Screenshot of Google Maps on a web browser
Type of site
|Registration||Optional, included with a Google Account|
|Launched||February 8, 2005|
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google. It offers satellite imagery, aerial photography, street maps, 360° panoramic views of streets (Street View), real-time traffic conditions, and route planning for traveling by foot, car, bicycle and air (in beta), or public transportation.
Google Maps' satellite view is a "top-down" or "birds eye" view; most of the high-resolution imagery of cities is aerial photography taken from aircraft flying at 800 to 1,500 feet (240 to 460 m), while most other imagery is from satellites. Much of the available satellite imagery is no more than three years old and is updated on a regular basis. Google Maps used a variant of the Mercator projection, and therefore could not accurately show areas around the poles. However, in August 2018, the desktop version of Google Maps was updated to show a 3D globe as the default projection. It is still possible to switch back to the Mercator Projection in the settings.
Google Maps for Android and iOS devices was released in September 2008 and features GPS turn-by-turn navigation along with dedicated parking assistance features. In August 2013, it was determined to be the world's most popular app for smartphones, with over 54% of global smartphone owners using it at least once.
In 2012, Google reported having over 7,100 employees and contractors directly working in mapping.
In 2017, along with several other services including YouTube, Chrome, Gmail, Search, and Google Play, Google Maps reached over 1 billion users.
- 1 History
- 2 Functionality
- 3 Implementation
- 4 Discontinued features
- 5 Mobile app
- 6 Potential misuse
- 7 Comparable services
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Google Maps first started as a C++ program designed by two Danish brothers, Lars and Jens Eilstrup Rasmussen, at the Sydney-based company Where 2 Technologies. It was first designed to be separately downloaded by users, but the company later pitched the idea for a purely Web-based product to Google management, changing the method of distribution. In October 2004, the company was acquired by Google Inc. where it transformed into the web application Google Maps. In the same month, Google acquired Keyhole, a geospatial data visualization company (with controversial investment from the CIA), whose marquee application suite, Earth Viewer, emerged as the highly successful Google Earth application in 2005 while other aspects of its core technology were integrated into Google Maps. In September 2004, Google acquired ZipDash, a company that provided realtime traffic analysis.
The launch of Google Maps was first announced on the Google Blog on February 8, 2005.
In September 2005, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Google Maps quickly updated its satellite imagery of New Orleans to allow users to view the extent of the flooding in various parts of that city.
On November 28, 2007, Google Maps for Mobile 2.0 was released. It featured a beta version of a "My Location" feature, which uses the GPS / Assisted GPS location of the mobile device, if available, supplemented by determining the nearest wireless networks and cell sites. The software looks up the location of the cell site using a database of known wireless networks and sites. By triangulating the different signal strengths from cell transmitters and then using their location property (retrieved from the database), My Location determines the user's current location.
On April 19, 2011, Map Maker was added to the American version of Google Maps, allowing any viewer to edit and add changes to Google Maps. This provides Google with local map updates almost in real time instead of waiting for digital map data companies to release more infrequent updates.
On January 31, 2012, Google, due to offering its Maps for free, was found guilty of abusing the dominant position of its Google Maps application and ordered by a court to pay a fine and damages to Bottin Cartographer, a French mapping company. This ruling was overturned on appeal.
In June 2012, Google started mapping Britain's rivers and canals in partnership with the Canal and River Trust. The company has stated that it would update the program during the year to allow users to plan trips which include locks, bridges and towpaths along the 2,000 miles of river paths in the UK.
In December 2012, the Google Maps application was separately made available in the App Store, after Apple removed it from its default installation of the mobile operating system version iOS 6 in September 2012.
On January 29, 2013, Google Maps was updated to include a map of North Korea. As of May 3, 2013[update], Google Maps recognizes Palestine as a country, instead of redirecting to the Palestinian territories.
On April 12, 2014, Google Maps was updated to reflect the 2014 Crimean crisis. Crimea is shown as the Republic of Crimea in Russia and as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine. All other versions show a dotted disputed border.
In April 2015, on a map near the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi, imagery of the Android logo urinating on the Apple logo was added via Map Maker and appeared on Google Maps. The vandalism was soon removed and Google publicly apologized. However, as a result, Google disabled user moderation on Map Maker, and on May 12, disabled editing worldwide until it could devise a new policy for approving edits and avoiding vandalism.
