Gornji Milanovac

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Gornji Milanovac
Горњи Милановац
Municipality and Town
Gornji Milanovac at night
Gornji Milanovac at night
Coat of arms of Gornji Milanovac
Coat of arms
Location of the municipality of Gornji Milanovac within Serbia
Location of the municipality of Gornji Milanovac within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°01′27″N 20°27′36″E / 44.02417°N 20.46000°E / 44.02417; 20.46000Coordinates: 44°01′27″N 20°27′36″E / 44.02417°N 20.46000°E / 44.02417; 20.46000
Country  Serbia
District Moravica
Statistical region Šumadija and Western Serbia
Settlements 63
Government
 • Mayor Dejan Kovačević SNS
Area[1]
 • Municipality 836 km2 (323 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)[2]
 • Town 24,216
 • Municipality 44,406
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 32300
32301
Area code +381 32
Car plates GM
Website www.gornjimilanovac.rs

Gornji Milanovac (Serbian Cyrillic: Гoрњи Милановац, pronounced [ɡôːrɲiː mǐlanoʋats]) is a town and municipality located in central Serbia. Its name means "Upper Milanovac" (there is a Lower Milanovac as well, while Milanovac stems from the name Milan in Serbian). The population of the town is 24,216, while the population of the municipality is 44,406.

The city was founded in 1853. Before 1859 the original name of the city was Despotovac, after the Despotovica river passing by the city. In 1859 the name was changed to Gornji Milanovac at the request of the Prince of Serbia Miloš Obrenović.

History[edit]

Initially the settlement that was to become Gornji Milanovac (before 1853) was situated in the area of today's village Brusnica. There was some discussion about the suitability of the site for a settlement. The new municipality was to be called Despotovac after the river Despotovica which passes through this municipality (the river name originates from the Serbian despot, Đurađ Branković). On the 22nd of April 1852 Despotovac (later Gornji Milanovac) was then relocated to a place called Divlje Polje. This decision was taken by Mladen Žujović, Trivun Novaković, Stevan Knićanin and Gaja Riznić. Notable buildings and roads (for example: "Zgrada starog suda – Old Court building") are the work of German engineer Indižir Schultz from Pančevo. Today's name Gornji Milanovac was formalized by the warrant of Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia, in 1859, after his brother Milan Obrenović.[3]

The location of Gornji Milanovac confirms that this area was settled in the prehistory and we can find settlements of Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians, small groups of Celts and Goths and bigger settlements of the Romans. On the mountain Rudnik, besides older miners grove there are remains of a Roman temple dedicated to the Terra Mater ("Mother Earth").[4] There is little information about Slavs and their settlements.

Even in the Middle Ages and the time of the Roman Empire, the area around Gornji Milanovac was significant in economical, agronomy, infrastructure and military sense. There are sites from the Neolithic period (in village Gojna Gora) and pre/post Roman governance period (Rudnik), also ruins and sites from Byzantine administration, Medieval Serbian Principality/Kingdom, Serbian Empire and Ottoman Empire (on mountain Rudnik, in villages Brusnica, mountain Treska, Jablanica and Gornji Milanovac parts of mountain Vujan ).

This town was significant during the First Serbian Uprising against Ottoman Empire rule, but more so during the Second Serbian Uprising. In 1814. at Takovo has reached historical agreement about the Second Serbian Uprising. In front of family house of Obrenović in the village Gornja Crnuća he raised a flag (red Greek cross on the white background) and said:

Evo mene, a eto Vama rata s Turcima ( Here I'am, You have a war with the Turks)

— Miloš Obrenović, April 23rd. 1814

In the World War I occupation, the population in Gornji Milanovac was subjected to war terror and crimes, while during World War II the infrastructure was destroyed and the population of this town suffered as before. At the time of sanctions and breakup of Yugoslavia, industry of municipality exported their products to the Western and Eastern markets through offshore companies. In 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Gornji Milanovac was bombed once (only television repeater was damaged). People from nearby town and municipalities in joke said, that when NATO planned which town to bomb, they put a cup of coffee on the Gornji Milanovac place at the map.

Important years and dates:[5][citation needed]

  • 1814- The beginning of the Second Serbian Uprising was agreed in Takovo village
  • 1852- Gornji Milanovac (in that time Despotovica) becomes first town in Serbia with completed map of the city and with the streets at an angle of 90°;
  • 1853- establishment municipality of Despotovica;
  • 1857- establishment of the first men's and girls' primary school and the first library;
  • 1859- changing the name of municipality in Gornji Milanovac;
  • 1879- establishment of the First High School;
  • 1890- first printing company start to work;
  • 1892- establishment of county hospital;
  • 1912- commencement of construction of narrow-gauge railway;
  • 1914- during the First World War in this town was settled headquarters of Živojin Mišić;
  • 1921- finished electrification and construction of low voltage network;
  • 1922- started with work of the narrow gauge railway and establishment of the first conditory company "Rudnik";
  • 1923- first coal power plant;
  • 1927- first X-ray machine;
  • 1928- started with work of the first cinema in municipality;
  • 1933- HRH King Alexander I of Yugoslavia opens first mixed primary school;
  • 1937- establishment of the second factory of conditory products "Sumadija";
  • 1941- Yugoslav Partisans and Yugoslav army in homeland (known as Chetniks) in joint action release Gornji Milanovac from the Nazi- German occupation. Gornji Milanovac was merged with the other released towns in occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed short-lived Republic of Uzice (first released area in Europe). At the head of that joint action was Zvonimir Vučković. During that battle two German tanks were trapped and now one of those is monument on the exit from the town in village Nevade, while the other is a monument in Uzice (Hotchkiss H35);
  • 1945- Gornji Milanovac was released from Nazi-German occupation and began industrialization
  • 1965- two municipalities Pranjani and Rudnik merged to Gornji Milanovac.
View on the old Gornji Milanovac- May, 1929
Postcard from the old Gornji Milanovac

