|Motto: Where Water and Oil Really Do Mix|
Location in the state of Texas
|Incorporated||January 24, 1948|
|• City council||Mayor Stephen DonCarlos
Mercedes Renteria III
|• City manager||Rick Davis|
|• Total||36.5 sq mi (94.6 km2)|
|• Land||35.4 sq mi (91.8 km2)|
|• Water||1.1 sq mi (2.8 km2)|
|Elevation||34 ft (10.3 m)|
|• Estimate (2015)||76,335|
|• Density||4,880/sq mi (1,884/km2)|
|• Metro||5,867,489 (6th)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1380966|
Baytown is a city within Harris County and partially in Chambers County in the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. state of Texas. Located within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area, it lies along State Highway 146 and Interstate 10. It is the sixth-largest city within this metropolitan area. As of 2010, Baytown had a population of 71,802, and it had an estimated population of 76,127 in 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Arts and culture
- 6 Government and infrastructure
- 7 Education
- 8 Notable people
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The area of Baytown began to be settled as early as 1822. One of its earliest residents was Nathaniel Lynch, who set up a ferry crossing at the junction of the San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou. The ferry service that he started is still in operation today, now known as the Lynchburg Ferry. Other early residents of Baytown include William Scott, one of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred, and Ashbel Smith, who owned a plantation in the area. One of Baytown's first babies born was Gertrude Gardner.
The city now known as Baytown was originally three separate towns. The first of these was Goose Creek, named for the bayou of the same name where Canada geese wintered and whose name is still reflected in the area's Goose Creek school district, whose establishment dates back to before 1850. With the discovery of the Goose Creek Oil Field, the rival communities of Pelly in the late 1910s, and East Baytown in the early 1920s, developed as early boomtowns. The "East" in East Baytown was later dropped because it was west of Goose Creek.
Serious talk of merging the three cities began shortly after World War I, but the community of Baytown was opposed to this idea. However, in 1947, the three cities finally agreed to consolidate. The citizens settled on the name Baytown for the new combined city. Baytown as it is known today was officially founded January 24, 1948.
In 1916, the Humble Oil and Refining Company, founded by one-time Texas governor Ross S. Sterling and his associates, in developing the Goose Creek Oil Field, built the first offshore drilling operation in Texas and the second in the United States. The company later built the Baytown Refinery, which would become one of the largest Exxon refineries in the world. Since then, many other refineries have been built in the area. Exxon-Mobil is still one of the major employers in the city and now runs over 10 plants in the area.
Following the discovery of oil nearby, the population of Baytown and the Tri-Cities boomed. Many immigrants arrived in Baytown, among them a number of Jewish families who founded a synagogue, K’nesseth Israel, in 1930.
Steel manufacturing in Baytown began in 1970 when United States Steel opened the Texas Works near the city. The plant was officially closed in July 1986, due to a poor economic climate and the decline of American steel in the 1980s. The mill was later purchased by Jindal Steel and now operates as JSW Steel USA, Inc.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 36.5 square miles (94.6 km2), of which 35.4 square miles (91.8 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.8 km2), 2.92%, is covered by water.
Baytown is located on the Gulf coastal plain, and its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland and marshes. The municipalities have been built on reclaimed marshes, swamps, and prairies, which are all still visible in undeveloped parts of the Bay Area. Baytown is bordered by water on three sides. Along the south and west is Galveston Bay. On the east is Cedar Bayou. The city is roughly bordered along the north by Interstate 10. Portions of the city to the east of Cedar Bayou lie in Chambers County.
Flatness of the local terrain and proximity to the bay have made flooding a recurring problem for the area. Baytown and surrounding communities once relied on groundwater for its needs, but severe land subsidence has forced much the city to turn to ground-level water sources.
The land beneath Baytown consists of layers of sand and clay to great depths. These layers were created by millennia of river-borne sediments which gradually incorporated plant and animal matter, creating the petroleum deposits for which the Gulf Coast is now known.
The region around the city has numerous faults, many considered active, but none has produced significant earthquakes in recorded history. These faults tend to move at a smooth rate in what is termed "fault creep", which reduces the risk of an earthquake. The one significant earthquake that has been reported in the area was the result of an underground water and petroleum extraction.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Baytown's climate is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa in Köppen climate classification system). Spring supercell thunderstorms sometimes create tornadoes (but not to the extent found in tornado alley). Prevailing winds from the south and southeast bring heat from the deserts of Mexico and moisture from the Gulf of Mexico.
