|The Right Honourable
|Brown as Prime Minister, c. 2009|
|Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|
27 June 2007 – 11 May 2010
|Preceded by||Tony Blair|
|Succeeded by||David Cameron|
|Leader of the Labour Party|
24 June 2007 – 11 May 2010
|Preceded by||Tony Blair|
|Succeeded by||Ed Miliband|
|Chancellor of the Exchequer|
2 May 1997 – 27 June 2007
|Prime Minister||Tony Blair|
|Preceded by||Kenneth Clarke|
|Succeeded by||Alistair Darling|
|Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer|
24 July 1992 – 2 May 1997
|Preceded by||John Smith|
|Succeeded by||Kenneth Clarke|
|Shadow Secretary of State for Trade|
2 November 1989 – 24 July 1992
|Preceded by||Bryan Gould|
|Succeeded by||Robin Cook|
|Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury|
13 July 1987 – 2 November 1989
|Preceded by||Bryan Gould|
|Succeeded by||Margaret Beckett|
|Member of Parliament
for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath
Dunfermline East (1983–2005)
9 June 1983 – 30 March 2015
|Preceded by||Dick Douglas|
|Succeeded by||Roger Mullin|
|Born||James Gordon Brown
20 February 1951
Giffnock, Scotland, United Kingdom
|Spouse(s)||Sarah Brown (2000–present)|
|Alma mater||University of Edinburgh|
|Religion||Church of Scotland|
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 until 2010. He previously served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Government from 1997 to 2007. Brown was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and later for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath.
A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Brown spent his early career working as both a lecturer at a further education college and a television journalist. He entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East. He joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, and was later promoted to become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labour's victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, becoming the longest-serving holder of that office in modern history.
Brown's time as Chancellor was marked by major reform of Britain's monetary and fiscal policy architecture, transferring interest rate setting powers to the Bank of England, by a wide extension of the powers of the Treasury to cover much domestic policy and by transferring responsibility for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority. Controversial moves included the abolition of advance corporation tax (ACT) relief in his first budget, and the removal in his final budget of the 10% "starting rate" of personal income tax which he had introduced in 1999. In 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election.
After initial rises in opinion polls following Brown becoming Prime Minister, Labour's popularity declined with the onset of a recession in 2008, leading to poor results in the local and European elections in 2009. A year later, Labour lost 91 seats in the House of Commons at the 2010 general election, the party's biggest loss of seats in a single general election since 1931, making the Conservatives the largest party in a hung parliament. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he would stand down as leader of the Labour Party, and instructed the party to put into motion the processes to elect a new leader. Labour's attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he officially resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, and as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Election to Parliament and opposition
- 3 Chancellor of the Exchequer
- 4 Run-up to succeeding Tony Blair
- 5 Prime Minister
- 6 Post-Prime Ministership
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Titles, honours, and awards
- 9 Publications
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock, Renfrewshire, Scotland. His father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. He died in December 1998, aged 84. His mother, Jessie Elizabeth Brown (née Souter), known as Bunty, died on 19 September 2004, aged 86. She was the daughter of John Souter, a timber merchant. Brown was brought up with his elder brother John and younger brother Andrew Brown in a manse in Kirkcaldy – the largest town in Fife, Scotland across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh. In common with many other notable Scots, he is therefore often referred to as a "son of the manse".
Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programme, which took him two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes. At age sixteen he wrote that he loathed and resented this "ludicrous" experiment on young lives.
He was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the same early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he received a kick to the head and suffered a retinal detachment. This left him blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. Later at Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the same symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his right eye was saved. Brown graduated from Edinburgh with First-Class Honours MA degree in history in 1972, and stayed on to obtain his PhD degree in history (which he gained ten years later in 1982), titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918–29.
In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Gordon was involved in a romantic relationship with Margarita, Crown Princess of Romania. Margarita said about it: "It was a very solid and romantic story. I never stopped loving him but one day it didn't seem right any more, it was politics, politics, politics, and I needed nurturing." An unnamed friend of those years is quoted by Paul Routledge in his biography of Brown as recalling: "She was sweet and gentle and obviously cut out to make somebody a very good wife. She was bright, too, though not like him, but they seemed made for each other."
In 1972, while still a student, Brown was elected Rector of the University of Edinburgh, the convener of the University Court. He served as Rector until 1975, and also edited the document The Red Paper on Scotland.
Career before Parliament
From 1976 to 1980 Brown was employed as a lecturer in politics at Glasgow College of Technology. He also worked as a tutor for the Open University. In the 1979 general election, Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency, losing to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram.
Election to Parliament and opposition
Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in 1983 general election. His first Westminster office mate was a newly elected MP from the Sedgefield constituency, Tony Blair. Brown became an opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In 1986, he published a biography of the Independent Labour Party politician James Maxton, the subject of his PhD thesis. Brown was Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1987 to 1989 and then Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, before becoming Shadow Chancellor in 1992. Having led the Labour Movement Yes campaign, refusing to join the cross-party Yes for Scotland campaign, during the 1979 Scottish devolution referendum, while other senior Labour politicians – including Robin Cook, Tam Dalyell and Brian Wilson – campaigned for a No vote, Brown was subsequently a key participant in the Scottish Constitutional Convention, signing the Claim of Right for Scotland in 1989.
After the sudden death of Labour leader John Smith in May 1994, Brown did not contest the leadership after Tony Blair became favourite, deciding to make way for Blair to avoiding splitting the pro-modernising vote in the leadership ballot.
It has long been rumoured a deal was struck between Blair and Brown at the former Granita restaurant in Islington, in which Blair promised to give Brown control of economic policy in return for Brown not standing against him in the leadership election. Whether this is true or not, the relationship between Blair and Brown was central to the fortunes of New Labour, and they mostly remained united in public, despite reported serious private rifts.
As Shadow Chancellor, Brown as Chancellor-in-waiting was seen as a good choice by business and the middle class. While he was Chancellor inflation sometimes exceeded the 2% target causing the Governor of the Bank of England to write several letters to the Chancellor, each time inflation exceeded three per cent. In 2005 following a reorganisation of Westminster constituencies in Scotland, Brown became MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath at the general election.