Culture and tourism[edit]

Cultural monuments[edit]

Cultural Monuments of Great Importance in Gornji Milanovac are:

  • Church of the Holy Trinity.
  • Church of St. Nicholas in the village of Brusnica and family tomb of Obrenović dynasty.
  • District Building ("The Old Court building").
  • Monuments in the center of municipality.
  • "Hill of Peace" (Brdo mira) Memorial Park.
  • Tank as monument of liberation in Nevade from the Second World War (Sherman Firefly).
  • Orthodox Christian monasteries of Vraćevšnica, Šilopaj and Vujan.
  • Takovo complex devoted to the heroes from Second Serbian Uprising.
  • Ruins of Ortodox monasteries "Ješevac", Catholic church "Misa" (later mosque) on Rudnik.
  • Ruins of Irene Kantakouzene on Treska Hill.
  • Family house of Miloš Obrenović in Gornja Crnuća.
  • Family house of national hero Dragan Jeftić-Škepo.
  • Family house of the Lunjevica family (Revolutionary Nikola, politician Panta and Queen consort Draga Obrenović).
  • Family house of Djordjevic built in old Serbian architectal style.
  • Family house and inheritance of Archibald Reiss's son- "Dobro polje II".
  • Monument on city cemetery of fallen soldiers of Austro-Hungary and Serbian Army in World War I.
  • Monument for the participants in Operation Halyard and the others monuments in the rest of municipality.

Culture institutions[edit]

The first library in Gornji Milanovac was established in 1857 and is called "Braća Nastasijević" (English: "Brothers Nastasijević").[6] Headquarters is in the building of Old District Administration. It has separate classes in Rudnik (the oldest), Pranjani, Brdjani and Vraćešnica. Librarian fond has over 100,000 books. Also "Braća Nastasijević" library is engaged in the publishing business.

The main theater in this municipality is "Milanovačko amatersko pozorište (Milanovac amateur theater)". Milanovac amateur theater, GM cinema, art galery and administrative center of all settlements cultural clubs has headquarters in the center of municipality. In the area of photography and cinema, Gornji Milanovac is represented with big number of art members of the Photo-cinema club Gornji Milanovac.

Museum of Rudnik and Takovo area is subsidiary of the culture center of Gornji Milanovac. It has established the Gallerie of Arts in 2008, and a modern gallery in the building of old district administration.

Music and folklore[edit]

In this municipality there are two folklore groups: "Tipoplastika"-Folklore ensemble and Culture-Arts Community "Šumadija". There are also rock bends that were established in this town, like: "Bjesovi", "An Fas", ″Pastir Pan″, "GM Undergrounders",[7] "Skarlet" and "Čudna Šuma". As for punk-rock bands in '90s and 80's there are: "Trula koalicija", In '00s there were established new rock and reggae music bands and groups: "Plišani mališan",[8] "Morbid Cow", "Parnasus", "Strah od Džeki Čena[9]",IMT 666 (Featuring Bjesovi band's singers child,Stevan Marinkovic), etc.

Tourism, ecology and events[edit]

Whilst part of Yugoslavia, Gornji Milanovac was known as the "economic miracle" and "Beli Labud" (English: "White Swan") as ecologically cleanest city. There is great potential for further rural and spa (Svračkovci, Brdjani, Mlakovac and Savinac) tourism progress in future times. Today's Gornji Milanovac on its territory has the lot of small, categorized rural hotels, one hostel and motels. Close to Gornji Milanovac is spa and resort "Atomska banja" Donja Trepča. Major Hotels in this town are newly opened hotel "IG Hotel" (4 stars) and "MD Neda" (3 stars) in the settlement Rudnik. In the past there was one of the biggest hotels "Šumadija" (3 stars) bankrupted in 2004.

Gornji Milanovac was a pioneer in the application of sorting waste, recycling and water purification in Serbia and previously in Yugoslavia. Also, Gornji Milanovac is a great antagonist of GM food why it has adopted declaration and municipality statute about prohibition of this type of food.[10]

Every year tourists from around the world visit this municipality for its clean air, small and quiet places, inner and family vacations. In Gornji Milanovac every year is the host International Biennial of Miniature Art. In village Takovo is the host of World Music Festival, every May, June or July. Known trip places are: Takovo, Grabovica (peak of Ždreban), Savinac and Rudnik. These places are popular during celebration of the May 1st or world known International Workers' Day as collegial picnic in union organization. Other significant cultural and tourism events on its territory are: World Testicle Cooking Championship, "Milanovac bowl tournament" (Fish soup cooking) and Goulash tournament ("Gulašijada"). In some settlements are held various art colonies. Also, there are held and village gymnastic competition in some disciplines during the celebration of some patron day of that village.