On April 29, 2015, users of the classic Google Maps were forwarded to the new Google Maps with the option to be removed from the interface.
On June 27, 2016, Google rolled out new satellite imagery worldwide sourced from Landsat 8, comprising over 700 trillion pixels of new data. In September 2016, Google Maps acquired mapping analytics startup Urban Engines.
In 2016, the Government of South Korea offered Google conditional access to the country's geographic database – access that already allows indigenous Korean mapping providers high-detail maps. Google declined the offer, as it was unwilling to accept restrictions on reducing the quality around locations the South Korean Government felt were sensitive.
In May 2018, Google announced major changes to the API structure starting June 11, 2018. This change consolidated the 18 different endpoints into three services and merged the basic and premium plans into one pay-as-you-go plan. In June, Google postponed the change date to July 16, 2018.
In August 2018, Google Maps designed its overall view (when zoomed out completely) into a 3D globe dropping the Mercator projection, which was used to project the planet onto a flat surface. In January 2019, Google Maps added speed trap and speed camera alerts as reported by other users.
Directions and transit
Google Maps provides a route planner, allowing users to find available directions through driving, public transportation, walking, or biking. Google has partnered globally with over 800 public transportation providers to adopt General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS), making the data available to third parties.
In 2007, Google began offering traffic data as a colored overlay on top of roads and motorways to represent the speed of traffic. Crowdsourcing is used to obtain the GPS-determined locations of a large number of cellphone users, from which live traffic maps are produced.
Google has stated that the speed and location information it collects to calculate traffic conditions is anonymous. Options available in each phone's settings allow users not to share information about their location with Google Maps. Google stated, "Once you disable or opt out of My Location, Maps will not continue to send radio information back to Google servers to determine your handset's approximate location".[failed verification]
On May 25, 2007, Google released Google Street View, a new feature of Google Maps which provides 360° panoramic street-level views of various locations. On the date of release, the feature only included five cities in the US. It has since expanded to thousands of locations around the world. In July 2009, Google began mapping college campuses and surrounding paths and trails.
Street View garnered much controversy after its release because of privacy concerns about the uncensored nature of the panoramic photographs, although the views are only taken on public streets. Since then, Google has begun blurring faces and license plates through automated facial recognition.
In late 2014, Google launched Google Underwater Street View, including 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) of the Australian Great Barrier Reef in 3D. The images are taken by special cameras which turn 360 degrees and take shots every 3 seconds.
In 2017, in both Google Maps and Google Earth, Street View navigation of the International Space Station interior spaces became available.
In December 2009, Google introduced a new view consisting of 45° angle aerial imagery, offering a "bird's eye view" of cities. The first cities available were San Jose and San Diego. This feature was initially available only to developers via the Google Maps API. In February 2010, it was introduced as an experimental feature in Google Maps Labs. In July 2010, 45° imagery was made available in Google Maps in select cities in the United States and worldwide.
Google collates business listings from multiple on-line and off-line sources. To reduce duplication in the index, Google's algorithm combines listings automatically based on address, phone number, or geocode, but sometimes information for separate businesses will be inadvertently merged with each other, resulting in listings inaccurately incorporating elements from multiple businesses. Google allows business owners to verify their own business data through Google My Business, and has also recruited volunteers to check and correct ground truth data.
Google Maps can easily be manipulated by businesses which aren't physically located in the area they record a listing. There are cases of people abusing Google Maps to overtake their competition where they place a number of unverified listings on online directory sites knowing the information will roll across to Google (duplicate sites). The people that update these listings do not use a registered business name. Keywords and location details are placed on their Google Maps business title which overtake credible business listings. In Australia in particular, genuine companies and businesses are noticing a trend of fake business listings in a variety of industries.
In March 2011, indoor maps were added to Google Maps, giving users the ability to navigate themselves within buildings such as airports, museums, shopping malls, big-box stores, universities, transit stations, and other public spaces (including underground facilities). Google encourages owners of public facilities to submit floor plans of their buildings in order to add them to the service. Map users can view different floors of a building or subway station by clicking on a level selector that is displayed near any structures which are mapped on multiple levels.
My Maps is a feature in Google Maps launched in April 2007 that enables users to create custom maps for personal use or sharing. Users can add points, lines, shapes, notes and images on top of Google Maps using a WYSIWYG editor. An Android app for My Maps, initially released in March 2013 under the name Google Maps Engine Lite, is also available.