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In the 1997 general election, Labour defeated the Conservatives by a landslide to end their 18-year exile from government, and when Tony Blair, the new Prime Minister, announced his ministerial team on 2 May 1997, he appointed Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Brown would remain in this role for 10 years and two months, making him the longest-serving Chancellor in modern history. The Prime Minister's website highlights some achievements from Brown's decade as Chancellor: making the Bank of England independent and delivering an agreement on poverty and climate change at the G8 summit in 2005.
Early economic reforms
On taking office as Chancellor of the Exchequer Brown gave the Bank of England operational independence in monetary policy, and thus responsibility for setting interest rates through the Bank's Monetary Policy Committee. At the same time he also changed the inflation measure from the Retail Price Index to the Consumer Price Index and transferred responsibility for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority. Some commentators have argued that this division of responsibilities exacerbated the severity in Britain of the 2007 global banking crisis.
Taxation and spending
In the 1997 election and subsequently, Brown pledged not to increase the basic or higher rates of income tax. Over his Chancellorship, he reduced the basic rate from 23% to 20%. However, in all but his final budget, Brown increased the tax thresholds in line with inflation, rather than earnings, resulting in fiscal drag. Corporation tax fell under Brown, from a main rate of 33% to 28%, and from 24% to 19% for small businesses. In 1999, he introduced a lower tax band of 10%. He abolished this 10% tax band in his last budget in 2007 to reduce the basic rate from 22% to 20%, increasing tax for 5 million people and, according to the calculations of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, leaving those earning between £5,000 and £18,000 as the biggest losers. To backbench cheers, Brown had described the measure in his last Budget thus: "Having put in place more focused ways of incentivising work and directly supporting children and pensioners at a cost of £3bn a year, I can now return income tax to just two rates by removing the 10p band on non savings income".
According to the OECD UK taxation increased from a 39.3% share of gross domestic product in 1997 to 42.4% in 2006, going to a higher level than that of Germany. This increase has mainly been attributed to active government policy, and not simply to the growing economy. Conservatives have accused Brown of imposing "stealth taxes". A commonly reported example resulted in 1997 from a technical change in the way corporation tax is collected, the indirect effect of which was for the dividends on stock investments held within pensions to be taxed, thus lowering pension returns and contributing to the demise of most of the final salary pension funds in the UK. The Treasury contends that this tax change was crucial to long-term economic growth.
Brown's 2000 Spending Review outlined a major expansion of government spending, particularly on health and education. In his April 2002 budget, Brown increased national insurance to pay for health spending. He also introduced working tax credits, and in his last budget as Chancellor, Brown gave an extra £3 billion in pension allowances, an increase in the child tax credit, and an increase in the working tax credit. These increases were followed by another £1 billion of support for increases in the child tax credit.
European single currency
In October 1997, Brown took control of the United Kingdom's membership of the European single currency issue by announcing the Treasury would set five economic tests to ascertain whether the economic case had been made. In June 2003 the Treasury indicated the tests had not been passed.
In 2000, Brown was accused of starting a political row about higher education (referred to as the Laura Spence Affair) when he accused the University of Oxford of elitism in its admissions procedures, describing its decision not to offer a place to state school pupil Laura Spence as "absolutely outrageous". Lord Jenkins, then Oxford Chancellor and himself a former Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer, said "nearly every fact he used was false."
Between 1999 and 2002 Brown sold 60% of the UK's gold reserves shortly before gold entered a protracted bull market, since nicknamed by dealers as Brown Bottom. The official reason for selling the gold reserves was to reduce the portfolio risk of the UK's reserves by diversifying away from gold. The UK eventually sold about 395 tons of gold over 17 auctions from July 1999 to March 2002, at an average price of about US$275 per ounce, raising approximately US$3.5 billion. By 2011, that quantity of gold would be worth over $19 billion, leading to Brown's decision to sell the gold being widely criticised.
During his time as Chancellor, Brown reportedly believed that it was appropriate to remove most, but not all, of the unpayable Third World debt. On 20 April 2006, in a speech to the United Nations Ambassadors, Brown outlined a "Green" view of global development.
Run-up to succeeding Tony Blair
- Main articles Labour Party leadership election, 2007 and Timeline for the Labour Party leadership elections, 2007
In October 2004, Tony Blair announced he would not lead the party into a fourth general election, but would serve a full third term. Political comment over the relationship between Brown and Blair continued up to and beyond the 2005 election, which Labour won with a reduced majority and reduced vote share. Blair announced on 7 September 2006 that he would step down within a year. Brown was the clear favourite to succeed Blair; he was the only candidate spoken of seriously in Westminster. Appearances and news coverage leading up to the handover were interpreted as preparing the ground for Brown to become Prime Minister, in part by creating the impression of a statesman with a vision for leadership and global change. This enabled Brown to signal the most significant priorities for his agenda as Prime Minister; speaking at a Fabian Society conference on 'The Next Decade' in January 2007, he stressed education, international development, narrowing inequalities (to pursue 'equality of opportunity and fairness of outcome'), renewing Britishness, restoring trust in politics, and winning hearts and minds in the war on terror as key priorities.
Brown ceased to be Chancellor and became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 27 June 2007. Like all modern Prime Ministers, Brown concurrently served as the First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service, and was a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Until his resignation from the post in May 2010 he was Leader of the Labour Party. He is Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. He is the sixth post-war Prime Minister, of a total of 12, to assume the role without having won a general election. Brown was the first Prime Minister from a Scottish constituency since the Conservative Sir Alec Douglas-Home in 1964. Not all British Prime Ministers have attended university, but of the ones that did Brown was one of only five that did not attend either Oxford or Cambridge, the others were, The Earl of Bute (Leiden), Lord John Russell (Edinburgh), Bonar Law (Glasgow), and Neville Chamberlain (Mason Science College, later Birmingham). Brown proposed moving some traditional prime ministerial powers conferred by royal prerogative to the realm of Parliament, such as the power to declare war and approve appointments to senior positions. Brown wanted Parliament to gain the right to ratify treaties and have more oversight into the intelligence services. He also proposed moving some powers from Parliament to citizens, including the right to form "citizens' juries", easily petition Parliament for new laws, and rally outside Westminster. He asserted that the attorney general should not have the right to decide whether to prosecute in individual cases, such as in the loans for peerages scandal.