Gornji Milanovac in touristic sense has to offer to the lovers of bright starry nights (at December–January and May–June) and beautiful sunrises, various monuments, clean air, healing water resources and much more. It has a reputation for offering a vibrant nightlife which is also developed and safer then in the rest of Serbia.

Also in Gornji Milanovac are 3 fairs per year, on May 22, August 2 and October 15. After 70 years Gornji Milanovac as municipality celebrates its Patron day. It is Trinity, where on that day is being held pageant. Locals are advocating to build a mini cable car system for Rudnik and biathlon stadium on the Ravna Gora, given that project had failed during the 90's economical and international politics problems of Yugoslavia and Serbia as federal republic.

Geography and infrastructure[edit]

Gornji Milanovac lies between mountains[11] Rudnik to the north and Vujan to the south. Relief of this area is hilly and mountainous. Gornji Milanovac with all his territory is located between these mountains: Rudnik (1,132m or 3,714 ft), Maljen (970m or 3,182 ft), Jesevac (902m or 2,959 ft), Suvobor (866m or 2,841 ft), Rajac (848m or 2,782 ft) and Bujna (845m or 2,772 ft). Gornji Milanovac boundaries with: Ljig (on the North) and Mionica (on North-West), Topola and Aranđelovac (both on the North-East) Čačak (on the South) and Lučani (on the South West), Požega, Serbia (on the West), Kragujevac (on the East) and Knić (on theSouth-East).

The center of the city is situated along western side of European route E763 (motorway), between the cities Ljig to the north and Čačak to the south and the villages Majdan to the north and Preljina to the south.

Main city crossroad branches:

  • To the North, onto road Gornji Milanovac-Kragujevac (see Kragujevac) that crosses with E763 and turns East; the nearest village on the road is Donja Vrbava.
  • To the East, turns South then East through the city, crosses E763 and then goes south through the village of Donja Trepča onto the route 23.
  • To the South, towards E763.
  • To the West, quickly turns North and after 5 km (3.11 mi) branches into road Gornji Milanovac-Čestobrodica (see Čestobrodica) to the West; the nearest village on the road is Takovo, where Takovo Uprising begun; and into Road Gornji Milanovac – Donji Banjani (see Gornji Banjani) to the North; the nearest village on the road is Kalimanići;
  • South of Milanovac, villages Brdjani to the West and Prislonica to the East are connected to E763 with local roads
  • On the West and South side of municipalities is situated new highway A2 (Corridor XI) which is currently under the construction; this is the most primary project on the field of transport and turism in the future, because Gornji Milanovac good geographic position to the coast of Adriatic Sea.

Rivers that flow through Gornji Milanovac are: Despotovica, Gruza, Dičina, Čemernica and Kamenica. There is variety of groundwater sources and thermo-mineral water sources like in village areas, like in: Svrackovci, Brdjani, Mlakovac, Trepca and Savinac.

Gornji Milanovac is instructed to use civil and military airport in nearby Morava Airport-Lajdevci, Kraljevo 36 km (22 mi), Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport 134 km (83 mi) and Užice-Ponikve Airport 98.6 km (61 mi). Gornji Milanovac does not have conditions for development of water traffic transportation. In 1969 narrow and regional railway Čačak-Gornji Milanovac – Topola was abolished because it was unprofitable. In 2014, Government of Serbia will consider the spatial plan of new electrified railways line BelgradeSarajevo, where Gornji Milanovac could be one of regional centers.[12]

Climate[edit]

Gornji Milanovac has Humid continental climate.[13] Mildest parts (Sub-Humid) of Gornji Milanovac are Brdjani, Trudelj and Dragolj. The coldest parts (humid) are peaks of Rudnik, Rajac, parts of villages Majdan, Svrackovci, Gojna Gora, Gornji Branetici,Brajic, Polom and in north-west part of village Bogdanica. Moderately humid parts of municipality are in parts of Majdan and the rest parts of mountain Rudnik, Rajac and peaks of Suvobor.

The average annual temperature of air are in range of 8 °C (46.4 °F) in the parts of Rudnik and Suvobor and 11 °C (51.8 °F) at 250m (820.21 feet). Average daily (in %) humidity 78.5% during the year, in winter 85%, in summer periods 75% (excludining Rudnik mountain where it is 65%, which is good for relaxation and vacation). The hottest month of the year is July, and the coldest is January. Autumn is warmer than the spring for 1 °C (33.8 °F).

The average annual precipitation height are in the range of 788 mm (31.02 in) and 985 mm (38.81 in). Minimum mean wind speed is 1.7–2.6 m/s (3.11-5.05 knots) and maximum 13.8–20.7 m/s (26.83-40.24 knots). These maximum speed occurs he southeastern, southwestern and southern winds. On the territory of Gornji Milanovac prevails southeastern, northern and eastern winds.

