/Google Earth APIs Terms of Service". Googlegeodevelopers.blogspot.com. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "France Convicts Google for Its Free(dom)". NBC San Diego. February 3, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "Zagat goes free with launch of Google+ Local". paidContent. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- "Google begins mapping UK rivers". Telegraph. June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- "Google Updates 250,000 Miles of Roads in Biggest Street View Update Ever". Mashable. October 11, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "Google Maps for iOS Hits Apple App Store". PCMag. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Cavan Sieczkowski (January 29, 2013). "Google Maps North Korea: Prison Camps, Nuclear Complexes Pinpointed In New Images (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Beth Liebert (March 27, 2013). "Create, collaborate and share advanced custom maps with Google Maps Engine Lite (Beta)". Google Maps. Google, Inc. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Chloe Albanesius (April 23, 2013). "Google Street View Expands to 50 Countries". PC Mag. Ziff Davis. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- "Google changes Palestinian location from 'Territories' to 'Palestine'". Fox News. Associated Press. May 3, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Bernhard Seefeld; Yatin Chawathe (May 15, 2013). "Meet the new Google Maps: A map for every person and place". Google Maps. Google, Inc. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Jennifer Slegg (May 16, 2013). "Google Maps Gets a Brand New Look". Search Engine Watch. Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Google Maps Drops Wikipedia Layer. Search Engine Roundtable. (September 10, 2013)
- "Google Maps Displays Crimean Border Differently In Russia, U.S". NPR.org. April 12, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Hern, Alex (April 24, 2015). "Google Maps hides an image of the Android robot urinating on Apple". The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Kanakarajan, Pavithra (May 22, 2015). "Map Maker will be temporarily unavailable for editing starting May 12, 2015". Google Product Forums. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "Google Is Getting Rid of Classic Maps for Good (Ugh.)". April 29, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Google Maps alters disputed South China Sea shoal name". BBC. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Meyer, Robinson (June 27, 2016). "Google's Satellite Map Gets a 700-Trillion-Pixel Makeover". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- Heater, Brian. "Google Maps picks up mapping analytics and visualization startup Urban Engines". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Michael Moore (February 7, 2017). "Google Maps: This new update will help you dodge the traffic jams". EXPRESS. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Marquardt, Stafford (October 16, 2017). "Space out with planets in Google Maps". Blog.Google. Google. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Lardinois, Frederic (October 16, 2017). "Google Maps now lets you explore your local planets and moons". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Hunt, Liz. "Google Maps gets a new look". Google Blog. Google. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- "Google Moon". Moon.google.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Intelligent Systems Division | Project". Ti.arc.nasa.gov. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "Google". Archived from the original on July 20, 2005.
- "About Google Mars". Google.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Matthews, Susan E. (July 3, 2013). "How Google Tracks Traffic". The Connectivist.
- Chan, Sewell (September 23, 2008). "Google Transit Expands to New York – City Room Blog – NYTimes.com". Cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Google LatLong: Google Transit Graduates from Labs". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. October 3, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Know when your bus is late, with live transit updates in Google Maps".
- "Live transit information in more Cities on Google Maps".
- "Cities covered". Google.
- "Open Government Data and the case of Wiener Linien".
- Guymon, Shannon. "Biking directions added to Google Maps". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- Leen, John (March 10, 2010). "It's time to bike". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- Guymon, Shannon (December 1, 2010). "Gearing up: Biking directions added to Google Maps for Canada". google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
- "embed my maps – Google Search". Google.co.uk. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "The Google 'ick' factor". July 15, 2007.
- Poulsen, Kevin (July 15, 2007). "Want Off Street View?". Wired.
- Petronzio, Matt (August 22, 2012). "11 Fascinating Facts About Google Maps". Mashable. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
Google employs automatic face and license plate blurring technology to protect people’s privacy in Street View, and users can even request additional blurring. Aerial imagery provides much less detail and resolution.