There was speculation during September and early October 2007 about whether Brown would call a snap general election. Indeed the party launched the Not Flash, Just Gordon advertising campaign, which was seen largely as pre-election promotion of Brown as Prime Minister. However, Brown announced on 6 October that there would be no election any time soon – despite opinion polls showing that he was capable of winning an election should he call one. This proved to be a costly mistake, as during 2008 his party slid behind the Conservatives (led by David Cameron) in the polls. Disputes over political donations, a string of losses in local elections, and by-election losses in Crewe and Glasgow did himself and the government no favours either.
His political opponents accused him of being indecisive, which Brown denied. In July 2008 Brown supported a new bill extending the pre-charge detention period to 42 days. The bill was met with opposition on both sides of the House and backbench rebellion. In the end the bill passed by just 9 votes. The House of Lords defeated the bill, with Lords characterising it as "fatally flawed, ill thought through and unnecessary", stating that "it seeks to further erode fundamental legal and civil rights".
Brown was mentioned by the press in the expenses crisis for claiming for the payment of his cleaner. However, no wrongdoing was found and the Commons Authority did not pursue Brown over the claim. Meanwhile, the Commons Fees Office stated that a double payment for a £153 plumbing repair bill was a mistake on their part and that Brown had repaid it in full.
The manifesto included a clampdown on corruption and a new Ministerial Code, which set out clear standards of behaviour for ministers. Brown also stated in a speech when announcing his bid that he wants a "better constitution" that is "clear about the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in Britain today". He planned to set up an all-party convention to look at new powers for Parliament and to look at rebalancing powers between Whitehall and local government. Brown said he would give Parliament the final say on whether British troops are sent into action in future.
Brown said he wanted to release more land and ease access to ownership with shared equity schemes. He backed a proposal to build new eco-towns, each housing between 10,000 and 20,000 home-owners—up to 100,000 new homes in total. Brown also said he wanted to have doctors' surgeries open at the weekends, and GPs on call in the evenings. Doctors were given the right of opting out of out-of-hours care in 2007, under a controversial pay deal, signed by then-Health Secretary John Reid, which awarded them a 22 percent pay rise in 2006. Brown also stated in the manifesto that the NHS was his top priority.
On 5 June 2007, just three weeks before he was due to take the post of Prime Minister, Brown made a speech promising "British Jobs for British workers". Brown reiterated that promise at the Labour Party's annual conference in September, which caused controversy as he coupled this with a commitment to crack down on migrant workers. The Conservative Party, led by David Cameron, promptly pointed out that such a commitment was illegal under EU law.
Brown was committed to the Iraq War, but said in a speech in June 2007 that he would "learn the lessons" from the mistakes made in Iraq. Brown said in a letter published on 17 March 2008 that the United Kingdom would hold an inquiry into the Iraq war. He is also a member of the lobby group, Labour Friends of Israel.
Brown went to great lengths to empathise with those who lost family members in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. He has often said "War is tragic", echoing Blair's quote, "War is horrible". Nonetheless, in November 2007 Brown was accused by some senior military figures of not adhering to the 'military covenant', a convention within British politics ensuring adequate safeguards, rewards and compensation for military personnel who risk their lives in obedience to orders derived from the policy of the elected government.
Brown skipped the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics, on 8 August 2008 in Beijing. He attended the closing ceremony instead, on 24 August 2008. Brown had been under intense pressure from human rights campaigners to send a message to China, concerning the 2008 Tibetan unrest. His decision not to attend the opening ceremony was not an act of protest, but rather was made several weeks in advance and not intended as a stand on principle.
In a speech in July 2007, Brown clarified his position regarding Britain's relationship with the USA "We will not allow people to separate us from the United States of America in dealing with the common challenges that we face around the world. I think people have got to remember that the special relationship between a British prime minister and an American president is built on the things that we share, the same enduring values about the importance of liberty, opportunity, the dignity of the individual. I will continue to work, as Tony Blair did, very closely with the American administration."
Brown and the Labour party had pledged to allow a referendum on the EU Treaty of Lisbon. On 13 December 2007, Foreign Secretary David Miliband attended for the Prime Minister at the official signing ceremony in Lisbon of the EU Reform Treaty. Brown's opponents on both sides of the House, and in the press, suggested that ratification by Parliament was not enough and that a referendum should also be held. Labour's 2005 manifesto had pledged to give British public a referendum on the original EU Constitution. Brown argued that the Treaty significantly differed from the Constitution, and as such did not require a referendum. He also responded with plans for a lengthy debate on the topic, and stated that he believed the document to be too complex to be decided by referendum.
During Brown's premiership, in October 2008, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) recommended to the then Home Secretary Jacqui Smith that cannabis remain classified as a Class C drug. Acting against the advice of the Council, she chose to reclassify it as Class B. After Professor David Nutt, the chair of the ACMD, criticised this move in a lecture in 2009, he was asked to step down by then Home Secretary Alan Johnson. Following his resignation, Professor Nutt said Brown had "made up his mind" to reclassify cannabis despite evidence to the contrary. Brown had argued, "I don't think that the previous studies took into account that so much of the cannabis on the streets is now of a lethal quality and we really have got to send out a message to young people – this is not acceptable". Professor Nutt's predecessor at the ACMD, Sir Michael Rawlins, later said, "Governments may well have good reasons for taking an alternative view... When that happens, then the government should explain why it's ignoring the particular advice".
Brown's premiership coincided with the global recession, during which Brown called for fiscal action in an attempt to stimulate aggregate demand. Domestically, Brown's administration introduced measures including a bank rescue package worth around £500 billion (approximately $850 billion), a temporary 2.5% cut in value added tax and a "car scrappage" scheme.
