The goose step is a special marching step performed on formal military parades and other ceremonies. While marching in parade formation, troops swing their legs in unison off the ground while keeping each leg rigidly straight.
The step originated in Prussian military drill in the mid-18th century and was called the Stechschritt (literally, "piercing step") or Stechmarsch. German military advisors spread the tradition to Russia in the 19th century, and the Soviets spread it around the world in the 20th. The goose step is now used by the militaries of over seventy countries, comprising three-fifths of the world's population.
The term "goose step" originally referred to a British military drill in which one leg at a time was swung back and forth without bending the knee. Apparently, standing on only one leg reminded soldiers of how geese often stand. The term was later applied to the German stechschritt during World War I and is nowadays heavily associated with Nazi Germany. As a result, the term has acquired a pejorative meaning in some English-speaking countries.
- 1 Ceremonial usage
- 2 History
- 3 Countries that use the goose step
- 4 High-stepping as an alternative
- 5 Abandonment
- 6 Association with dictatorship
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
The goose step is a difficult marching style that takes much practice and coordination. It is therefore reserved for ceremonial occasions.
Goose stepping is often seen in military parades. Because it is difficult to maintain for long periods of time, troops only begin to goose-step when they approach the reviewing stand and return to a normal march step once they have marched past. Large military parades require several days of practice to ensure that troops can perform the goose step without injuring themselves. Preparatory training includes having soldiers march in small groups, with arms linked to maintain balance.
Honour guards also use the goose step during solemn ceremonies such as at war memorials or military cemeteries. The goose step has been featured in several Olympic opening ceremonies, as the host nation pays the same respect to the Olympic flag as to its own flag.
In the most rigorous form of the goose step, often found in guard mounting ceremonies, the pace is done at a slow march, and the leg is nearly horizontal, and sometimes well beyond. In a standard goose step, found in large military parades, the pace is done at a quick march and the leg is raised only to knee-height, or even to calf height. The lower goose step improves balance and unit cohesion at the tempo of a quick march. Flagbearers and honour guards will frequently march with a higher goose step than the mass of troops following.
The "Stechschritt" originated in the 18th century, like other march steps, as a method of keeping troops lined up properly as they advanced towards enemy lines. It was introduced into German military tradition by Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, a Field Marshal whose close attention to training transformed the Prussian infantry into one of the most formidable armed forces in Europe. Other armies adopted different march steps that served the same purpose; in the British Army, soldiers were trained to swing their arms in a wide arc to allow officers to keep the advancing line in order. The Russian Empire adopted the goose step during the 1796–1801 reign of Paul I.
By the mid-19th century, the replacement of muskets with rifles greatly increased the accuracy of defensive fire. It was too hazardous to march forward into battle in precise formation, and the practice became obsolete. However, armed forces continued to drill recruits in marching techniques that now focus on team building, military uniformity, and ceremonial functions. This was true in Prussia and the later German Empire, where the goose step became emblematic of military discipline and efficiency.
Adoption outside Europe
The goose step became widespread in militaries around the world in the 19th and 20th centuries. Military modernization and political influence carried the practice to Asia, Africa, and Latin America from its origins in Prussia and Russia.
The first wave of adoption took place in the late 19th century, as the Prussian army became greatly admired for its decisive victory in the Franco-Prussian War. This led many countries to modernize their military forces along the Prussian model. The Chilean Army was the first non-European country to adopt the goose step, importing many Prussian military traditions after the War of the Pacific. The practice of goose stepping then spread widely throughout Latin America thanks to Chilean and Prussian influence.
Goose stepping continued to gain ground even after Germany's defeat in World War I, as many nations still looked to the German model for military organization and training. Notably, the army of Nationalist China was trained by German advisors in the 1920s, accounting for the largest single goose-stepping military today.
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union trained the military forces of many of its client states with Soviet military drill and ceremonial practices. This led to the second great wave of adoption, as the goose step was introduced into many Third World countries in Asia and Africa. Meanwhile, the United States, France and the United Kingdom were, through efforts in their client republics and allies, preventing the use of the goose step in their armed services. A divided Germany was also divided in the goose step. The East German Nationale Volksarmee kept the goose step, while the West German Bundeswehr adopted a Western-style march step but with hands swinging. The centuries-long German practice of goose-stepping finally ended in 1990, when the East German army also ended the practice altogether.
Countries that use the goose step
The goose step is a feature of military ceremonies in dozens of countries, to varying extents. Some countries use the goose step as a general parade step performed by all troops, while others reserve it for honour guards and ceremonial units.