Google Local Guides
Google Local Guides is a program launched by Google Maps to enable its users to contribute to Google Maps and provide them additional perks and benefits for the work. The program is partially a successor to Google Map Maker as features from the former program became integrated into the website and app.
The version of Google Street View for classic Google Maps required Adobe Flash. In October 2011, Google announced MapsGL, a WebGL version of Maps with better renderings and smoother transitions. Indoor maps uses JPG, .PNG, .PDF, .BMP, or .GIF, for floor plans.
Users who are logged into a Google Account can save locations so that they are overlaid on the map with various colored "pins" whenever they browse the application. These "Saved places" can be organised into user named lists and shared with other users. One default list "Starred places" also automatically creates a record in another Google product, Google Bookmarks.
Map data and imagery
The Google Maps terms and conditions state that usage of material from Google Maps is regulated by Google Terms of Service and some additional restrictions. Google has either purchased local map data from established companies, or has entered into lease agreements to use copyrighted map data. The owner of the copyright is listed at the bottom of zoomed maps. For example, street maps in Japan are leased from Zenrin. Street maps in China are leased from AutoNavi. Russian street maps are leased from Geocentre Consulting and Tele Atlas. Data for North Korea is sourced from the companion project Google Map Maker.
Street map overlays, in some areas, may not match up precisely with the corresponding satellite images. The street data may be entirely erroneous, or simply out of date: "The biggest challenge is the currency of data, the authenticity of data," said Google Earth representative Brian McClendon. As a result, in March 2008 Google added a feature to edit the locations of houses and businesses.
Restrictions have been placed on Google Maps through the apparent censoring of locations deemed potential security threats. In some cases the area of redaction is for specific buildings, but in other cases, such as Washington, D.C., the restriction is to use outdated imagery.
Google Maps API
The Google Maps API is free for commercial use, provided that the site on which it is being used is publicly accessible and does not charge for access, and is not generating more than 25,000 map accesses a day. Sites that do not meet these requirements can purchase the Google Maps API for Business.
As of 21 June 2018, Google increased the prices of the Maps API and requires a billing profile.
Google Maps in China
Due to restrictions on geographic data in China, Google Maps must partner with a Chinese digital map provider in order to legally show Chinese map data. Since 2006, this partner has been AutoNavi.
Within China, the State Council mandates that all maps of China use the GCJ-02 coordinate system, which is offset from the WGS-84 system used in most of the world. google.cn/maps (formerly Google Ditu) uses the GCJ-02 system for both its street maps and satellite imagery. google.com/maps also uses GCJ-02 data for the street map, but uses WGS-84 coordinates for satellite imagery, causing the so-called China GPS shift problem.
Frontier alignments also present some differences between google.cn/maps and google.com/maps. On the latter, sections of the Chinese border with India and Pakistan are shown with dotted lines, indicating areas or frontiers in dispute. However, google.cn shows the Chinese frontier strictly according to Chinese claims with no dotted lines indicating the border with India and Pakistan. For example, the South Tibet region claimed by China but administered by India as a large part of Arunachal Pradesh is shown inside the Chinese frontier by google.cn, with Indian highways ending abruptly at the Chinese claim line. Google.cn also shows Taiwan and the South China Sea Islands as part of China. Google Ditu's street map coverage of Taiwan no longer omits major state organs, such as the Presidential Palace, the five Yuans, and the Supreme Court.
Feature-wise, google.cn/maps does not feature My Maps. On the other hand, while google.cn displays virtually all text in Chinese, google.com/maps displays most text (user-selectable real text as well as those on map) in English. This behavior of displaying English text is not consistent but intermittent – sometimes it is in English, sometimes it is in Chinese. The criteria for choosing which language is displayed are not known publicly.
Google Latitude was a feature from Google that lets users share their physical locations with other people. This service was based on Google Maps, specifically on mobile devices. There was an iGoogle widget for desktops and laptops as well. Some concerns were expressed about the privacy issues raised by the use of the service. On August 9, 2013, this service was discontinued, and in March 22, 2017, Google incorporated the features from Latitude into the Google Maps app.
Google Map Maker
In areas where Google Map Maker was available, for example, much of Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe as well as the United States and Canada, anyone who logged into their Google account could directly improve the map by fixing incorrect driving directions, adding biking trails, or adding a missing building or road. General map errors in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States could be reported using the Report a Problem link in Google Maps and would be updated by Google. For areas where Google used Tele Atlas data, map errors could be reported using Tele Atlas map insight.