Plots against leadership
In mid-2008, Brown's leadership was presented with a challenge as some MPs openly called for him to resign. This event was dubbed the 'Lancashire Plot', as two backbenchers from (pre-1974) Lancashire urged him to step down and a third questioned his chances of holding on to the Labour Party leadership. Several MPs argued that if Brown did not recover in the polls by early 2009, he should call for a leadership contest. However, certain prominent MPs, such as Jacqui Smith and Bill Rammell, suggested that Brown was the right person to lead Britain through its economic crisis. In the Autumn, Siobhain McDonagh, a MP and junior government whip, who during her time in office had never voted against the government, spoke of the need for discussion over Brown's position. McDonagh was sacked from her role shortly afterwards, on 12 September. Whilst McDonagh did not state that she wanted Brown deposed, she implored the Labour party to hold a leadership election, she was sacked from her role shortly afterwards. McDonagh was supported by Joan Ryan (who applied, as McDonagh had, for leadership nomination papers, and became the second rebel to be fired from her job), Jim Dowd, Greg Pope, and a string of others who had previously held positions in government, made clear their desire for a contest. In the face of this speculation over Brown's future, his ministers backed him to lead the party, and Harriet Harman and David Miliband denied that they were preparing leadership bids. After Labour lost the Glasgow East by-election in July, Harman, the deputy leader of the party, said that Brown was the "solution", not the "problem"; Home Secretary Smith, Justice Secretary Jack Straw, Schools Secretary Ed Balls and Cabinet Office Minister Ed Miliband all re-affirmed their support for Brown. The deputy Prime Minister under Blair, John Prescott, also pledged his support. Foreign Secretary David Miliband then denied that he was plotting a leadership bid, when on 30 July, an article written by him in The Guardian was interpreted by a large number in the media as an attempt to undermine Brown. In the article, Miliband outlined the party's future, but neglected to mention the Prime Minister. Miliband, responded to this by saying that he was confident Brown could lead Labour to victory in the next general election, and that his article was an attack against the fatalism in the party since the loss of Glasgow-East. Miliband continued to show his support for Brown in the face of the challenge that emerged in September, as did Business Secretary John Hutton, Environment Secretary Hilary Benn, and Chief Whip Geoff Hoon.
On 6 January 2010, Patricia Hewitt and Geoff Hoon jointly called for a secret ballot on the future of Brown's leadership. The call received little support and the following day Hoon said that it appeared to have failed and was "over". Brown later referred to the call for a secret ballot as a "form of silliness".
By-elections and 2009 local and European elections
In the local elections on 1 May 2008, Labour suffered their worst results in 40 years finishing in third place with a projected 24% share of the national vote. Subsequently the party has seen the loss of by-elections in Nantwich and Crewe and Henley as well as slumps in the polls. A by-election in Glasgow East triggered by the resignation of David Marshall saw the Labour party struggle to appoint a candidate, eventually settling for Margaret Curran, a sitting MSP in the Scottish Parliament. The SNP, Conservatives and Liberal Democrats all derided Labour for their disorganised nature, with Alex Salmond commenting "This is their 'lost weekend' – they don't have a leader in Scotland, they don't have a candidate in Glasgow East, and they have a prime minister who refuses to come to the constituency". Labour lost the constituency to the Scottish National Party's John Mason who took 11,277 votes with Labour just 365 behind. The seat experienced a swing of 22.54%.
In the European elections, Labour polled 16% of the vote, finishing in third place behind the Conservatives and UK Independence Party (UKIP). Voter apathy was reflected in the historically low turnout of around thirty three percent. In Scotland voter turnout was only twenty eight per cent. In the local elections, Labour polled 23% of the vote, finishing in third place behind Conservatives and Liberal Democrats, with Labour losing control of the four councils it had held prior to the election. In a vote widely considered to be a reaction to the expenses scandal, the share of the votes was down for all the major parties; Labour was down one percent, the Conservative share was down five percent. The beneficiary of the public backlash was generally seen to be the minor parties, including the Green Party and UKIP. These results were Labour's worst since World War II. Brown was quoted in the press as having said that the results were "a painful defeat for Labour", and that "too many good people doing so much good for their communities and their constituencies have lost through no fault of their own."
General election 2010
In April 2010, Brown asked the Queen to dissolve Parliament. The General Election campaign included the first televised leadership debates in Britain. The result of the election on 6 May was a hung parliament. Brown was re-elected as MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath with 29,559 votes.
Brown announced on 10 May 2010 that he would stand down as Labour Leader, with a view to a successor being chosen before the next Labour Party Conference in September 2010. The following day, negotiations between the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats to form a coalition government failed. During the evening, Brown visited Buckingham Palace to tender his resignation as Prime Minister to Queen Elizabeth II and to recommend that she invite the Leader of the Opposition, David Cameron, to form a government. He resigned as leader of the Labour Party with immediate effect.
Return to the backbenches
On 13 May 2010, in his first public appearance since leaving 10 Downing Street, two days after resigning as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party, Brown confirmed he intended to stay on in Parliament, serving as a Labour backbencher, to serve the people of his Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath constituency.
In April 2011, media reports linked Brown with the role as the next managing director of the International Monetary Fund following the scheduled retirement of Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Brown's successor and Leader of the Opposition, Ed Miliband, supported Brown for the role while the Prime Minister, David Cameron, voiced opposition to this. Following the arrest of Strauss-Kahn for alleged sexual assault in May 2011, and his subsequent resignation, these reports re-surfaced. Support for Brown among economists was mixed but British Government backing for his candidature was not forthcoming and instead supported Christine Lagarde—the eventual successful candidate—for the post.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee, who had worked with the government during Brown's premiership to publish government data on the internet in the data.gov.uk project, subsequently invited Brown to become a board director of the World Wide Web Foundation to "advise the Web Foundation on ways to involve disadvantaged communities and global leaders in the development of sustainable programs that connect humanity and affect positive change". On 22 April 2011 it was announced that Brown would be taking on an unpaid advisory role at the World Economic Forum. Brown was also appointed as the inaugural 'Distinguished Leader in Residence' by New York University and has already taken part in discussions and lectures relating to the global financial crisis and globalisation.