The goose step is very popular in Latin America, where it has been adopted by most Spanish-speaking countries. It is not found in countries where Dutch, English, or Portuguese is the official language.
- Argentina: The Infantry Company of the Colegio Militar de la Nación uses the goose step as their parade step. Other units perform the high step.
- Bolivia practises the waist-high form of goose stepping in military parades.
- Chile uses the Prussian form of the goose step essentially unaltered.
- Ecuador uses a waist-high goose-step in military parades.
- El Salvador
- Haiti: The Haitian military was dissolved in 1996. However, demobilized soldiers have formed militias that continue to drill with the goose step. The government began reforming its armed forces in 2016, sending them to be trained by Latin American countries that use the goose step like Ecuador.Thus, the new Haiti Defence Force marches in like manner as in many South and Central American armed services which use the practice.
- Paraguay: In military parades, troops march with a waist-high goose step at the quick step.
Goose-stepping is found primarily in Central and Eastern Europe, areas that were in close proximity to Germany and Russia.
- Czech Republic: A mild form of the goose step is performed by honour guards, with the foot raised only a few centimetres off the ground. It is not found at military parades, however.
- Estonia: Only color guards goose step in quick time during military ceremonies and parades.
- Hungary: Only color guards goose step in slow time during military ceremonies.
- Latvia: Only selected guards goose step in ceremonial purposes.
- Poland: Only honour guards, color guards and cadets perform the goose step in military parades and other ceremonies.
- Slovakia uses the goose step as a general parade step only by honor guards.
- Spain uses the goose step as a slow march for the most important ceremonies, such as royal funerals and the presentation of the colours. The goose step is not used for military parades or guard mounting ceremonies.
- Sweden uses the goose step during "parad för fanan" (Parade for the banner).
Most African militaries trace their adoption of the goose step to the Cold War, when the Communist countries supplied them with military aid and training. The German colonies used the goose step until World War I, when they were absorbed by the victorious Allies, but all of them restored the goose step after independence.
- Angola uses the goose step as a general parade step. The MPLA was supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba during the Angolan War of Independence.
- Burkina Faso uses the goose step as a special march step for military bands and commando units. Other units do not goose-step.
- Burundi uses the goose step as a general parade step. Burundi was formerly part of German East Africa.
- Cameroon was a German colony prior to World War I.
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Republic of the Congo
- Djibouti: At military parades, a horizontal goose step is performed at a slow march.
- Equatorial Guinea
- Ghana includes the western half of the former German colony of Togoland. Only the Ghanaian Special Forces use the goose step in military parades.
- Ivory Coast
- Namibia was formerly known as German South West Africa. When the country became independent from apartheid South Africa in 1990, it kept the British-style march step. However, it has since returned to the traditional goose step.
- Rwanda uses a horizontal goose step for military parades. Rwanda was formerly part of German East Africa, and the rebels who won the Rwandan Civil War received their military training in the goose-stepping country of Uganda.
- Tanzania includes most of the former German East Africa. The country was aligned with the socialist side during the Cold War, and its military received training from East Germany. At military parades, a horizontal goose step is performed at a quick march.
- Togo comprises the eastern half of the former German colony of Togoland. Togo now uses the goose step as a general parade step, performed at a slow march.
Middle East and Central Asia
- Lebanon: The Lebanese Armed Forces do not perform the goose step. However, the Hezbollah paramilitary forces use the goose step, as they are trained and supplied by Iran.
- Qatar adopted the goose step in 2017, after receiving training from Chinese drill instructors.
- Syria adopted the goose step during the Cold War, when it was aligned with the Soviet Union. Government forces continue to goose-step, while Kurdish forces have adopted the high step.
East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia
- China adopted the goose step from its German military advisors in the 1920s. The Chinese term 正步 (zhèng bù) literally translates as "straight march" or "upright march". After the Chinese Civil War, the practice continued on both sides of the Taiwan Strait until 2003, when it was abandoned by the Republic of China (Taiwan). The People's Republic of China continues to use the goose step as its ceremonial march step.
- Hong Kong: Since the 1997 handover of sovereignty, some Hong Kong's institutions, traditionally conducting British-style drill, like Customs and Excise Department, have adopted the goose step. Chinese central government has also requested uniformed youth groups in Hong Kong to adopt the goose step practice of the PLA in the mainland.
- India: The goose step is performed by colour guards, as well as border guards at the Wagah border ceremony. Some units, such as the Gurkha and Assam regiments, use the goose step as a general parade step, although the foot does not generally leave the ground for more than a couple of inches.
- Indonesia: The goose step is performed by the military, police (although the foot does not generally leave the ground for more than a couple of inches unlike the Military), scouts, and the Paskibraka during ceremonial occasions.