If imagery was missing, outdated, misaligned, or generally incorrect, one could notify Google through their contact request form.
In November 2016, Google announced the discontinuation of Google Map Maker as of March 2017.
A screenshot of Google Maps on Android Lollipop
|Initial release||September 23, 2008|
Google Maps is available as a mobile app for the Android and iOS mobile operating systems. The Android app was first released in September 2008, though the GPS-localization feature had been in testing on cellphones since 2007. Up until iOS 6, the built-in maps application on the iOS operating system was powered by Google Maps. However, with the announcement of iOS 6 in June 2012, Apple announced that they had created their own Apple Maps mapping service, which officially replaced Google Maps when iOS 6 was released on September 19, 2012. However, at launch, Apple Maps received significant criticism from users due to inaccuracies, errors and bugs. One day later, The Guardian reported that Google was preparing its own Google Maps app, which was released on December 12, 2012. Within only two days, the application had been downloaded over ten million times.
The Google Maps apps for iOS and Android have many of the same features, including turn-by-turn navigation, street view, and public transit information. Turn-by-turn navigation was originally announced by Google as a separate beta testing app exclusive to Android 2.0 devices in October 2009. The original standalone iOS version did not support the iPad, but tablet support was added with version 2.0 in July 2013. An update in June 2012 for Android devices added support for offline access to downloaded maps of certain regions, a feature that was eventually released for iOS devices, and made more robust on Android, in May 2014.
At the end of 2015 Google Maps announced its new offline functionality, but with various limitations – downloaded area cannot exceed 120,000 square kilometres and require considerable amount of storage space. In January 2017, Google added a feature exclusively to Android that will, in some U.S. cities, indicate the level of difficulty in finding available parking spots, and on both Android and iOS, the app can, as of an April 2017 update, remember where users parked. In August 2017, Google Maps for Android was updated with new functionality to actively help the user in finding parking lots and garages close to a destination. In December 2017, Google added a new two-wheeler mode to its Android app, designed for users in India, allowing for more accessibility in traffic conditions.
USA Today welcomed the application back to iOS, saying: "The reemergence in the middle of the night of a Google Maps app for the iPhone is like the return of an old friend. Only your friend, who'd gone missing for three months, comes back looking better than ever." Jason Parker of CNET, calling it "the king of maps", said, "With its iOS Maps app, Google sets the standard for what mobile navigation should be and more." Bree Fowler of the Associated Press compared Google's and Apple's map applications, saying: "The one clear advantage that Apple has is style. Like Apple devices, the maps are clean and clear and have a fun, pretty element to them, especially in 3-D. But when it comes down to depth and information, Google still reigns superior and will no doubt be welcomed back by its fans." Gizmodo gave it a ranking of 4.5 stars, stating: "Maps Done Right". According to The New York Times, Google "admits that it’s [iOS app is] even better than Google Maps for Android phones, which has accommodated its evolving feature set mainly by piling on menus".
However, Google Maps' location tracking is widely regarded as a threat to users' privacy, with Dylan Tweney of VentureBeat writing in August 2014 that "Google is probably logging your location, step by step, via Google Maps", and linked users to Google's location history map, which "lets you see the path you’ve traced for any given day that your smartphone has been running Google Maps". Tweney then provided instructions on how disable location history. The history tracking was also noticed, and recommended disabled, by editors at CNET and TechCrunch. Additionally, Quartz reported in April 2014 that a "sneaky new privacy change" would have an effect on the majority of iOS users. The privacy change, an update to the Gmail iOS app that "now supports sign-in across Google iOS apps, including Maps, Drive, YouTube and Chrome", meant that Google would be able to identify users' actions across its different apps.
In 2005 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) complained about the potential for terrorists to use the satellite images in planning attacks, with specific reference to the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor; however, the Australian Federal government did not support the organization's concern. At the time of the ANSTO complaint, Google had colored over some areas for security (mostly in the US), such as the rooftop of the White House and several other Washington, D.C., US buildings.
In October 2010, Nicaraguan military commander Edén Pastora stationed Nicaraguan troops on the Isla Calero (in the delta of the San Juan River), justifying his action on the border delineation given by Google Maps. Google has since updated its data which it found to be incorrect.
