A gopnik (Russian: гопник, tr. gopnik, ˈɡopnʲɪk; Ukrainian: гопники, romanized: hopnyky; Belarusian: гопнік, romanized: hopnik) is a member of a subculture in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other former Soviet republics - a young man (or a woman) of lower-class families that usually live in Russian suburban areas (usually Millennials) coming from families of poor education and income. The female form is gopnitsa (Russian: гопница) and the collective noun is gopota (Russian: гопота). The subculture of gopniks has its roots in the late Russian Empire and evolved during the 20th century in many cities in the Soviet Union. As of the late 2010s, the subculture has faded for the most part, although youth gangs (such as the A.U.E.) that resemble gopniks still exist in Russia and in other Slavic and Baltic countries.
However, it could also be related to GOP, the acronym for the Gorodskoye Obshchestvo Prizora. These were almshouses for the destitute created by the Bolshevik government after the October Revolution in 1917. According to Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary, a Russian explanatory dictionary (first published in the 19th century), an old slang word for "sleeping on street" was "гопать" (gopat', literally "to gop") something that was related to the "mazuricks" or the criminals of Saint Petersburg.
Stereotypical appearance and behaviour
Gopniks are often seen squatting in groups "in court" (на кортах, na kortakh) or "doing the crab" (на крабе, na krabe) outside blocks of flats or schools with their heels on the ground. It is described as a learned behavior attributed to Russian prison culture to avoid sitting on the cold ground.
Gopniks are often seen wearing Adidas or Puma tracksuits (mostly Adidas), which were popularized by the 1980 Moscow Olympics Soviet team. Sunflower seeds (colloquially semki (семки) or semechki (семечки)) are habitually eaten by gopniks, especially in Ukraine and Russia. Gopniks can also be seen wearing flat caps and Adidas backpacks.
Gopniks are often associated with cheap alcohol, such as low-quality vodka and light beer, cheap cigarettes, low-end mobile devices, and sometimes firearms. They also utilize common Russian profanities and often behave rudely. Gopniks favor Lada Classics as their primary means of transport.
The subculture is stereotypically associated with Russian chanson music, specifically the blatnaya pesnya subgenre (prisoner's songs, lyrics etc...); also, since the mid-2010s, in internet memes and viral videos, with hardbass and Russian rock.
Some gopniks have Russian nationalism or Pan-Slavism as their primary political views, though there are also leftist or even far-right gopnik communities. Some gopniks hold strong anti-Western views.
- Șmenar (Romania)
- Lotu (slang) (Azerbaijan)
- Ah Beng (Malaysia and Singapore)
- Mat Rempit (Malaysia)
- Ars (slang) (Israel)
- Cañí (Spain) or cani, a slur against Romani people
- Chata (Costa Rica)
- Chav (United Kingdom)
- Cholo (Mexico)
- Dizelaši (Serbia)
- Dresiarz (Poland)
- Eshays (Australia)
- Flaite (Chile)
- Gabber/tokkie (Netherlands)
- Geng/Preman (Indonesia)
- Jologs (Philippines)
- Kazan phenomenon
- Funkeiro (Brazil)
- Ned (Scottish)
- Plancha (Uruguay)
- Raggare (Sweden/Norway))
- Roadman (UK/England)
- Smick/Spide/Steek/Jant (Northern Ireland)
- Tapori/Mawali (India)
- Thief in law (Soviet Union)
- Yob (slang) (United Kingdom and others)
- Zef (South Africa)
- Yankī (Japan)
- Hoodlum (US)
- 불량소년 (South Korea)
- Mitra/Basofe/Guna/Chunga (Portugal)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gopnik.|
- Russian plural гопники (gopniki), also гопота (gopota), and гопари (gopari). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y90yaLFoYoA Archived 2020-03-27 at the Wayback Machine
- Beiträge der Europäischen Slavistischen Linguistik (POLYSLAV)., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y90yaLFoYoA Archived 2020-03-27 at the Wayback Machine Volume 8, 2005, ISBN 3-87690-924-4, p. 237 Archived 2016-05-08 at the Wayback Machine
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