- Myanmar: The Myanmar Armed Forces do not use the goose step. However, the ethnic Kachin, Kokang, Shan, and Wa insurgents in northern Myanmar use the goose step, as they allied with the Communist Party of Burma in the 1960s and received training from Chinese advisors.
- Nepal uses the goose step as a general parade step, but lifting the feet only a couple of inches above the ground; only Honor Guards have been observed to march with a "full" goose step. The practice has also been adopted by Gurkha regiments in the Indian Army, but not by Gurkha regiments in the British Army.
- North Korea practices a form of bouncing goose step, which leaves a visual impression of a clear bounce in each step. This is unique among all militaries that practice the goose step. North Korea switched from a standard Soviet goose step to the bouncing goose step between 1993 and 1997.
- Pakistan uses the goose step as a military march step in slow time only. The marching pace while goose stepping is 60 bpm
- Vietnam received Chinese and Soviet military aid during the Vietnam War. North Vietnam had already begun adopting the goose step by 1954, when the victory at Dien Bien Phu was celebrated with a military parade in Hanoi. This practice continues on in Vietnam today.
High-stepping as an alternative
Many militaries choose to use a high step in which the legs are lifted high off the ground, but the knee is bent at the top of the arc. The high step is commonly found in countries that abandoned the goose step, were under German military influence, or border countries that use the goose step.
Countries that abandoned the goose step:
- Argentina: The Infantry Company of the Colegio Militar de la Nacion still uses the goose step as a parade step. However, several units of the Argentine Army and the Argentine Naval Prefecture that used to goose-step have switched to the high step, which is also in standard use in the Argentine Navy and the Argentine Air Force.
- East Timor adopted the high step after obtaining its independence from Indonesia, which uses the goose step.
- Syrian government forces continue to goose-step, but Kurdish forces have switched to the high step.
- Yugoslavia adopted the goose step shortly after World War II, as its army was modernized along Soviet lines. Goose-stepping can be seen in the 1950 military parade in the capital Belgrade. However, it had been replaced by high-stepping by the 1975 parade, as Marshal Tito asserted his independence from Soviet influence. High-stepping is still used in Serbia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Countries that were under German military influence:
- During the Meiji era, the Japanese military was modernized along the German model, but the Imperial Japanese Army chose to adopt the high step instead of the goose step. The Japanese military dropped the high step after its defeat in World War II.
- Portugal adopted the high step in the 1910s, when it became a republic.
- Turkey's use of the high step dates back to the late Ottoman Empire, when the Ottoman military was modernized under German influence. Like Japan, it chose to adopt a bent-leg high step instead of the German goose step. Turkey continues to use the high step today.
Countries that border goose-stepping countries:
- Brazil uses the high step as its general parade step. Brazil borders several Spanish-speaking countries that use the goose step.
- Somalia shares a border with Djibouti and sea borders with Yemen. The Somali Armed Forces and the Somaliland Armed Forces both perform the high step.
- Uruguay is one of the few Spanish-speaking countries that does not use the goose step. Instead, it uses the high step as its general parade step in all ceremonies.
- Lebanon shares borders with Syria to the north. The Lebanese Armed Forces today perform the high step in parades held on major national holidays.
The goose-step is a ceremonial march that requires substantial training. It is often abandoned in times of war, as more pressing needs occupy the available training time. Opinion on the goose-step was divided even in the German Wehrmacht in the 1930s. In the later part of World War II, the goose step nearly disappeared because of manpower shortages, accelerated courses in basic training, and a paucity of appropriate occasions.
After the Second World War, West Germany abandoned the goose step in favor of a hybrid Western march step, while keeping the hand swings to the chest. East Germany preserved the goose step and renamed it the "drilling step" (exerzierschritt) to avoid references to old Prussian and Wehrmacht military traditions. The 200-year German tradition of goose stepping finally ended with German reunification in 1990, as East German forces were absorbed into the Bundeswehr and conformed to West German military customs. Although goose-stepping has no official sanction, the practice is not illegal in Germany. Some civilian marching bands and riflemen's associations continue to goose-step while others dropped it altogether.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Georgia abandoned the Russian-style goose step (by 2015, Estonia revived the practice but only color guards do so on parades and Latvia retained the goose step for ceremonial purposes). The other 11 former Soviet Republics have kept the goose step (only Moldova's military honor guard unit retains the practice).
Hungary used the high step during the regency of Miklós Horthy, and switched to the goose step early in the Cold War. Neither march step was retained after the end of the Cold War, as the parade of 1961 formally ended its use in favor of the normal quick march. (It was only retained as a slow march for the entrance of historical colors.)