On January 27, 2014, documents leaked by Edward Snowden revealed that the NSA and the GCHQ intercepted Google Maps queries made on smartphones, and used them to locate the users making these queries. One leaked document, dating to 2008, stated that "[i]t effectively means that anyone using Google Maps on a smartphone is working in support of a GCHQ system."
- OpenStreetMap – a royalty free, editable map of the world
- Apple Maps – Apple's map service, launched in 2012 with iOS 6 to replace the Google Maps application on iOS devices
- Bing Maps – Microsoft's map service with road maps and aerial/satellite imagery
- Mapbox – an online service to build custom maps based on OpenStreetMap
- Here WeGo – a map service developed by Navteq and Nokia and since 2015 owned by a German automobile consortium
- TomTom Maps – a map service built on top of Tele Atlas, which TomTom acquired in 2008
- Waze – similar to Google Maps but also offers right of way indication in satellite mode, along with traffic incidents
- Géoportail – a French rival offering detailed aerial photographs of French territories
- NearMap – Australia specific aerial photography, regularly updated (paid subscription service)
- Naver Maps – a South Korean mapping service offering a comprehensive map of South Korea and Jeju.
- PinMaps – an online service that allow users to add pins on a map
- Maps of Switzerland – a Swiss federal service offering very rich maps and layers of Switzerland
- Position Images – perhaps the earliest demo of GPS linked 360° photos on the web; the Wayback Machine recorded it in 2002
- Tencent Maps – a map service developed by Tencent offering comprehensive satellite imagery, street maps, street view and historical view perspectives, as well as functions such as a route planner for traveling by foot, car, or with public transportation
- Terralink International
- MapQuest – the very first online mapping service
- Yahoo! Maps (defunct as of June 2015[update])
- Yandex Maps
- Comparison of web map services
- Google Maps Road Trip, live-streaming documentary
- Indoor positioning system
- Wikiloc, a mashup that shows trails and waypoints on Google Maps
- Wikimapia, a mashup combining Google Maps and a wiki aimed at "describing the whole planet earth"
- "Google Company: Our history in depth". google.co.uk. Google. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- "What is the Google Maps API?". Archived from the original on April 20, 2012.
- Perez, Sarah. "Google to shut down Map Maker, its crowdsourced map editing tool | TechCrunch". Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "Blurry or Outdated Imagery". Archived from the original on October 24, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
- "How Often is Google Maps and Google Earth Updated?". Technicamix.com. October 18, 2011. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- "Google+ Smartphone App Popularity". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
- Carlson, Nicholas. "To Do What Google Does In Maps, Apple Would Have To Hire 7,000 People". Business Insider Australia. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Popper, Ben (May 17, 2017). "Google announces over 2 billion monthly active devices on Android". The Verge. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "Google mapper: Take browsers to the limit – CNET News". News.cnet.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Kiss, Jemima (June 17, 2009). "Secrets of a nimble giant – guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- Orlowski, Andrew (October 28, 2004). "Google buys CIA-backed mapping startup". The Register. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- Michael Bazeley (March 30, 2005). "Google acquires traffic info start-up Zipdash". SiliconBeat. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "Google Maps announcement on Google Blog". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Google accused of airbrushing Katrina history". msnbc. March 30, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2009.
- "Google Restores Katrina's Scars To Google Earth". Information Week. April 2, 2007. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009.
- "Google Announces Launch of Google Maps for Mobile With "My Location" Technology". News from Google. Google. November 28, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Marshall, Matt (November 28, 2007). "Google releases useful "my location" feature for cellphones". VentureBeat. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick (November 28, 2007). "Google Mobile Maps PinPoints Your Location Without GPS". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Ray, Bill (November 29, 2007). "Google Maps Mobile knows where you are". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Mills, Elinor (November 28, 2007). "Google Maps for Mobile adds 'My Location' feature". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Overbo, Mike (November 28, 2007). "Google Maps: My Location". iMore. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Vanlerberghe, Mac (September 23, 2008). "Google on Android". Google Mobile Blog. Google. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Tseng, Erick (September 23, 2008). "The first Android-powered phone". Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Google Replaces Tele Atlas Data in US with Google StreetView Data". blumenthals.com. October 12, 2009. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009.