Vegetation period lasts 220–260 days. During these period precipitation rate is 55% which is which is favorable for plants.

Annual average daily global sun radiation energy on a horizontal surface on territory of municipality Gornji Milanovac is between 3.8–4.0 kWh/m2 (0.33-0.35 BTU/ft 2). Daily mean values of the ambient dose rate ( background radiation) on the area around this municipality are ≈ 100 nSv/h.[14]

Climate data for Gornji Milanovac (measuring station-Rudnik)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C 20.7 23.9 28.8 32.2 34.9 37.4 43.6 40.0 37.5 30.7 28.4 22.6 43.6
Average high °C 4.6 7.0 12.4 18.0 23.5 26.2 28.6 28.7 23.9 18.4 11.2 5.8 17.4
Daily mean °C −1.7 −6.2 6.3 10.3 13.0 20.1 22.3 22.1 17.9 12.2 8.0 0.6 10.4
Average low °C −4.4 −9.4 2.1 6.1 9.4 15.5 17.8 17.4 13.2 8.0 4.9 −3.2 6.5
Record low °C −29.4 −15.4 −12.8 −4.9 3.5 5.5 8.4 6.7 4.7 −4.5 −7.8 −13.4 −5.7
Average precipitation mm 137.0 136.3 16.3 82.9 152.9 54.9 19.0 0.3 21.0 52.0 29.2 101.0 802.8
Record high °F 69.3 75 83.8 90 94.8 99.3 110.5 104 99.5 87.3 83.1 72.7 110.5
Average high °F 40.3 44.6 54.3 64.4 74.3 79.2 83.5 83.7 75 65.1 52.2 42.4 63.3
Daily mean °F 28.9 20.8 43.3 50.5 55.4 68.2 72.1 71.8 64.2 54 46.4 33.1 50.7
Average low °F 24.1 15.1 35.8 43 48.9 59.9 64 63.3 55.8 46.4 40.8 26.2 43.7
Record low °F −20.9 4.3 9 23.2 38.3 41.9 47.1 44.1 40.5 23.9 18 7.9 21.7
Average precipitation inches 5.394 5.366 0.642 3.264 6.02 2.161 0.748 0.012 0.827 2.047 1.15 3.976 31.606
Average precipitation days (≥ mm) 20 16 30 8 13 10 9 10 12 14 14 12 171
Average relative humidity (%) 90 86 77 79 82 69 70 65 75 80 85 88 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.2 101.7 153.2 188.1 242.2 260.9 290.8 274.0 204.3 163.1 97.0 64.5 2,111.9
Source: [15]

Geology and vegetation[edit]

On the territory of Gornji Milanovac there is represented the following type of soil:[16]

  • Brown acid soil-which is whidespread in areas like Rudnik, from the west of Gruza river to Boljkovci;
  • Brown earth on serpentine-at Vujan, Suvobor and Maljen mountines;
  • Cambisol-in region of Lipovac, Prnjavor, Donja Crnuca, Belo Polje;
  • Brown earth on limestone- in area of Ravna Gora;
  • Brown earth on diabase-in region of Belo Polje, Gornja Vrbava, Donja Vrbava, Grabovica, Jablanica, in some village area like Brezovica, Rudnik, Zagradje, Gornji Branetici, Donji Branetici and Ozrem.

According to Serbian Geology Institute, on Gornji Milanovac territory has solid reserves of Antimony, Mercury, Copper, Lead, Zinc and Gold (in small amounts).[17]

Gornji Milanovac and the villages of Varnice, Zagradje, Dragolj and Trudelj are dominated by the Ostrvica Massif. The elevation of Ostrvica is 758 metres (2,487 ft). Ostrvica is actually the remains of destroyed volcanic cone. In May 2009, Ostrvica was declared a natural monument. In the middle of the last century, this massif was significant for its military fortifications and watchtower.

Land that is not cultivated makes 14.6%, arable land 47%, barren land makes 4.4%. Erosion process was active in the past, which is why today some parts of the territory have barren land. These processes have caused degradation of the land. According to Republic Seismological Institution of Serbia, Gornji Milanovac is on the scale 8°-8.9° magnitude of earthquake and probability that this can happened once in 50–1000 years is 63%. In major territory there is good protection from erosion process and solid protection from floods. Population doesn't have good protection from wind storms and radiation, but new standards in house and building construction stipulates even that.[12] Most of the population has a good thermal insulation in their homes and companies.

Forest vegetation is various: willow, poplar, oak, ash, etc. Forest plantations make 10% of his territory and 90% are nature wood. Meadow grass vegetation occupies 26,656 hectares (11,960 ft²) which is 32%, meadows 15% and grasslands 17%.

Terrain[edit]

Terrain of Gornji Milanovac is highland. Total terrain is divided by rivers Kamenica, Čemernica, Gruža and Despotovica. It is of volcanic origin. Today the terrain is a result of the combined effects of tectonic movements and fluvial erosion processes in the past.

Morphological traits of municipalities, we can distinguished two different zones:[18]

  1. Mountain rims of the south piedmonts on Maljen, Suvobor and south-western on Rudnik,
  2. Central-valley basin are charasteristic on north-western parts and north of Ješevac and Vujan.