Standing down as MP
On 1 December 2014, Brown announced that he would stand down from parliament in 2015.
Brown's early girlfriends included the journalist Sheena McDonald and Princess Margarita, the eldest daughter of exiled King Michael of Romania. At the age of 49, Brown married Sarah Macaulay in a private ceremony at his home in North Queensferry, Fife, on 3 August 2000. On 28 December 2001 a daughter, Jennifer Jane, was born prematurely and died on 7 January 2002 one day after suffering a brain haemorrhage. They have two sons, John Macaulay (born 17 October 2003) and (James) Fraser (born on 18 July 2006). In November 2006, Fraser was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. The Sun had learned of the situation in 2006 and published the story. In 2011 Brown stated he had wanted the details of his son's condition kept private and that the publication had left him "in tears". The Sun said they approached Brown and that discussion occurred with his colleagues who provided quotes to use in the article.
Sarah Brown rarely makes official appearances either with or without her husband. She is patron of several charities and has written articles for national newspapers related to this. At the 2008 Labour Party Conference, Sarah caused surprise by taking to the stage to introduce her husband for his keynote address. Since then her public profile has increased.
Brown has two brothers, John Brown and Andrew Brown. Andrew has been Head of Media Relations in the UK for the French-owned utility company EDF Energy since 2004. Brown is also the brother-in-law of environmental journalist Clare Rewcastle Brown. Brown wrote a piece for The Independent, supporting Clare's current environmental efforts on behalf of Sarawak.
Whilst Prime Minister, Brown spent some of his spare time at Chequers, the house often being filled with friends. The Browns have entertained local dignitaries like Sir Leonard Figg. Brown is also a friend of Harry Potter author J. K. Rowling, who says of Brown "I know him as affable, funny and gregarious, a great listener, a kind and loyal friend."
The son of a Church of Scotland minister, Brown has talked about what he calls his "moral compass" and of his parents being his "inspiration". He has, at least ostensibly, been keen to keep his religion a private matter. According to the Guardian, he is a member of the Church of Scotland.
In April 2009, Brown gave what was the first ever speech by a serving Prime Minister at St Paul's Cathedral in London. He referred to a "single powerful modern sense demanding responsibility from all and fairness to all". He also talked about the Christian doctrine of "do to others what you would have them do unto you", which he compared to similar principles in Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism. He went on, "They each and all reflect a sense that we share the pain of others, and a sense that we believe in something bigger than ourselves—that we cannot be truly content while others face despair, cannot be completely at ease while others live in fear, cannot be satisfied while others are in sorrow", and continued, "We all feel, regardless of the source of our philosophy, the same deep moral sense that each of us is our brother and sisters' keeper... We cannot and will not pass by on the other side when people are suffering and when we have it within our power to help".
Titles, honours, and awards
- Mr James Gordon Brown (1951–1982)
- Dr James Gordon Brown (1982–1983)
- Dr James Gordon Brown MP (1983–1996)
- The Right Honourable Dr James Gordon Brown MP (1996–2015)
- The Right Honourable Dr James Gordon Brown (2015-present) 
In March 2009 Brown was named World Statesman of the Year by The Appeal of Conscience Foundation, an American organisation 'dedicated to promoting peace, human rights and understanding between religious faiths'. The award was presented by Rabbi Arthur Schneier who praised Brown's "compassionate leadership in dealing with the challenging issues facing humanity, his commitment to freedom, human dignity and the environment, and for the major role he has played in helping to stabilise the world's financial system".
- Beyond the Crash: Overcoming the First Crisis of Globalisation. Simon & Schuster. 2010.
- The Change We Choose: Speeches 2007–2009. Mainstream Publishing. 2010. ISBN 978-1-84596-632-4.
- Britain's Everyday Heroes. Mainstream Publishing. 2007. ISBN 978-1-84596-307-1.
- Courage: Eight Portraits. Bloomsbury Publishing. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7475-6532-1.
- Values, Visions and Voices: An Anthology of Socialism. Mainstream Publishing. 1995. ISBN 978-1-85158-731-5. (Co-editor with Tony Wright).
- Where There's Greed: Margaret Thatcher and the Betrayal of Britain's Future. Mainstream Publishing. 1989. ISBN 978-1-85158-228-0.
- Scotland: The Real Divide. Mainstream Publishing. 1987. ISBN 978-0-906391-18-1. (Co-editor with Robin Cook).
- Maxton: A Biography. Mainstream Publishing. 1986. ISBN 978-1-85158-042-2.
- The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918–1929: The Politics of Five Elections (PhD). Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh. 1981.
- A Voter's Guide to the Scottish Assembly (PDF). David Watt & Sons. 1979.[dead link] (With Chris Harvie).
- Wintour, Patrick (24 September 2009). "Brown, a member of the Church of Scotland". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Halligan, Liam (16 October 2006). "Brown's raid on pensions costs Britain £100 billion". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
- Stewart, Heather (22 July 2002). "Pension blame falls on Brown". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
- Dawar, Anil (21 April 2008). "Q&A: 10p tax rate cut". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 25 April 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
- "New British PM gives party biggest poll lead in two years". The Philippine Star. 15 July 2007. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- Sherman, Jill; Yeoman, Fran; Hamilton, Fiona (6 June 2009). "Labour suffers wipeout in its worst local election results". The Times (London). Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "Labour slumps to historic defeat". London: BBC News. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Maddox, David (7 May 2010). "General Election 2010: Gordon's career is finished – Labour MP". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- A reborn Gordon Brown could be the man who saved the union - FT.com
- Routledge, Paul (19 January 1998). "I could still be prime minister, says Brown". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Birth certificate of James Gordon Brown, 20 February 1951, Newton Mearns District, Renfrewshire 571/02 0053 – General Register Office for Scotland
- "Chancellor's daughter remembered at christening service". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 23 April 2004. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- "Brown mourns loss of mother". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 20 September 2004. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Barratt, Nick (28 April 2007). "Family detective". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- "From a Scottish manse to Number 10". The Washington Times. 14 July 2007. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- "The making of Gordon Brown". The Daily Telegraph (London). 9 June 2007. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
The next prime minister is always referred to as a 'son of the manse'
- MacIntyre, Donald (23 September 2000). "Chancellor on the ropes; Profile: Gordon Brown". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009. (subscription required (. ))
- Ben Macintyre (19 May 2007). "'Cruel' experiment that left its mark on a very precocious boy". The Times (London). Retrieved 13 July 2007.