- "France Convicts Google for Its Free(dom)". NBC San Diego. February 3, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "Google begins mapping UK rivers". Telegraph. June 19, 2012. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- "Google Maps for iOS Hits Apple App Store". PCMag. Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Cavan Sieczkowski (January 29, 2013). "Google Maps North Korea: Prison Camps, Nuclear Complexes Pinpointed In New Images (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- "Google changes Palestinian location from 'Territories' to 'Palestine'". Fox News. Associated Press. May 3, 2013. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Google Maps Drops Wikipedia Layer Archived October 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Search Engine Roundtable. (September 10, 2013)
- "Google Maps Displays Crimean Border Differently In Russia, U.S." NPR.org. April 12, 2014. Archived from the original on November 26, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Hern, Alex (April 24, 2015). "Google Maps hides an image of the Android robot urinating on Apple". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 17, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Kanakarajan, Pavithra (May 22, 2015). "Map Maker will be temporarily unavailable for editing starting May 12, 2015". Google Product Forums. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "Google Is Getting Rid of Classic Maps for Good (Ugh.)". April 29, 2015. Archived from the original on May 15, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Google Maps alters disputed South China Sea shoal name". BBC. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Meyer, Robinson (June 27, 2016). "Google's Satellite Map Gets a 700-Trillion-Pixel Makeover". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on June 27, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- Heater, Brian. "Google Maps picks up mapping analytics and visualization startup Urban Engines". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Keshia Badalge; Cullen Fairchild (February 26, 2018). "One thing North Korea has that the South doesn't: Google Maps". Asia Times.
- Marquardt, Stafford (October 16, 2017). "Space out with planets in Google Maps". Blog.Google. Google. Archived from the original on October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Lardinois, Frederic (October 16, 2017). "Google Maps now lets you explore your local planets and moons". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Protalinski, Emil (May 2, 2018). "Google Maps Platform arrives with pay-as-you-go billing, free support, and Cloud requirement starting June 11". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "Google Maps now depicts the Earth as a globe". The Verge. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "Speed trap warnings begin rolling out to some Google Maps users". Android Central. January 16, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- "Google Maps shows you how fast you're driving. Here's how". Cnet. June 9, 2019. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- Luckerson, Victor (February 9, 2015). "10 Google Maps Tricks You Need to Know". Time. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- "Get directions and show routes". Google Maps Help. Google. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Brown, Jessica (September 26, 2017). "Google Maps must improve if it wants cyclists to use it". the Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- "The Case for Unshackling Transit Data". CityLab. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Wang, David (February 28, 2007). "Stuck in traffic?". Google.
- "Real time traffic information with Google Maps". CrackBerry. March 22, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- Matthews, Susan E. (July 3, 2013). "How Google Tracks Traffic". The Connectivist. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014.
- Barth, Dave (August 25, 2009). "The Bright Side of Sitting in Traffic: Crowdsourcing Road Congestion Data". Google.
- Matthews, Susan E. (July 3, 2013). "How Google Tracks Traffic". The Connectivist.
- "Help Google Maps find my location". Support.google.com. January 1, 1970. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
- "The Google 'ick' factor". July 15, 2007. Archived from the original on August 17, 2009.
- Poulsen, Kevin (July 15, 2007). "Want Off Street View?". Wired. Archived from the original on June 18, 2007.
- Petronzio i, Matt (August 22, 2012). "11 Fascinating Facts About Google Maps". Mashable. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
Google employs automatic face and license plate blurring technology to protect people’s privacy in Street View, and users can even request additional blurring. Aerial imagery provides much less detail and resolution.
- "Google begins blurring faces in Street View". CBS Interactive Inc. May 13, 2008. Archived from the original on June 26, 2011.
- "How Google Street View Became An Art Form". Fast Company. May 25, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- "Google Launches Underwater Street View". November 16, 2014. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014.
- Wilson, Randy (December 8, 2009). "Google LatLong: Changing your perspective". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Schroeder, Stan (February 12, 2010). "Google Maps Get Labs With 9 Cool New Features". Mashable. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Axon, Samuel (July 11, 2010). "Google Maps Adds 45° Aerial Imagery For All Users". Mashable. Archived from the original on December 17, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "The Google Local map results have "merged" our listing with another in the same building – Maps Help". Google.com. April 22, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Google Maps Merging Mania Due to Algo-Change". April 29, 2009. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009.