Summer temperatures typically have highs near 90 °F (32 °C) though higher temperatures are not uncommon. The city's proximity to the bay and the winds that it generates moderate the area's temperatures and ease the effects of the humidity, creating a more pleasant climate than inland communities like Houston. Winters in the area are temperate with typical January high of 61 °F (16 °C) and lows are near 42 °F (6 °C). Snowfall is rare. Annual rainfall averages exceed 53 inches (130 cm).
Excessive ozone levels can occur due to industrial activities; nearby Houston is ranked among the most ozone-polluted cities in the United States. The industries located along the ship channel and the bay are a major cause of the pollution.
Hurricanes are a substantial concern during the fall season. Though Galveston Island and the Bolivar Peninsula provide some shielding, Baytown still faces more danger than Houston and other inland communities, particularly because of storm surge, as well as severe land subsidence in some low-lying areas of town due to excess pumping of groundwater in the 1960s (see Brownwood subdivision) by area refineries and municipalities. Hurricanes Carla (1961), Alicia (1983), and Ike (2008) were the three most damaging hurricanes to affect Baytown.
As of the 2010 census, 71,802 people, 28,998 households, and 17,025 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,025.7 people per square mile (785.6/km2). There were 26,203 housing units at an average density of 802.4 per square mile (309.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 62.9% White, 15.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 14.42% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 43.4% of the population.
Of the 23,483 households, 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.5% were not families. About 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.32.
In the city, the population was distributed as 29.2% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $48,191, and for a family was $45,346. Males had a median income of $38,039 versus $25,012 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,641. About 13.0% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2010, the property crime rate in the community was 4.6% compared to 5.45% for Harris County as a whole. The violent crime rate was 0.5% compared to 1.03% for Harris County.
The centerpieces of Baytown's economies are three industrial districts the city has created, all outside the city limits but within its extra-territorial jurisdiction. These districts primarily support petroleum and petrochemical processing. The anchors of the business community are ExxonMobil, Bayer, and Chevron Phillips. The ExxonMobil Baytown Complex, founded in 1919, is one of the world's largest industrial complexes. The Baytown Refinery located there is the largest in the United States. The Bayer Baytown Industrial Park is the largest of Bayer's U.S. chemical processing sites producing a variety of petrochemical products. The Cedar Bayou plant, in operation since 1963, is Chevron Phillips Chemical's largest manufacturing site in the United States. [clarification needed] is a newer and growing industrial district which is quickly acquiring new tenants such as Jindal Steel and Power Limited and Samson Controls.
In addition to the heavy industry in the business community, Baytown is home to the Cedar Crossing Industrial Park. With a total expanse of 15,000 acres, Cedar Crossing Industrial Park is considered the world's fifth largest industrial park and the largest on the Gulf Coast. Cedar Crossing has attracted many top-tier companies with significant operations, including Home Depot's 755,000-square-foot distribution hub, Walmart's 4.2 million-square-foot import center (their largest in the U.S.), JSW Steel's plate and pipe manufacturing facilities, and Borusan Mannesmann's $148 million steel pipe manufacturing facility. Other occupants include Exel, S&B Engineers, National Oilwell, GE Water, TMK-IPSCO, Century Asphalt, Samson Controls, and LS Energy Fabrication.
As of 2006[update], the largest taxpayers in the city were ExxonMobil Company, CenterPoint Energy, Verizon Southwest, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., Valero Marketing & Supply, Car Son Bay LP, Memorial NW Pavilion Trust, Camden Property Trust, and LCY Elastomers LP.
Arts and culture
The Baytown Little Theater is a community theater in Baytown run entirely by volunteers. The theater has been in operation for 55 years (as of 2015) and is one of the longest continuously running community theaters in Texas. The theater typically produces six shows each year from September to August, with each show giving seven performances.
Tourism and recreation
Baytown Nature Center, located on a 450-acre (1.8 km2) peninsula along the Houston Ship Channel and surrounded on three sides by Burnet Bay, Crystal Bay, and Scott Bay, is both a recreation area and a wildlife sanctuary that is home to hundreds of bird species, mammals, reptiles, and aquatic species.
