Gopala Tapani Upanishad

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Gopalatapani
Radhakrishna Darshan at Vrundavan.JPG
Radha and Krishna
Devanagari गोपालतापिन्युपनिषत्
IAST Gopālatāpanī
Title means Surrender to Krishna
Date before 14th century CE
Type Vaishnava
Linked Veda Atharvaveda
Chapters 9[1]

Gopāla-tāpanī Upanishad is a Sanskrit text, probably composed in the first half of 2nd-millennium CE, and a minor Upanishad attached to the Atharvaveda.[2][3] The Gopāla-tāpanī is one of the four Tāpinī Upanishads (Nṛsiṁha, Rāma, Tripurā and Gopāla).[3]

The central character of the text is Radha who is described as the Shakti of Krishna,[4] her devotion and discussion of Gopala Krishna.[5] Gopala Krishna is presented as identical to the nondual Absolute Reality (Atman-Brahman), the sat-cit-ananda, the Guru, the Om and the object of Vedanta, who can be reached by devotion to love.[6] It is an important text to the Vaiṣṇava schools of Hinduism, particularly the Gaudiya Vaishnavas of Bengal region of South Asia.[7]

The text is listed as 95th in the Telugu language Muktika anthology of 108 Upanishads.[8]

Date[edit]

Farquhar dates it to have been composed after Nṛsiṁha-tāpanī Upanishad, which he estimates to be complete by the 7th century.[2] He states that the first of the Tāpanīya Upanishads is believed to be the Nṛsiṁha, which served as the model for the others which took this name.[2] The Gopalatapani text was extensively commented by the 16th-century scholar Jiva Goswami placing the two limits on its composition century.[9] The 14th-century scholar Vidyaranya commented on Tapani series of Upanishad, so it is possible the text existed by then.[2]

The meaning of the series name[edit]

The wise and enlightened sages declare
that the pleasure potency
of God, Sri Radha, and all living beings
are also contained in Om.

Gopalatapani Upanishad, II.56[10]

The Sanskrit word tāpanīya in the context of these Upanishads is not clear. The word is found in four different forms: tapanīya, tāpanīya, tāpinī, tāpanī. Tāpanī is the most common form used in titles and references, but this appears to be an abbreviated form of the more correct tāpanīya, which appears in the texts themselves. According to Monier-Williams verdict we should assume tāpanīya ("gold") to be the name of a school of the Vājaseyani Saṁhitā that produced the four Upanishads bearing this name. This assumes that they come from a common source something disputed by others, who believe that the three other works were written on the model of the Nṛsiṁha-tāpanī as a result of the success enjoyed by that work in bringing legitimation a particular ancient tradition containing Nṛsiṁha mantra.[11] Deussen reads tapanīya,[11] which means "that which must be heated" or "gold". It also has the meaning of "self-mortification".

The process of self-purification is often compared to smelting gold, which is heated repeatedly in fire to remove any impurities. Deussen thus explains the term is as follows: "Tapanam (austerity) is burning pain-suffering or ascetic self-sacrifice; Nṛsiṁha-tapanam thus means ascetic self-surrender to Nṛsiṁha. Therefore Nṛsiṁha-tapanīya Upanishad is "the doctrine concerning the ascetic surrender to Nṛsiṁha."[11]

Early commentaries[edit]

Narayana

I am imperishable. I am omkara that never grows old, dies or knows fear. I am immortal. I am verily the fearless Brahman. Therefore I am liberated and indestructible.

Brahman is pure existence, the universal form and light. He is all pervasive, and one without a second, but through māyā he becomes fourfold.

Gopalatapani Upanishad V.52-V.53[12]
  • Prabodhānanda Sarasvati [13]
  • Jīva Goswami commentary
  • Viśvanātha Cakravarti commentary

Early books quoted in[edit]

Verses as reference: used in Krishna Sandarbha by Jiva Goswami

Verses as reference: used in Hari Bhakti Vilasa by Gopala Bhatta Goswami

Recent editions and commentaries[edit]

  • Kṛṣṇadāsa Kusuma Sarovarawala’s edition (Kusuma Sarovarawala is only used for commenting on the text of the Upanishaad itself)[14]
  • Bhakti Srirupa Siddhāntī Mahārāja edition and comments
  • B.V. Tripurari edition and comments
  • Kuśakratha dāsa’s English translation

Concordance of different editions and commentaries[edit]