- "Phone and Text Verification on Google Maps". Chaddo.com. June 7, 2017. Archived from the original on January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Helft, Miguel (November 17, 2009). "Online Maps: Everyman Offers New Directions". New York Times. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Sneaky ways to top Google's local listings". Econsultancy. April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Revell, Timothy (April 7, 2017). "Thousands of fake companies added to Google Maps every month". New Scientist. Archived from the original on April 16, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "Inside Google's Fascinating Stash of 10,000 Indoor Maps". WIRED. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Marshall, Matt (April 5, 2007). "Google releases My Maps". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- Lardinois, Frederic (March 27, 2013). "Google Launches Maps Engine Lite, Makes It Easy To Create Advanced Custom Maps". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- Pratap, Ketan (September 17, 2014). "Google Rebrands Maps Engine to 'My Maps', Adds Improved Search and More". NDTV Gadgets 360. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- "Google Map Maker has closed". Google Map Maker help. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Google Testing Video Reviews in Maps". NDTV Gadgets360.com. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- "Google calls on Local Guides to add wheelchair info to Maps". SlashGear. September 7, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Gautham A. S. "Google Revises Their Map, Adds Offline Version and 3D Imaging". TechGau.org. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- Arthur, Charles (March 20, 2009). "Where the streets all have Google's name". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Step inside the map with Google MapsGL". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "Use indoor maps to view floor plans – Computer – Google Maps Help". Archived from the original on February 27, 2017.
- "Google Maps Terms". Maps.google.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Google Terms of Service". Google.com. April 16, 2007. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Improve information in Google Maps for the world to see". Google. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007.
- Balakrishnan, Ramesh (March 18, 2008). "Google LatLong: It's your world. Map it". Google-latlong.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- Johnson, Jenna (July 22, 2007). "Google's View of D.C. Melds New and Sharp, Old and Fuzzy". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "User Guide | Google Maps Platform | Google Maps Platform". Google Cloud. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- Ian Rose. "PHP and MySQL: Working with Google Maps". Syntaxxx. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "A fresh new look for the Maps API, for all one million sites". googlegeodevelopers.google.com. May 15, 2013. Archived from the original on November 28, 2013.
- "ProgrammableWeb API dashboard". www.programmableweb.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Alan Eustace (September 2, 2011). "A fall spring-clean". Google. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- "Google Maps API FAQ". Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- "Google Maps API FAQ Usage Limits". Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- "Google Maps API for Business". Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- "Google increases prices of Google Maps API and developers are not happy". PPC Land. May 11, 2018. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- Monument to the People's Heroes. "Google China street map uses GCJ-02 coordinates". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- Monument to the People's Heroes. "Google China satellite imagery uses GCJ-02 coordinates". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- Monument to the People's Heroes. "Google.com satellite imagery uses WGS-84 coordinates". Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- "Where We've Been & Where We're Headed Next". Google. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- "See where your friends are with Google Latitude". February 4, 2009. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009.
- "Privacy fears over Google tracker". BBC News. February 5, 2009. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- "Google Maps will let you share your location with friends and family for a specific period of time". techcrunch.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- "Fix an error on Google Maps". Google. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Tele Atlas Map Insight map feedback". Tele Atlas. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Google contact request form". Archived from the original on July 4, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Google Map Maker Team (November 8, 2016). "Google Map Maker graduates to Google Maps". Google Map Maker forum. Google.com. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Google Maps - Navigation & Transit APKs". APKMirror. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- "Maps - Navigation & Transit (Android Wear) APKs". APKMirror. Android Police. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- "Google Maps - Navigation & Transit on the App Store". iTunes Store (US). Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- "Google Maps - Navigation & Transit APKs". APKMirror. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- Vanlerberghe, Mac (September 23, 2008). "Google on Android". Google Mobile Blog. Google. Archived from the original on December 7, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Tseng, Erick (September 23, 2008). "The first Android-powered phone". Official Google Blog. Google. Archived from the original on December 7, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Google Announces Launch of Google Maps for Mobile With "My Location" Technology". News from Google. Google. November 28, 2007. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Marshall, Matt (November 28, 2007). "Google releases useful "my location" feature for cellphones". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick (November 28, 2007). "Google Mobile Maps PinPoints Your Location Without GPS". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Gates, Sara (June 11, 2012). "Apple Maps App Officially Debuts, Google Maps Dropped (PHOTOS)". HuffPost. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Chen, Brian X.; Wingfield, Nick (September 19, 2012). "Apple's iPhone Update Leaves Out Google's Maps". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "New Apple maps app under fire from users". BBC. September 20, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Patel, Nilay (September 20, 2012). "Wrong turn: Apple's buggy iOS 6 maps lead to widespread complaints". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Arthur, Charles (September 20, 2012). "Apple's self-inflicted maps issue is a headache – but don't expect an apology". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Olanoff, Drew (December 12, 2012). "Google Launches Native Maps For iOS, And Here's The Deep Dive On Navigation, Info Sheets And More". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Bohn, Dieter (December 12, 2012). "Google Maps for iPhone is here: how data and design beat Apple". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Keizer, Gregg (December 18, 2012). "Google Maps snares 10M downloads on iOS App Store". Computerworld. International Data Group. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Musil, Steven (December 12, 2012). "Google Maps returns to iOS as an app after Apple's removal". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Rodriguez, Salvador (December 13, 2012). "Google Maps returns to iPhone; iPad app coming soon". Los Angeles Times. Tronc. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Arrington, Michael (October 28, 2009). "Google Redefines GPS Navigation Landscape: Google Maps Navigation For Android 2.0". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Schroeder, Stan (October 28, 2009). "Google Maps Navigation Becomes Reality on Android". Mashable. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Fingas, Jon (July 16, 2013). "Google Maps 2.0 for iOS starts rolling out with iPad support, indoor maps (update: offline maps too)". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Ingraham, Nathan (June 27, 2012). "Google Maps for Android now supports saving maps for offline use". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Lawler, Richard (June 27, 2012). "Google Maps offline for Android is available today in version 6.9, also Compass Mode for Street View". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (May 6, 2014). "Google Maps for iOS and Android add offline support, lane guidance, and Uber integration". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Siegal, Jacob (May 6, 2014). "Google Maps just got a huge update – here are the 5 best new features". BGR. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Google Maps Now Available Offline". www.govtech.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "Download areas and navigate offline – iPhone & iPad – Google Maps Help". support.google.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "How to use Google Maps when you don't have a connection". The Independent. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- "How to use Google Maps offline – AndroidPIT". AndroidPIT. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Welch, Chris (January 26, 2017). "Google Maps now tells you how hard it is to park in some cities". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Haselton, Todd (April 26, 2017). "How to use a new Google Maps feature to help you find your parked car". CNBC. NBCUniversal News Group. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Sawers, Paul (April 26, 2017). "Google Maps now makes it easier to remember where you parked your car". VentureBeat. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (August 29, 2017). "Google Maps will now help you find parking". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (December 5, 2017). "Google Maps' new two-wheeler mode shows faster routes for beating traffic on your bike". The Next Web. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Jonnalagadda, Harish (December 5, 2017). "Google Maps gets a dedicated two-wheeler mode in India". Android Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- "Baig: Google Maps app – welcome return of an old friend". USA Today. Gannett Company. December 13, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Parker, Jason (November 6, 2014). "Google Maps for iOS review". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Fowler, Bree (December 16, 2012). "App review: Google Maps on iOS is back with a bang". FirstPost. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Diaz, Jesus (December 13, 2012). "Google Maps for iOS Review: Maps Done Right". Gizmodo. Univision Communications. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Pogue, David (December 12, 2012). "Maps App for iPhone Steers Right". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Tweney, Dylan (August 17, 2014). "Yes, Google Maps is tracking you. Here's how to stop it". VentureBeat. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Elliott, Matt (April 20, 2017). "Is Google is tracking you? Find out here". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Kumparak, Greg (December 18, 2013). "Google's Location History Browser Is A Minute-By-Minute Map Of Your Life". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Mirani, Leo (April 3, 2014). "Google's sneaky new privacy change affects 85% of iPhone users—but most of them won't have noticed". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Blurred Out: 51 Things You Aren't Allowed to See on Google Maps". Archived from the original on July 21, 2009.
- Google Maps: The White House. "Google Maps: The White House — Elliott C. Back". Elliottback.com. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- Karen Barlow (August 8, 2005). "Google Earth prompts security fears". ABC News Online. Archived from the original on June 16, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "CNN: "Google Maps border becomes part of international dispute"". Articles.cnn.com. November 5, 2010. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Ball, James (January 28, 2014). "Angry Birds and 'leaky' phone apps targeted by NSA and GCHQ for user data". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "Naver Maps".
- "Swiss Geoportal". geo.admin.ch.
- "Untitled Document". October 3, 2002. Archived from the original on October 3, 2002.
- Richardson, Nikita (June 5, 2015). "YAHOO WILL SHUT DOWN ITS MAPS, OTHER SITES THIS MONTH". Fast Company. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2015.