- "Google begins blurring faces in Street View". CBS Interactive Inc. May 13, 2008.
- "Google Launches Underwater Street View". November 16, 2014.
- Wilson, Randy (December 8, 2009). "Google LatLong: Changing your perspective". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Mitchell, Thor (February 12, 2010). "Google LatLong: Introducing Google Maps Labs, your passport to a world of new features". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Wilson, Randy (July 9, 2010). "Google LatLong: Changing your perspective, once again". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "See where your friends are with Google Latitude". February 4, 2009.
- "Privacy fears over Google tracker". BBC News. February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- "Google Maps will let you share your location with friends and family for a specific period of time". techcrunch.com. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- "Official Google Blog: Spring-cleaning … in spring!". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "New online Monopoly game is streets ahead". London: Guardian. September 7, 2009. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Revamped Google Maps for iOS launches: supports iPad, indoor maps, enhanced navigation". 9 to 5 Mac. 9 to 5 Mac. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- "List of current locations with indoor maps". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "See what's in store". google-latlong.blogspot.com. April 21, 2010. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
- "Business Photos rebranded to Business View". Panorámicas de tu negocio – Google Business View. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Sample SLA from a Google Trusted Photographer". Smart360Photography.co.uk. September 7, 2013. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- "Google Lat Long: A new Google Maps app for smartphone and tablets". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Google Groups". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "[APP]install Google Maps 6 and 7 and use them together[Root/NoRoot] [22.06.2014]". XDA Developers. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Application programming interface
- "Google Maps Terms". Maps.google.com. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Google Terms of Service". Google.com. April 16, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Fix an error on Google Maps". Google. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Tele Atlas Map Insight map feedback". Tele Atlas. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Google contact request form". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Google Map Maker Team (8 November 2016). "Google Map Maker graduates to Google Maps". Google Map Maker forum. Google.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- "Map of Shatoujiao that stretch across the border of Hong Kong and Shenzhen". Google Maps. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
- Google Maps Laona, Wisconsin
- State of Wisconsin DNR Scattered Rice Lake Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Route 30 Mislabeled On Google Maps". KYW-TV. June 30, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- "Petacciato – La strana storia di via Mussolini. Non esiste, ma per le mappe cè – Primonumero.it". primonumero.it. October 7, 2009.
- "The Google Local map results have "merged" our listing with another in the same building – Maps Help". Google.com. April 22, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Google Maps Merging Mania Due to Algo-Change". April 29, 2009.
- Helft, Miguel (November 17, 2009). "Online Maps: Everyman Offers New Directions". New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Sneaky ways to top Google's local listings". Econsultancy. April 30, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Improve information in Google Maps for the world to see". Google. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007.
- Balakrishnan, Ramesh (March 18, 2008). "Google LatLong: It's your world. Map it". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- Johnson, Jenna (July 22, 2007). "Google's View of D.C. Melds New and Sharp, Old and Fuzzy". Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Monument to the People's Heroes. "Google China street map uses GCJ-02 coordinates". Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- Monument to the People's Heroes. "Google China satellite imagery uses GCJ-02 coordinates". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- Monument to the People's Heroes. "Google.com satellite imagery uses WGS-84 coordinates". Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- "Blurred Out: 51 Things You Aren't Allowed to See on Google Maps".
- Google Maps: The White House. "Google Maps: The White House — Elliott C. Back". Elliottback.com. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- Karen Barlow (August 8, 2005). "Google Earth prompts security fears". ABC News Online. Archived from the original on June 16, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "CNN: "Google Maps border becomes part of international dispute"". Articles.cnn.com. November 5, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Ball, James (January 28, 2014). "Angry Birds and 'leaky' phone apps targeted by NSA and GCHQ for user data". The Guardian. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- Richardson, Nikita (June 5, 2015). "YAHOO WILL SHUT DOWN ITS MAPS, OTHER SITES THIS MONTH". Fast Company. Retrieved June 25, 2015.