Royal Purple Raceway is a motorsports complex featuring National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) races and a weekly drag racing program. Established in 1988, the venue accommodates 40,000 fans and included a high-banked dirt oval race track that hosts races each year from March through October.
San Jacinto Mall is a large regional shopping mall located in Baytown along Interstate 10. It is currently managed by Triyar Cannon Group. The mall has five anchor stores, a food court and Premiere Cinemas 11, although much of the mall's leasable space is unused.
The Baytown Symphony Orchestra, in residence at Lee College, performs several concerts throughout the year for the enjoyment of the public.
The Baytown Sun serves as the region's newspaper.
Government and infrastructure
Baytown has a council–manager form of government.
The City of Baytown operates the Sterling Municipal Library, which has a collection of 300,000 items. The original Goose Creek Library opened in 1925; the first county library in Texas, it was funded by the private donations of Humble Oil and Refining Company president Ross S. Sterling. The current Sterling Library was dedicated in 1963. The library's space increased to 50,500 square feet (4,690 m2) after bond programs in 1975 and 1995. In addition Baytown residents are served by the Harris County Public Library system.
The Baytown Police Department, has 167 sworn officers and 52 support personnel as of 2014. The department provides all-hour patrol services and has many special units: SWAT, Dive Team, D.A.R.E., Hot Spot, Commercial Vehicle Enforcement, Investigations, Police Academy, Bomb Squad, and others.
Fire, rescue, hazardous materials response, and EMS are provided by the Baytown Fire Department, an all-professional department of approximately 140 sworn members.
Baytown Branch YMCA is located in Baytown.
County, state and federal services
The United States Postal Service operates the Baytown Main Post Office at 601 West Baker Road and the Baytown Post Office "Station A" at 3508 Market Street. The "Station A" designation is a leftover from Baytown's pre-consolidation days. Prior to consolidation in 1948 each of the Tri-Cities, (Baytown, Pelly, and Goose Creek), had their own post office. After 1948 when the Tri-Cities consolidated under the name Baytown, Goose Creek's post office became the main post office but they still needed a post office to service the rest of town so the Old Baytown Post Office became "Station A".
Harris County Precinct Two operates Baytown Park, a senior citizen sports complex, at 4500 Hemlock Drive. Baytown Park includes two unlighted baseball/softball fields and toilets. The precinct also operates the Baytown Soccer Complex, located north of Baytown at 9600 North Main Street in an unincorporated area. The complex has eight soccer fields; four are lighted and four are unlighted.
Harris County operates a tax office at 701 West Baker Boulevard.
Harris County Transit provides public transportation. The Baytown Park and Ride lot is located on the western side of San Jacinto Mall. Harris County Transit also offers a bus line that runs along Decker Drive, Garth Road, North Main Street, Baker Road, and Rollingbrook Drive connecting most of Baytown's major shopping areas with Lee College.
Baytown Airport is a privately owned general aviation airport in unincorporated Harris County located north of Baytown. RWJ Airpark is a privately owned airport three miles (5 km) east of Baytown in Beach City. The closest airports with commercial airline service are William P. Hobby Airport and George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston.
Baytown is served by Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) express route 236 Maxey Road/Baytown during the rush hours, sending commuters to downtown Houston
Baytown is linked to Interstate 10 (see map) by State Highway 146 (Lanier Freeway) and Spur 330 (Decker Drive). It is also linked by the Fred Hartman Bridge, which crosses into the city from nearby La Porte; the bridge was built in 1995, replacing the Baytown Tunnel, to allow a deeper ship channel.
Colleges and universities
Primary and secondary schools
Baytown is served by the Goose Creek Consolidated Independent School District. Based in Baytown, the district has 14 elementary schools (grades K-5), 5 junior highs (grades 6–8), 3 high schools (grades 9–12), a career center, and two alternative centers for education. The district serves all of Baytown, Highlands, outlying areas of East Harris County, and a small portion of western Chambers County. The three local high schools are Robert E. Lee (opened in 1928), Ross S. Sterling (opened in 1966), and Goose Creek Memorial High School (opened in 2008).