Dominant position in municipality and Šumadija have mountain Rudnik. As specific shape of terrain have Ostrvica which has conical shape and it is positioned north-western from mountain and settlement Rudnik. Mountain massif Ješevac is positioned on the east side of municipality. Mountain Vujan is liying southwards from river Despotovica to Brdjani pit. Western parts of the area covers Rajac, Suvobor and Maljen. Westernmost parts includes Pranjani pit.

Demographics[edit]

According to the last official census done in 2011, the Municipality of Gornji Milanovac has 44,406 inhabitants. Population density on the territory of the municipality is 53.1 inhabitants per square kilometer. This census recorded decline of the population compered to the previous censuses. In 1991 census, population of this municipalite was approximately 51,000 citizens. The reasons for this trend is bad economic conditions in Serbia, negative natural increase rate and majority of the older population. In Gornji Milanovac there are 637 migrants.[19]

Estimated composition of population by sex and average age are:[20]

  • Male- 21,802 (42.4 years) and
  • Female- 22,604 (43.7 years).

Ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population
Serbs 43,453
Roma 178
Montenegrins 81
Macedonians 49
Croats 34
Yugoslavs 31
Others 580
Total 44,406

Religion structure of Gornji Milanovac as it follows in the table:[21]

Religions Number of citizens
Serbian Ortodox 43,179
Atheist 109
Catholics 65
Islam 53
Group of Eastern religions 11
Protestants 8
Agnostics 5
Other religions 18
Did not declare 347
Unknown 53

Mother tongue structure of Gornji Milanovac is displayed by the following table:[22]

Mother tongue Number of cizens
Serbian and Serbo-Croatian 43,884
Romani (Balkan-Romani dialect) 84
Macedonian 34
Croatian 23
Other languages 118
Did not declare according with 43 Article of the Constitution of Serbia 72
Unknown 191

Economy and industry[edit]

1890 was significant as journalism began in this area. After World War I, Gornji Milanovac was connected with the other and important areas and cites in Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes thanks to narrow gauge railway. Before World War II the population was involved in mining, agronomy and with a few industrial workers (conditory and graphic-printing industry). After World War II Gornji Milanovac was destroyed, but in the 50's Gornji Milanovac begin with rapid progress, the rest of SFR Yugoslavia called this area an economic miracle.

In that time there were established two industrial zones (in the South and South-West part). Companies and coorporations thath were established in these zones were: Zvezda (now known as Zvezda-Helios), Metalac, PIK Takovo (now known as Swisslion-Takovo), MK Rudnik (Fashion Stationery), FAD (Automotive Parts for all European cars), Tipoplastika (Plastics, Paper products), Metal Seko (now known as Mersteel), GRO Graditelj (Construction Company), Minos (railway equipment), Rudnik Flotation (mining production), Dečje novine (popular youth newspaper and publisher in SFR Yugoslavia), Proleter (department store), Kablar (cooperative agronomy company), Sigma (cardboard producer), Šipad Sarajevo-Gornji Milanovac (construction carpentry), Imlek (milk products; subsidiary), Mlinsko-Pekarska Industrija Beograd (food industry; subsidiary), JTv Gornji Milanovac (Local Broadcasting Company), KDS "Despotovica" (Cable TV distribution systems) etc.

Gornji Milanovac in the 80's and 90's was real "nursery" of mixed economy. Despite 90's break up of SFR Yugoslavia and UN sanctions, Gornji Milanovac was the only city in thath time in newly formed FR Yugoslavia whose companies were operated with a profit. New date companies are: "9. Septembar" , "Tetra Pak", "Papir Print", "Spektar", "Flint Group Balkan", "Planeta računari", "FOKA", "S-group", "Semix Techno", "Interplet Gradnja", "Rapid", "AzVirt", "Alfa Support", etc.

After 2001 and 2002 most workers organisations (that was the name for companies who were state and/or workers owned) from period of 1950-1990 (mentioned above) were privatized. Only few bankrupted: GRO Graditelj, Mlinsko-Pekarska Industrija Beograd (subsidiary), Imlek (subsidiary), Dečje novine, Minos and JTv Gornji Milanovac.

Here department stores, two mini-supermarkets, elegant boutiques and restaurants can be found. Also, there is 1 flea markets, where local farmers are selling vegetables, products and 1 market of farm animals.

Today Gornji Milanovac valid for the bigest exporter of goods, services and products in Republic of Serbia and one of the few cities and municipalities with the budget surplus. During the period of June 2014 unemployment rate in Gornji Milanovac was 25.28%.[23] Most of municipality economy relies on:[24]

Community services and Territorial organizations[edit]

Education[edit]

Gornji Milanovac has four primary schools: OŠ "Sveti Sava", OŠ Desanka Maksimović, OŠ "Kralj Aleksandar I" (before "Takovski-Partizanski bataljon") and OŠ "Momčilo Nastasijević". Also it has one high school: Gimnazija "Takovski ustanak. Two professional schools (four or three-year): ETŠ "Knjaz Milos" and TŠ "Jovan Žujović". As regard as kindergarten and nurseries in this municipality there is three of these.