- Gaby Hinsliff (10 October 2009). "How Gordon Brown's loss of an eye informs his view of the world". The Observer. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013.
- Mackenzie, Suzie (25 September 2004). "Will he? Won't he?". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "History and tour-Gordon Brown". Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2009.[dead link]
- Iain MacLean, Alistair MacMillan (2005). State of the Union: Unionism and the Alternatives in the United Kingdom. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013.
- Aslet, Clive (21 May 2007). "Romantic. Beautiful. I fell madly in love". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Rosenbaum, Martin (15 July 2005). "Brown's first taste of power". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Ascherson, Neal (5 October 2000). "Life on the ante-eurodiluvian Left". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- "Gordon Brown timeline". BBC News. 15 June 2004. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- "Gordon Brown's TUC speech in full (to the 2007 TUC Congress)". politics.co.uk. 10 September 2007. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- Wheeler, Brian (27 June 2007). "The Gordon Brown story". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
- John Newsinger (Summer 2007). "Brown's Journey from Reformism to Neoliberalism" (115). International Socialism. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007.
- Wright, Kenyon (4 April 1999). "Scotland can sing a new song to a different tune and in a clear voice". The Sunday Herald (HighBeam Research). Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
... the Claim of Right of Scotland. I have it before me now as I write – a note of sadness as I see that the first two signatures, side by side, are those of the late John Smith MP and myself, a note of gratified surprise to see these closely followed by the autographs of Gordon Brown, Robin Cook, George Robertson, Donald Dewar, Malcolm Bruce, Jim Wallace and, more important, an impressive cross-section of Scotland's civil society.
- "Tony Blair (1953 -)". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- White, Michael (6 June 2003). "The guarantee which came to dominate new Labour politics for a decade". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- Mayer, Catherine (16 January 2005). "Fight Club". Time. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- Wheeler, Brian (10 May 2007). "The Tony Blair story". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "Inflation". National Statistics Online. Archived from the original on 31 July 2003. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- "Employment". National Statistics Online. 17 March 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- "The Guardian 2005 election results for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- "Find Your MP: Gordon Brown". BBC News. 19 November 2007. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2008.[dead link]
- Schifferes, Steve (6 June 2002). "Five years on: Rating the MPC". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "Chancellor announces new framework for monetary policy". HM Treasury. 6 May 1997. Archived from the original on 12 June 2003. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
- "Memorandum of Understanding between HM Treasury, the Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority" (PDF). HM Treasury, Bank of England, FSA. 1997. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Hosking, Patrick (2 June 2009). "Gordon Brown and Treasury accused on banking crisis". The Times (London). Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- Adam, S. and J. Browne: PDF (2.74 MB) (Google cache HTML[dead link]), Institute for Fiscal Studies, Briefing note No. 9, March 2006
- Grice, Andrew (4 April 2008). "Brown faces revolt over scrapping 10p income tax band". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2008. (subscription required (. ))
- Isabel Oakeshott and David Leppard (20 April 2008). "Gordon Brown cornered as rebellion over 10p tax reform grows". The Sunday Times (London). Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- "FactCheck: temporary 10p tax". Channel 4 News. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- OECD: General Government Outlays as percentage of GDP (Microsoft Office Excel table)
- Halligan, Liam (16 October 2006). "Brown's raid on pensions costs Britain £100 billion". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "More get tax credit overpayments". BBC News. 31 May 2006. Archived from the original on 2 June 2006.
- The impact of tax and benefit changes between April 2000 and April 2003 on parents' labour supply Blundell, R., M. Brewer and A. Shepherd, Institute for Fiscal Studies, Briefing Note No. 52, 2004
- Whatever it Takes: The Real Story of Gordon Brown and New Labour
- Glover, Julian (29 September 2000). "The five tests". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "UK 'not yet ready for the euro'". BBC News. 9 June 2003. Archived from the original on 9 June 2003.
- "Oxford 'reject' wins Harvard scholarship". BBC News. 22 May 2000. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2007.
- "Peers condemn Oxford attack". BBC News. 15 June 2000. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2007.
- "Goldfinger Brown's £2 billion blunder in the bullion market". The Times (London). 15 April 2007. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. (registration required (. ))
- "The outlook for gold". The Daily Telegraph (London). 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Clive Maund (1 April 2007). "The Gold Bull Market Remembers How Gordon Brown Sold Half of Britains Reserves at the Lowest Price". Marketoracle.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- "Review of the sale of part of the UK gold reserves" (PDF). HM Treasury. October 2002. p. 7.[dead link]
- ^ a b c Gold: Does Gordon Brown's regret selling half of Britains' gold reserves 10 years ago?, The Daily Telegraph, 8 May 2009
- Watt, Holly; Winnett, Robert (15 April 2007). "Goldfinger Brown's £2 billion blunder in the bullion market". The Times (London). Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2009. (registration required (. ))
- "Gordon Brown answers your questions". BBC News. 15 June 1999. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "Gordon Brown's speech, to United Nations Ambassadors, New York, 20 April 2006". HM Treasury. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
- White, Michael (21 October 2004). "Blair: I will serve a full third term". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- Cowell, Alan (8 September 2006). "Blair to Give Up Post as Premier Within One Year". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
- "Make education our national mission" (Press release). Fabian Society. 15 January 2007. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Brown is UK's new prime minister". BBC News. 27 June 2007. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- O'Connor; John Kennedy (25 June 2007). "Brown's Ascendency". ABC Radio National Perspective. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- "Are you Statistically Prepared to Become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom?". h2g2 (BBC News). 1 August 2005. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2007.