Stallworth Stadium is the home for varsity football and soccer for GCCISD as well as for the annual Bayou Bowl. The stadium seats approximately 16,000 fans, making it one of the largest high school sports venues in the nation. It recently underwent a press box renovation in 2009, as well as an innovation in 2006 when artificial turf and a huge scoreboard were installed. On a campaign stop for the 1976 presidential election, President Gerald Ford attended a Robert E. Lee High School fall football game.
The area is also served by several private schools. Baytown Christian Academy, Light House Baptist Academy, St. Jose Catholic School, and the Chinquapin School (in Highlands). St. Jose Catholic school is a part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston. Baytown Christian Academy is located on 5555 North Main Street near Baytown.
- Buddy Wakefield, champion slam poet, was raised in Baytown.
- Nathaniel Holt, actor born and raised in Baytown
- Rocky Bernard, defensive tackle for the NFL New York Giants
- Kirk Botkin, former NFL player and collegiate football coach
- William Broyles, Jr., Oscar-winning screenwriter, co-founder of Texas Monthly magazine; raised in Old Baytown, Robert E. Lee High School graduate
- Gary Busey, born in Goose Creek, Texas
- Chris Cagle, country music artist
- Wanda Garner Cash, open government advocate and former publisher of The Baytown Sun
- Quentin Coryatt, former NFL player and Texas A & M linebacker; attended Baytown Lee High School
- Macey Cruthird, actress born in Baytown
- Bobby Fuller, rock musician best known for his single "I Fought the Law"; born in Baytown
- John Hagee, pastor of Cornerstone Church in San Antonio, Texas; born in Baytown
- Brian Johnson, former quarterback for the University of Utah, now the quarterbacks coach at Mississippi State.
- "Mean" Gene Kelton, singer-songwriter, blues musician, and band leader of Mean Gene Kelton & The Die Hards
- Romany Malco, actor/rapper; attended Ross S. Sterling High School
- Leeland Mooring, lead singer for Christian band Leeland. Brother Jack Mooring is the keyboardist for the band, also from Baytown.
- Ell Roberson III, former Kansas State University quarterback; graduated in 1999 from Baytown Lee High School
- Howard Sampson, former NFL player
- Wayne Smith (born 1943), Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from Baytown since 2003
- Sherwood Stewart, former Pro Tennis player
- Clint Stoerner, former Dallas Cowboys and University of Arkansas quarterback; 1996 Baytown Lee graduate
- Tom Stolhandske, NFL and CFL player
- Dwayne Stovall, born in Baytown in 1966, businessman in Cleveland, Texas, school board member, and unsuccessful Republican candidate for the United States Senate in the primary election held on March 4, 2014
- Drew Tate, former University of Iowa quarterback and current CFL member
- Joe Tex, popular R&B singer during the 1960s
- Henrietta Bell Wells, first African-American woman to participate in debate team in Wiley College and to be a lawyer
- Glenn Wilson, former Major League Baseball outfielder
- Renée Zellweger, Oscar-winning actress, resident until age 9. Lived in Chapparell Village, attended Stephen F. Austin Elementary. (Source: personal memories of her friends and Baytown Sun articles January 26, 2003 and 03/01/2004)
- Bob Lanier, born and raised in Baytown. Mayor of Houston 1991-97.
- Debra Lehrmann, (maiden name Debra Herman), raised in Baytown. Current Justice on the Texas Supreme Court. (Source: https://www.tafls.org/sites/default/files/TAFLS%20Newsletter%2005-10.pdf)
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"The acreage of swamps and bottomlands ... found in the Galveston Bay system ... [is] about 36,000 acres..."
Eubanks (2006), p. 10.
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"Draining the Swamp: A scorched-earth management philosophy is sucking the life out of our region's wetlands". Houston Press. Retrieved Sep 9, 2009.
Any local knows this city was built on a sweaty, pestilent, mosquito-infested swamp.
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Houston is buffered by Galveston Island – which sits in the way of the surge – and the bay system
Spinner, Kate (May 31, 2009). "Hurricane forecasters zero in on threat of surge". Sarasota Herald Tribune.
Just north of Galveston Island, the Bolivar Peninsula shields Galveston Bay much like Lido Key and Longboat Key shield Sarasota Bay.
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At the height of such a hurricane [the 1900 Galveston Hurricane] today, the temporary shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico will be ten miles inland.
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