Gornji Milanovac had one department for higher education from Novi Sad, which was private owned and this department dissolved. In future periods was planned to open new departments of University of Kragujevac Faculty of Economics for business administration, taxes and accounting. Also and Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade had negotiations about opening new departments for local students.

Health protection[edit]

Health protection in Gornji Milanovac is widespread on all territory. Citizens can rached basic health protection even in rural parts of municipality. Health care is organized like: General Hospital, Neurology Hospital, Gynaecology department, Intensive care unit, Labour health protection unit (there are departmans and units in two industrial zones), Surgical and physiatrically department, Dentistry, Dermatology, Psychiatric ward, Rehabilitation services, Village Health Protection Units and Physical therapy. Common support units include a dispensary, pathology, and radiology, and on the non-medical side, there are medical records departments, release of information departments, financial and HR department, Patient lawyers, Clinical Engineering, Facilities Management, Dining Services and Security Departments. There is an emergency service in place. On the property of Gornji Milanovac Hospital, there is built infrastructure for mini spa and rehabilitation center for skin and musculoskeletal diseases from watter resources, mentioned above (see section Geography and Infrastructure). As for health protection of animals, Gornji Milanovac has several privately owned veterinary stations.

Media broadcasting[edit]

"Dečje novine" was the famous and largest publishing house of books, comics, magazines and sticker albums in former Yugoslavia, based in this municipality. They had exclusive copyrights to publish comics of Walt Disney, Marvel and DC Comics. This publisher bankrupted in 90's and then the remains of company assets was divided among creditors. Creditors established new companies in the sector of publishing books, newspapers, design and art, graphical services and enigmatic-revival editions. But these independent companies did not have the same success as "Dečje novine" had.

This town had 3 private owned radio station and 1 local broadcasting station. In the 80's at Gornji Milanovac was establishedexperimental radio station for travelers highway information services and among the first cable television systems in Yugoslavia, called Cable Distibutive Systems "Despotovica". Due the technological advance these radio station was called off during 1990. At the time of NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (during 1999), former JTv Gornji Milanovac broadcast television and radio signal to the world (because Radio Television of Serbia was bombed and destroyed on April 23, 1999.) for the short time until NATO air force bombed radio and television repeater at mountain Rudnik and nearby Kablar. Now Gornji Milanovac has 2 radio station, "Gogi" and "Stari Milanovac" radio local broadcasting company, which both broadcasts folk music, information and news in the Serbian language. Meanwhile, radio station "Stari Milanovac" bankrupted.

Until 2014, Gornji Milanovac did not have television broadcasting, after series of unsuccessful privatization of former JTv Gornji Milanovac. Now this municipality has regional television and cable television broadcasting company "Telemark Systems". Telemark bought old cable television KDS Despotovica. This television company provides: cable television, regional television broadcasting for several municipalities ( besides Gornji Milanovac there are providing in Čačak, Lučani, Arilje, Požega, Kosjerić and Kraljevo), broadband internet, IT services, advertising services, fixed telephony, MMDS, dealership of digital and cable TV equipment and other services. Also Gornji Milanovac has newspaper company "Takovske Novine", while "GM Press" bankrupted.

Territorial organisation[edit]

There are one police station, Ministry of Internal Affairs of Serbia administration unit, Military post, Post office, branch of FedEx for Serbia, Customs substation and Fire-Rescuers department. Settlement are organized as Council of Settlements and Gornji Milanovac are divided in 63 settlements. Each of them have responsibility (infrastructure, election/referendum and legal obligations) for that part of territory.

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the town of Gornji Milanovac, the municipality of Gornji Milanovac includes the following 60 settlements and 3 smaller towns :

Map of the settlements in Gornji Milanovac and their territory organisation.

Judicial system and safety[edit]

Gornji Milanovac from its establishment had modern district court. Today it has Basic People Court and Magistrates Court. Also, it is among the safest municipalities in Serbia. According to National Statistical Institute of Serbia in 2013 Gornji Milanovac had 148 convicted adults and 16 juvenile.[25] Safety index of this municipality is among the highest then in other municipalities in Serbia 98.63%.[26]

Politics[edit]

According to the Law on Local Self-Government head of municipality (for this status they need population 10,000-99,000 citizens) is called "president" and for larger cities (100,000 and above population), they are called "mayors". Gornji Milanovac has/had 29 presidents in his history. In the following table are named presidents and not precise dates of their mandate:[27]