- "Gordon Brown's big idea". The Economist. 5 July 2007. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- McBride, Damian (5 October 2012). "Gordon Brown and the 2007 election: why it never happened". Archived from the original on 6 October 2012.
- Landale, James (11 May 2010). "Gordon Brown's political career". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010.
- "Brown rules out autumn election". BBC News. 6 October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- Webster, Philip (2 July 2008). "Labour denies Keith Vaz offered 'reward' for backing government". The Times (London). Retrieved 2 July 2008. (registration required (. ))
- Wintour, Patrick (12 June 2008). "There were no deals over 42-day vote, insists Brown". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
- Prince, Rosa (14 October 2008). "Jacqui Smith creates 'emergency bill' after 42-day detention defeat". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 14 October 2008.
- "MPs' expenses: the true story of Gordon Brown, the cleaner and my husband". The Guardian (London). 10 May 2009. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- "MPs' expenses claims – key details". BBC News. 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- Hipwell, Deirdre (13 May 2007). "Gordon's manifesto for change". The Times (London). Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- Watt, Nicholas (13 May 2007). "Poll surge as Brown unveils policy blitz". The Observer (London). Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- "Brown sets out reform proposals". BBC News. 3 July 2007. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- Jones, Toby Helm and Graeme Wilson, George (6 June 2007). "British workers for British jobs says Brown". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Russell, Ben (10 September 2007). "'Jobs for every Briton,' says Brown in crackdown on migrant workers". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2013. (subscription required (. ))
- Parkinson, Justin (16 November 2007). "What does 'British jobs' pledge mean?". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Jones, George (12 June 2007). "The subtle shift in British foreign policy". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Grice, Andrew; Morris, Nigel (17 March 2008). "There will be a public inquiry into Iraq, says Brown". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2009.[dead link]
- Assaf Uni (10 December 2007). "Finance scandal has local community worried". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2 August 2007.
- Ned Temko (2 December 2007). "Behind-the-scenes group's unerring knack of backing the right man". The Observer (London). Archived from the original on 9 April 2008.
- Brown, Gordon (25 September 2007). "Speech by Gordon Brown to the LFI Annual Reception". Labor Friends of Israel. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007.[dead link]
- Dougary, Ginny (10 April 2010). "What Gordon Brown is really thinking". The Times (London). Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Renew the Military Covenant". The Independent (London). 11 November 2007. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "PM not attending Olympics opening". BBC News. 10 April 2008. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- "Speech not critical of US – Brown". BBC News. 13 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
- Elliott, Francis (23 October 2007). "Gordon Brown attacked on all sides for 'running away' from referendum". The Times (London). Retrieved 23 October 2007.
- "Cameron attacks Brown on EU vote". BBC News. 2 October 2007. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
- Elliott, Francis; Charter, David (19 October 2007). "Battle of the EU treaty to last for months". The Times (London). Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- "Debate over cannabis classification". BBC News. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 19 October 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- "Cannabis row drugs adviser sacked". BBC News. 30 October 2009. Archived from the original on 19 October 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- Batty, David (31 October 2009). "Professor David Nutt warns resignations may result from prime minister's 'absurd' stance on reclassification". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2 November 2009.
- "Brown says message must be sent on cannabis". Reuters. 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009.
- Oates, John (29 April 2008). "Brown opts for morality over science on 'lethal skunk'". The Register. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008.
- "Sacked adviser criticises Brown". BBC News. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Lower VAT rate comes into force". BBC News. 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Scrappage scheme to be extended". BBC News. 28 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- Morris, Nigel (29 July 2008). "Cabinet backs Brown but 'Lancashire plot' sparks open warfare". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- "Profile: Siobhain McDonagh". BBC News. 12 September 2008. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Whip sacked over leader bid call". BBC News. 12 September 2008. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
- Jonathan Oliver, Marie Woolf (14 September 2008). "Ex-ministers join Gordon Brown rebellion". The Times (London). Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Harman denies planning leader bid". BBC News. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Prescott warns over PM challenge". BBC News. 27 July 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Miliband denies 'leadership' bid". BBC News. 30 July 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Miliband throws support behind PM". BBC News. 14 September 2008. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- Kettle, Martin (6 January 2010). "Hewitt and Hoon's great gamble". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 8 January 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Gordon Brown says leadership challenge was 'silliness'". BBC News. 10 January 2010. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010.
- "Labour suffers big council losses". BBC News. 2 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "Labour MSP joins by-election race". BBC News. 5 July 2008. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- "SNP stuns Labour in Glasgow East". BBC News. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- "Election 2009 | Councils A-Z". BBC News. 7 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "Salmond hails historic Euro win". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "Election 2010: First hung parliament in UK for decades". BBC News. 7 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "General Election 2010 – Kirkcaldy & Cowdenbeath". BBC News. 7 May 2010. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Election 2010: First hung parliament in UK for decades". BBC News. 7 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Gordon Brown 'stepping down as Labour leader'". BBC News. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "Gordon Brown resigns as UK prime minister". London: BBC News. 11 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Brown to remain as backbench MP". BBC News. 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- "Hague and Brown clash over 'English votes for English laws'". BBC News. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Mulholland, Helene (19 April 2011). "Gordon Brown 'not most appropriate person' to head IMF, says Cameron". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Elliott, Larry (20 May 2011). "Gordon Brown makes IMF pitch as race to succeed Strauss-Kahn intensifies". The Guardian (London).  Archived] from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Brown 'Not Right' To Take Over IMF Top Job". Sky News. 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.[dead link]
- Kang, Cecilia (22 May 2011). "Germany, Britain back Lagarde to lead IMF". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown Joins World Wide Web Foundation's Board of Directors". World Wide Web Foundation. 2 September 2010. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010.