Pūrva

Tripurari

Vishvanatha Cakravarti

Prabodhānanda Sarasvati

Jiva Goswami commentary

Kuśakratha dāsa's English translation

Kṛṣṇa Sandarbhua by Jiva

Hari Bhakti Vilasa by GBG

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

82

1.160

3

3-6

3

3-6

3

82

1.160

4

7

4

7

4

1.160

5

8-9

5

8-9

5

1.160

6

10

6

10

6

1.160

7

11

7

11

7

1.160

8

12

8

12

8

187

1.160

9

12

9

13

9

10

12

10

14

9

11

12

11

15

10

153

12

13

12-14

16

11-12

153

13

14

15

17

13

153

14

15

16

18

14

1.161

15

16-17

17

19

15

1.161

16

18

18

20

16

1.162

17

19

19

21

17

18

20

20-22

22

18-19

19

21

23

23

20

1.163

20

22

24

24

21

1.164

21

23

25

25

22

1.165

22

24

26

26

23

64

1.166

23

25

27

27

24

1.167

24

26

28

28

25

106

1.168

25

26-27

29-32

29

26-28

64

1.169

26

28

33-36

30

29-30

83

1.169

27

29

37-38

31

31

1.172

28

30

39-40

32

32-33

1.172

29

31

41-42

33

34

93

30

32

43

34

35

1.173

31

33

44

35

36

1.174

32

34

45

36

37

1.175

33

35

46

37

38

1.176

34

36

47

38

39

35

37

48

39

40

36

38

49

40

41

37

39

50

41

42

99,106,153

38

40

51

42

43

39

41

52

43

44

40

42

53

44

45

41

43

54

45

46

42

44

55

46

47

43

45

56

47

48

44

46

57

48

49

45

47

58

49

50

46

48

59

50

51

47

49

60

51

52-53

1.177

48

50

61

52

54

82

1.178

'Uttara


Tripurari

Vishvanatha Cakravarti

Prabodhānanda Sarasvati

Jiva Goswami

Kuśakratha dāsa's English translation

Kṛṣṇa Sandarbhua by Jiva Goswami

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

2

2-3

3

2

3

2

4

4

3

4

3

5

5

4

5

4

6

6

4

6

4

7

7

5

7

5

8

8

6-7

8-9

6-7

9

9

7

10

7

10

10

8

11-12

8

11

11

9

13

9

12

12

10

14

10

13

13

11

15

11

14

177

14

12-13

16

12

15

15

13

17

13

16-19

16

14-15

18

14-15

20

17

16

19

16

21

18

17

20

17

22

19

18-20

21-24

18-20

23

20

21

25

21

24

21

22

26

22

25-26

22

23

27

23

27

23

24

28-31

24

28

99

24

25-27

32-35

25-27

29-32

25

28

36

28

33-34

26

29

37-38

29

35-36

106

27

30

39-40

30

37-38

106, 177

28

31

41

31

39-40

106

29

32

42-43

32

40

30

33

44

33

41

172

31

34

45

34

42

106

32

35-36

46-47

35-36

43-45

106

33

37

48

37

46

34

38

49

38

47

35

39

50

39

48a

106

36

40

50

40

48b

106

37

41

51

41

49a

38

42

52

42

49b

39

43

53

43

50

40

44

53-58

44

51-53

87,153

41

45

59

45

54

42

46

60

46

55

43

47

61

47

56

44

48

62-63

48

57-58

45

49

64

49

59

46

50

65

50

60

47

51

66

51

61

48

52

67-68

52

62

49

53

69

53

63

50

54a

70

54

64

51

54b

71-73

55

65

52

54c

73

56

66

53

54d

74

57

67

54

55

75

58

68

55

56

76

59

69

56

57

77

60

70

57

58

78-79

60-61

71-72

58

59

79

61

73-74

106

59

60

80a

62

75

106

60

61

80b

63

76

106

61

62

80c

64

77

62

63

80d

65

78

63

64

81

66

79

64

65

82

67

80

65

66

83

68

81

66

67

84

69

82

82

67

68

85

70

83

68

69

86

71

84

69

70

87

72

85

70

71

88

73

86-87

71

72

89

74

88-89

72

73

90

75

90

73

74

91

76

91

74

75

92

77

92

75

76

93-94

78

92-93

76

77

95-96

79

94

77

78

97-98

80

95

78

79

98-99

81

96-97

79

80

100

82

98

80

81

101

83

99

81

82

102

84

100

82

83

103

85

101

83

84

104

86

102

84

85

105

87

103

85

86

106

88

104

86

87

107

89

105

87

88

108

90

106

88

89

109

91

107

89

90

110

92

108

90

91

111

93

109

91

92

112

94

110

92

93

113

95

111

93

94

114

96

112

94

95

115

97

113

95

96

116

98

114

96

97

117

99

115

97

98

118

100

116

98

99

119

101

117

99

100

120

102

118

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hattangadi 2000.
  2. ^ a b c d Farquhar 1920, p. 266.
  3. ^ a b Tinoco 1997, p. 88.
  4. ^ Tripurari 2004, pp. 3-9, 152-154.
  5. ^ Farquhar 1920, pp. 237-238.
  6. ^ Tripurari 2004, pp. xi-xii, 3-9, 39-40, 65-67, 110-111.
  7. ^ Tripurari 2004, pp. xi-xiii.
  8. ^ Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997, pp. 556-557.
  9. ^ Tripurari 2004, pp. 3-4, 8-11 with footnotes.
  10. ^ Steven Rosen (2006), Essential Hinduism, Praeger, ISBN 978-0275990060, page 218
  11. ^ a b c Deussen, P. (1980). Sixty Upanishads of The Veda, trans. VM Bedekar and GB Palsule. Delhi. ISBN 0-8426-1645-4. Vol II, pp. 809-888. He has translated the Rāma Pūrva and Uttara-tāpinī and the Nṛsiṁha Pūrva and Uttara-tāpinī Upanishads.
  12. ^ Tripurari 2004, pp. 154-155.
  13. ^ Tripurari, Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī: From Benares to Braj" in the Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Vol LV, Part 1, 1992, pages 52-75
  14. ^ Kṛṣṇadāsa Bābājī, Kusumasarovara, Radha Kund: Gaurahari Press, 1955

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • B. V. Tripurari (2004). Gopala-tapani Upanisad. Audarya Press. 
  • Narang, S. (1984). The Vaisnava Philosophy According to Baladeva Vidyabhusana. Nag Publishers.