Italy introduced the goose step in 1938 under Benito Mussolini as the Passo Romano ("Roman Step"). The custom was never popular in Italy's armed forces except amongst the Blackshirts. The goose step was dropped after World War II.
Romania used the goose step until from the 1910s up to 1967, when the Romanian Armed Forces ended using it for formal parades. It was briefly revived in the 1990s, and today only a single historical unit performs it while wearing First World War uniforms.
Switzerland is a majority German-speaking country that absorbed many German military traditions alongside those of France and Italy. The Swiss Armed Forces abandoned the goose step in 1946, after the German defeat in World War II.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) Armed Forces continued to use the goose step after the end of the Chinese Civil War. The 80-year tradition of goose-stepping was finally ended in 2003, during an independence-minded Democratic Progressive Party administration. In 2016, veterans organizations criticized the sloppy marching of military cadets and began holding their own goose-stepping parades, reviewed by Kuomintang politicians in two occasions.
Zimbabwean guerillas used the goose step during the Rhodesian Bush War of the 1970s. ZIPRA was trained and supplied by the Warsaw Pact, adopting East German uniforms and the goose step. Meanwhile, ZANLA was supplied and trained by China in Maoist guerilla tactics. However, Zimbabwe ultimately attained black majority rule thanks to British influence. As a result, the unified Zimbabwean Army maintained a British march step.
Association with dictatorship
The goose step was ridiculed by Allied propaganda in the World Wars as a symbol of blind obedience and senseless attachment to military form. Prior to U.S. entry into World War I, American military observers had remarked favorably on the goose step as a means of building unit cohesion. However, its association with Nazi Germany in World War II proved fatal to the goose step's reputation in English-speaking countries. It was condemned in George Orwell's essay The Lion and the Unicorn, and proved an easy target for parody in many editorial cartoons and Hollywood films.
Orwell commented in "England Your England" (1941) that the goose step was used only in countries where the population was too scared to laugh at their military.
- In the episode of the British sitcom Fawlty Towers called The Germans, the main character Basil Fawlty infamously imitates the goose step in front of some German guests.
- In a 1999 television adaptation of Orwell's Animal Farm, the goose step is appropriately performed by a flock of geese, singing the praises of their porcine leader Napoleon in a propaganda film.
In colloquial English, the phrase goose-stepping has connotations of blind obedience and submission. The term does not carry this negative connotation in countries that actually use the goose step. This can result in mistaken interpretations due to cultural bias:
- In Spartacus, a ballet by Aram Khachaturian, the Roman soldiers goose-step in most of their scenes. English-speaking reviewers sometimes conclude erroneously that the choreography must be intending to link the Roman Empire with the tyranny of Nazi Germany. However, goose-stepping in Russia carries no such connotation, and reflects only military discipline. Goose-stepping can be found in a number of Russian ballets in which it is not associated with the villains.
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Mil.: The act of a recruit in balancing himself on one foot while moving the other backwards and forwards without taking a step.
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The hero of the comedy is, it will be remembered, none other than Prince Leopold of Dessau, friend of Frederick the Great, hero of the Prussian Army, and inventor of the iron ramrod and of the "goose-step."
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You have heard, let us say, of the German parade step, sometimes laughed at as the "goose step" in England and at home. I was lunching the other day with an American military observer, and he spoke of the parade step and the effect it had on him. "Did you ever see it?" he demanded. "Have you any idea of the moral effect of that step? You see those men marching by, every muscle in their bodies taut and tingling as steel wire, every eye on the Emperor, and when they bring those feet down--bing! bang!-- the physical fitness it stands for, the unity, determination--why, it's the whole German idea--nothing can stop them!"
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The parade step in Japan is practically the German goose-step, and the arms are brought to horizontal position in front at each swing. This may, to the superficial observer, seem absurd, but it conveys a strong sense of momentum and force, and I fully believe it has a sort of hypnotic effect on the soldiers, making them feel stronger and more consequential. It is by no manner of means to be laughed at, that I am certain of.
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Curiously, the East German Army retained the old Prussian military goose step until December 1989.
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The RPF had very close ties with the Ugandan government as many of its leaders came from the exiled Tutsi community in Uganda and had become an important force within Museveni's rebel force ... As a result, many members of the elite in Rwanda look back on a period of military training in Uganda, and retain close links with the Ugandan military.
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The parade reflected some of the training the Tanzanian army had received in Communist East Germany. Its precision was somewhat handicapped, however. The army's instruction in goose-stepping had obviously taken place when the soldiers wore Prussian-style boots.
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