- "Gordon Brown takes on World Economic Forum role". BBC News. 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011.
- "Former UK Prime Minister discusses the role of cities in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis". nyu.edu. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Former UK Prime Minister on the Promise of Globalization". NYUWagner. 15 December 2010. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Ramesh, Randeep (13 July 2012). "Gordon Brown to become UN special envoy for schoolchildren". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 14 July 2012.
- "Gordon Brown 'to announce he will stand down as MP'". BBC News. 1 December 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Gordon and Sarah wed at home". London: BBC News. 3 August 2000. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Cramb, Auslan; Peterkin, Tom (8 January 2002). "Jennifer dies in their arms". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 1 March 2009.
- Morrison, Jenny (23 April 2004). "Chancellor's daughter remembered at christening service". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Archived from the original on 11 October 2008.
- "Brown's son has cystic fibrosis". BBC News. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
- "Gordon Brown attacks News International tactics". BBC News. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Guardian apologises to the Sun over Gordon Brown story". BBC News. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Pierce, Andrew; Cramb, Auslan (12 May 2007). "Wife will seek to stay out of the limelight". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2007.
- Brown, Sarah (11 November 2006). "Why I want you to get behind Maggie's". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- "Sarah Brown steps into spotlight". BBC News. 23 September 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- Vaidyanathan, Rajini (17 July 2009). "Glamorous Life of the PM's Wife". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- Terry Macalister (11 July 2006). "The powerful business of promoting a nuclear future". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 6 December 2008.
- "Fight for the Borneo rainforest: Gordon Brown celebrates the role of journalist Clare Rewcastle". The Independent (London). 10 March 2011. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Hipwell, Deirdre (24 July 2008). "Alice Thomson: No PM, However Dour, can Resist the Charms of a Stately Pile". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- "Gordon Brown – The 2009 TIME 100". Time. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
- "Gordon Brown: 'I joined this party as a teenager ... Its values are my moral compass'". The Independent (London). 25 June 2007. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- "Gordon Brown: Leadership speech in full". ePolitix.com. 10 May 2007. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2009.[dead link]
- Craig Hoy (10 May 2007). "Profile Gordon Brown". ePolitix.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2009.[dead link]
- Wintour, Patrick (24 September 2009). "Pope accepts Gordon Brown's invitation to visit Britain next year". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Duthel, Heinz (3 November 2011). Rupert Murdoch: The Politico Media Complex Mogul. CreateSpace. ISBN 9781467910934.
- Kearney, Martha (14 March 2005). "Brown seeks out 'British values'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 November 2005. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- "Hall of Fame – Gordon Brown". Ps. BBC Wales. Retrieved 17 July 2009.[dead link]
- "Ex-BBC chief and child health professor among life peers", The Guardian, 15 June 1996, p. 6
- "Court Circular", The Times, 24 July 1996
- Dathan, Matt (26 March 2015). "Gordon Brown: The Nixon of British politics or the man who saved the Union? Twitter reacts to former Prime Minister's Commons farewell". The Independent. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "US foundation names Gordon Brown world statesman of the year". The Guardian (London). 3 March 2009. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- "ACF to Honor British Prime Minister Gordon Brown with 2009 World Statesman Award". Appeal of Conscience Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2009.[dead link]
- "The Right Honorable Gordon Brown MP, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland receives Appeal of Conscience Foundation 2009 World Statesman Award". Appeal of Conscience Foundation. 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 1 December 2009.[dead link]
- Pym, Hugh; Kochan, Nick (1998). Gordon Brown the First Year in Power. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-3701-4.
- Rawnsley, Andrew (2001). Servants of the people:The inside story of New Labour. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-027850-7.
- Rosen, Greg (2005). Old Labour to New:The Dreams that Inspired, the Battles that Divided. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-045-2.
- Routledge, Paul (2003). Bumper Book of British Lefties. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-064-3.
- Lee, Simon (2009). Boom and Bust: The Politics and Legacy of Gordon Brown. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1851686643.
- Richards, Steve (2010). Whatever it Takes: The Real Story of Gordon Brown and New Labour. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-0007320325.
- Hughes, Colin (2010). What Went Wrong, Gordon Brown?: How the dream job turned sour. Guardian Books. ISBN 978-0852652190.
- Seldon, Anthony (2010). Brown at 10. Biteback. ISBN 978-1849540698.
- McBride, Damian (2013). Power Trip: a Decade of Policy, Plots and Spin. Biteback.
- Bower, Tom (2003). Gordon Brown. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-717540-6.
- Jefferys, Kevin (2002). Labour forces from Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown. IB Taurus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4175-1633-9.
- Keegan, William (2003). The Prudence of Mr. Gordon Brown. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-84697-1.
- Naughtie, James (2001). The Rivals: The Intimate Story of a Political Marriage. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1-84115-473-2.
- Peston, Robert (2005). Brown's Britain: How Gordon Runs the Show. Short Books. ISBN 978-1-904095-67-5.
- Rosen, Greg, ed. (2002). Dictionary of Labour Biography. Methuen. ISBN 978-1-902301-18-1.
- Routledge, Paul (1998). Gordon Brown: The Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81954-9.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
- Gordon Brown Official government profile
- Official website of the Office of Gordon and Sarah Brown
- Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005
- Voting record at Public Whip
- Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
- Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record
- Profile at BBC News Democracy Live
- Articles authored at Journalisted
- Gordon Brown at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Tour diary: Gordon Brown in Africa BBC News, January 2005 trip about his 'Marshall plan for Africa'
- Gordon Brown collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Gordon Brown collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Gordon Brown at TED
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Works by or about Gordon Brown in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Portraits of Gordon Brown at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- Archival material relating to Gordon Brown listed at the UK National Archives
- Transcript of Gordon Brown's acceptance speech[dead link] ePolitix, 17 May 2007
- Transcript of first speech as Labour Party Leader[dead link] ePolitix, 24 June 2007
- Address to the 63rd session of the United Nations General Assembly September 2008
- Manifesto speech transcript[dead link] ePolitix, 12 April 2010