Presidents of Municipalities Political Party Mandat period
Jovan Andrić People's Radical Party End 19th century
Maksim Sretenović
Stanoje Marinković Beginning of the 20th century
Dragoljub Skubic Yugoslav National Party, Yugoslav Radical Union 1930s
Svetozar Čivović Yugoslav Radical Union 1941-1945
Branko Knežević League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1944-1945[28]
Lazar Djordjević 1945-1947
Zdravko Radojević 1947
Uroš Ivanović 1947
Branko Petrović 1947
Mihailo Mile Tešić 1947-1950
Milovan Milovanović 1950-1951
Hristivoje Popović 1951- 1955
Djordje Djoka Cajić 1955-1960
Milojko Veljović 1960-1963
Borivoje Novaković 1963-1965
Slobodan Stanojević 1965-1967
Dragoljub Dragan Pavlović 1967-1969
Živojin Simović 1969-1974
Stanimir Jovanović 1974-1978; 1978-1982
Dušan M. Papić 1982-1984
Jovan Tomović 1984-1986
Todor Popović 1986-1988
Pantelija Gačić 1989-1993
Dražimir Marušić First mandate as League of Communists of Yugoslavia, next three mandates as Socialist Party of Serbia 1992-1993, 1993-1997, 1997-2000 and 2004-2010 (as independent political candidate: Movement for municipality of Gornji Milanovac )
Aleksandar Pravdić Democratic Party of Serbia 2000-2001
Milutin M. Prodanović 2001-2004
Vladimir Simović 2004
Milisav Mirković Socialist Party of Serbia 2010–2012 and 2012–2016
Dejan Kovačević Serbian Progressive Party 2016–present

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Gornji Milanovac is twinned with:

Sport[edit]

The most popular sport in the city, besides Basketball, Handball and Volleyball, is definitely football (soccer). Governing body for sport is Sportski Savez Opštine Gornji Milanovac (engl. Sport Union of Municipality Gornji Milanovac-SSOGM). Besides New Metalac Stadium, Gornji Milanovac have: Sport Hall "Breza" (multi-purpose); Indoors Sport Swimming pool "Tipoplastika" (currently under reconstruction); Sport and recreative centers for workers, students and public in industry zones of Tipoplastika, Autoprevoz and Swisslion-Takovo companies; Outdoors Olympic pool;[29] two sport halls in Pranjani and at Rudnik; Sport Hall in Primmary schools at Gornji Milanovac; two bowling hall (one at Metalac Stadium and one in area of professional school "Jovan Žujović"); one beach soccer (football) and volleyball ground; Ice skating rink and one outdoors gym (nearby Sport Hall "Breza"); and "Takovo" Stadium (multipurpose). Notable sport society from Gornji Milanovac are shown in following table:

Gornji Milanovac professional sports teams
Club Sport Venue League Description
FK Metalac Gornji Milanovac Soccer (Football) Football pictogram Metalac Stadium Serbian SuperLiga Men's football team. Established 1961.
FK Takovo SD Takovo stadium Morava Zone League Men's football team. Established 1911.
SD Dragan Jeftic Skepo Shooting Shooting pictogram Shooting range SD Dragan Jeftić Škepo SSS Cup Men and women's shooting team.[30]
ŽRK Metalac AD Handball Handball pictogram SC "Breza" Serbian First League (West) for Women Women's handball team
RK Tipoplastika Sport and recreation center of Tipoplastika company None Men's handball team. Dissolved, 2000.
RK Omladinac SC "Breza" Serbian First League West Dissolved in the 1980s. Reestablished 2012
KAF Metalac American Football American football pictogram Takovo Stadium Ex Second Serbian and Montenegrian American Football National League (NLS) Men's American football team. Dissolved.
KK Metalac Bowling Bowling pictogram Atomsko Sklonište and at Metalac Stadium Serbian Super League (bowling) Men's bowling team
KMF Metalac-Kolorado Footsal Futsal pictogram SC "Breza" Second Futsal League-West Men's futsal team
OK Takovo-Zvezda-Helios (Women); Takovo-Metalac (Men) Volleyball Volleyball (indoor) pictogram SC "Breza" Serbian First League (women), Serbian First League (men) Men and women's volleyball team
AK Takovo Athletics Athletics pictogram Takovo stadium Serbian Athletic League Men and women's athletic team
AK Veteran
MK Lonely Riders Motorcycles Sinnbild Kraftrad SAS Parac AMSS championship Men and Women motorcycle club
OKK Takovo Basketball Basketball pictogram Hall of TŠ "Jovan Žujović" and SC "Breza" Junior Regional Basketball League-West Men's basketball team
KK Ikar Gornji Milanovac SC "Breza" None Men and Women's basketball club for children with special needs
KK GM032 SC "Breza" Second Men Regional Basketball League-West group B Men's basketball team
KK Takovo Karate Karate pictogram SC "Breza" No data Men and Women's karate club
TK Takovo Tennis Tennis pictogram "Takovo" Stadium complex Tennis League of Serbia Men and women's tennis club
PK Kupidon Darts Darts pictogram Various Second national league Men darts club
JK Grabovica Sailing Sailing pictogram None None (dissolved, 2009) Men sailing club
DK Arasi Judo Judo pictogram Various Unknown Men's and women judo club
BK Car Dušan Silni Shoot wrestling MMA Bushido pictogram Various Serbian Battle Championship Men shoot wrestling affiliation
PSD Rudnik Mountaineering Mountaineering pictogram Rudnik mountain complex PSS Expeditions Men's and women mountaineering sport association
ŠK Metalac-Takovo Chess Chess pictogram Various Serbian Super League Men and women chess club
STSO Gornji Milanovac Table Tennis Table tennis pictogram Various Serbia Table Tennis Federation League Men and women table tennis club
PK Domingo Dance sport club DanceSport pictogram Various Various Men and women dance sport club

Also there are multisport activities and organizations in this municipality.[31] Such as: DTV Partizan (physical training club for children/school children and workers) and four junior football (soccer) clubs: "Poletarac", "Junior soccer", "Srpski orlovi" and "Sportic". As far as municipality association football (soccer) league, Gornji Milanovac has 12 members: Majdan, Jablanica, Šumadija, Ozrem PMH, Šilopaj, Velereč '94, Ozremica, Mladi Rudar, Mladost '09, Takovski ustanak, Brezak, Sparta Grabovica and Omladinac. Every municipality football senior game is well covered by local residents. In Morava District league (5th level in Serbian Football league system) there are some Gornji Milanovac clubs, as: FK Napredak Svračkovci, FK Backovac United, FK Donja Vrbava and FK Lunjevica.

Gallery[edit]

Notable people[edit]

This municipality has numerous of deserving citizens who have contributed to the progress of Serbia and Yugoslavia.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27. 
  3. ^ Djura Vrbavac "Nikola Milicevic Lunjevica", Lybrary "Brothers Nastasijevic", Gornji Milanovac, 2009; COBISS.SR-ID 157333004
  4. ^ http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/istorija-rtk.html%7CPrehistory of Gornji Milanovac, December 2014
  5. ^ Milomir Glišić, Dušan Ilić,Aleksandar Lazarević, Radmilo Lale Mandić, Miroslav Laf Marković, Miodrag Ristić: ,,Stari Milanovac (The old Milanovac)", third edition. 2003. ISBN 978-86-7152-018-8. r.r
  6. ^ http://www.bibliotekagm.com/BN/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=34%7C Library "Brothers Nastasijević", October, 2014
  7. ^ https://www.youtube.com/user/GMUndergrounders GM Undergrounders official Youtube page
  8. ^ Плишани малишан, победник Јелен Демофеста
  9. ^ Winner of Demo Fest 2014 |Demo Fest Live 2014: Pobednici - Strah od Džeki Čena
  10. ^ Gornji Milanovac and 72 municipalities in Serbia are great atagonist of GM food and they adopted prohibition | http://www.studiob.rs/info/tema.php?id=459%7C Retrieved: February, 2015
  11. ^ http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/sr/geografskeodlike/index.htm
  12. ^ a b http://www.camping.rs/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Nacrt-Prostornog-plana-opstine-Gornji-Milanovac-2011.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/sr/geografskeodlike/klima.htm
  14. ^ Background radiation on territory of Serbia | http://www.srbatom.gov.rs/srbatom/doc/monitoring-izvestaj-2011.pdf | Retrieved: April 2015
  15. ^ Republic Hydrometorogical Service of Serbia "Average temperatures for Gornji Milanovac (2010-2013)" (PDF). Republic Hydrometorogical Service of Serbia. Retrieved September 8, 2014. 
  16. ^ http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/sr/geografskeodlike/zemljiste.htm
  17. ^ Ores in Gornji Milanovac | http://srbin.info/2014/06/09/sumadijski-auto-put-otkrio-zlato/%7C Retrieved: January, 2015
  18. ^ Terrain traits of municipality of Gornji Milanovac | http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/geografske-odlike.html | Retrieved: April 2015
  19. ^ Population in Serbia by number of migrants| http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/63/41/Dem.pdf%7C Retrieved: March 2015
  20. ^ Population in Republic Serbia, Census 2011| http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/61/97/03Stanovnistvo.pdf%7CRetrieved: March 2015
  21. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Knjiga4_Veroispovest.pdf%7C Relligion and mother tongue structure of Serbian (December, 2014)
  22. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Knjiga4_Veroispovest.pdf%7C List of Mother tongue population in Serbia (December, 2014)
  23. ^ http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/lat/za-investitore.html
  24. ^ Industry of Gornji Milanovac|http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/privreda.html%7CRetrieved in January 2014
  25. ^ National Institute of Serbia-Convicted crimes in Serbia for 2013|http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/62/45/20Pravosudje.pdf%7CRetrieved in January 2014
  26. ^ Criminal rate of Serbia-2013|http://www.numbeo.com/crime/country_result.jsp?country=Serbia
  27. ^ Milorad Glišić, Dušan Ilić, Aleksandar Lazarević, Radmilo Lale Mandić, Miroslav Laf Marković, Miodrag Ristić: "Stari Milanovac ", Third amended edition, 2003, ISBN 978-86-7152-018-8
  28. ^ List of the presidents of Gornji Milanovac | http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/istorija.html | Retrieved: March 2015
  29. ^ http://www.togm.org.rs/sport/gradski-bazen-u-gornjem-milanovcu
  30. ^ http://www.naslovi.net/2010-09-25/pr-objave/za-titule-papovkom-i-vojnickom-puskom-u-subotu-i-nedelju-u-lazarevcu/2002112
  31. ^ Takovske novine, "Sport activities and awards", year LII, special edition: May 21st 2015, Retrieved: May, 2015, ISSN 0350-4867
  32. ^ http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/istorija-milanovcani.html | Notable people of Gornji Milanovac

External links[edit]