Kingdom of Goryeo
Goryeo in 1374
Vassal of the Mongol Yuan dynasty
|Common languages||Middle Korean|
|Religion||Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shamanism (Sindo)|
|Military regime leader|
|Yi Ui-bang (first)|
|Im Yu-mu (last)|
• Later Three Kingdoms rise
• Coronation of Taejo
|25 July 918|
• Unification of the Later Three Kingdoms
• Completion of Tripitaka Koreana
• Abdication of Gongyang
|31 July 1392|
|Today part of|| South Korea|
Goryeo (고려; 高麗; Koryŏ; [ko.ɾjʌ]) was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unification" by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but soon afterward incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo.
The once prosperous kingdom of Later Silla, which had ruled most of the Korean Peninsula beginning in the late 7th century, began crumbling by the late 9th century due to internal turmoil, leading to the revival of the ancient states of Baekje and Goguryeo, known as "Later Baekje" and "Later Goguryeo". Later Goguryeo, also known as Taebong, was overthrown from within in 918 by General Wang Geon, the son of a regional lord of noble Goguryeo descent, who established Goryeo in its place. Goryeo peacefully annexed Later Silla in 935 and militarily conquered Later Baekje in 936, successfully reunifying the Korean Peninsula. Beginning in 993, Goryeo faced multiple invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty, a powerful nomadic empire to the north, but a decisive military victory in 1019 brought about a century of peace and prosperity as Goryeo entered its golden age. During this period, a balance of power was maintained in East Asia between Goryeo, Liao, and Song.
The Goryeo period was the "golden age of Buddhism" in Korea, and as the national religion, Buddhism achieved its highest level of influence in Korean history, with 70 temples in the capital alone in the 11th century. Commerce flourished in Goryeo, with merchants coming from as far as the Middle East, and the capital in modern-day Kaesong, North Korea was a center of trade and industry, with merchants employing a system of double-entry bookkeeping since the 11th or 12th century. In addition, Goryeo was a period of great achievements in Korean art and culture, such as Koryo celadon, which was highly praised in the Song dynasty, and the Tripitaka Koreana, which was described by UNESCO as "one of the most important and most complete corpus of Buddhist doctrinal texts in the world", with the original 81,258 engraved printing blocks still preserved at Haeinsa Temple. In the early 13th century, Goryeo developed movable type made of metal to print books, 200 years before Johannes Gutenberg in Europe.
Beginning in 1170, the government of Goryeo was de facto controlled by a succession of powerful families from the warrior class, most notably the Choe family, in a military dictatorship akin to a shogunate. During the military rule, Goryeo withstood invasions by the Mongol Empire for almost 30 years, until the ruling head of the Choe family was assassinated in 1258 by opponents in the court, after which authority was restored to the monarchy and peace was made with the Mongols; however, power struggles continued in the court and military rule did not end until 1270. From that point on, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous "son-in-law nation" of the Mongol Yuan dynasty through royal intermarriage and blood ties. Independence was regained during the reign of Gongmin in the mid 14th century, and afterward Generals Choe Yeong and Yi Seong-gye rose to prominence with victories over invading Red Turban armies from the north and Wokou marauders from the south. In 1388, Yi Seong-gye was sent to invade the Ming dynasty at Liaodong, but he turned his forces around and defeated Choe Yeong in a coup d'etat; in 1392, he replaced Goryeo with the new state of Joseon, bringing an end to 474 years of Goryeo rule on the Korean Peninsula.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Government
- 3 History
- 4 Foreign relations
- 5 Economy
- 6 Society
- 7 Culture
- 8 Technology
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
The name "Goryeo" (Hangul: 고려; Hanja: 高麗; MR: Koryŏ), which is the source of the name "Korea", was originally used by Goguryeo (Hangul: 고구려; Hanja: 高句麗; MR: Koguryŏ) of the Three Kingdoms of Korea beginning in the early 5th century. In 918, Goryeo was founded as the successor to Goguryeo and inherited its name. Goryeo also used the names Samhan and Haedong, meaning "East of the Sea".
Part of a series on the
|History of Korea|
|Later Three Kingdoms|
|Unitary dynastic period|
|Division of Korea|
[U]ntil 1270, when Koryŏ capitulated to the Mongols after thirty years of resistance, early Koryŏ rulers and most of its officials had held a "pluralist" (tawŏnjŏk) outlook that recognized greater and equal empires in China and in Manchuria, while positing Koryŏ as the center of a separate and bounded world ruled by the Koryŏ emperor, who claimed a ritual status reserved for the Son of Heaven.— Henry Em
Goryeo positioned itself at the center of its own "world" (천하; 天下) called "Haedong". Haedong, meaning "East of the Sea", was a distinct and independent world that encompassed the historical domain of the "Samhan", another name for the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The rulers of Goryeo, or Haedong, used the titles of emperor and Son of Heaven. Imperial titles were used since the founding of Goryeo, and the last king of Silla addressed Wang Geon as the Son of Heaven when he capitulated. Posthumously, temple names with the imperial characters of progenitor (조; 祖) and ancestor (종; 宗) were used. Imperial designations and terminology were widely used, such as "empress", "imperial crown prince", "imperial edict", and "imperial palace".
The rulers of Goryeo donned imperial yellow clothing, made sacrifices to Heaven, and invested sons as kings. Goryeo used the Three Departments and Six Ministries imperial system of the Tang dynasty and had its own "microtributary system" that included Jurchen tribes outside its borders. The military of Goryeo was organized into 5 armies, like an empire, as opposed to 3, like a kingdom. Goryeo maintained multiple capitals: the main capital "Gaegyeong" (also called "Hwangdo" or "Imperial Capital") in modern-day Kaesong, the "Western Capital" in modern-day Pyongyang, the "Eastern Capital" in modern-day Gyeongju, and the "Southern Capital" in modern-day Seoul.
The Song dynasty of China tolerated Goryeo's imperial claims and practices. The Liao and Jin dynasties, according to Remco E. Breuker, "were significantly more willing to recognize the possibility of another Son of Heaven, perhaps because they themselves had always had to compete with other Sons of Heaven". According to Henry Em, "[a]t times Song reception rituals for Koryŏ envoys and Koryŏ reception rituals for imperial envoys from Song, Liao, and Jin suggested equal rather than hierarchical relations".
In 1270, Goryeo capitulated to the Mongols and became a semi-autonomous "son-in-law state" (부마국; 駙馬國) of the Yuan dynasty, bringing an end to its imperial system. The Yuan dynasty demoted the imperial titles of Goryeo and added "chung" (충; 忠), meaning "loyalty", to the temple names of Goryeo kings, beginning with Chungnyeol. This continued until the mid-14th century, when Gongmin declared independence.
Silla, which had unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea in 668, weakened and lost control over local lords during the end of the 9th century. The country entered a period of civil war and rebellion, led by Gung Ye, Gi Hwon, Yang Gil, and Gyeon Hwon.
Wang Geon, the son of a prominent northern lord, joined Gung Ye's rebel forces in 896 as a general. In 901, Gung Ye established Later Goguryeo in the northern regions of the kingdom and selected Songak (modern Kaesong) as the original capital. The northern regions, including Wang Geon's hometown of Songak, were the strongholds of Goguryeo refugees. In 918, Wang Geon deposed the increasingly despotic and paranoid Gung Ye, and established Goryeo as the Taejo. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo and laid claim to Manchuria as its rightful legacy. Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was a descendant of Goguryeo refugees, and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan.
Goryeo adopted a Later Silla-friendly, Later Baekje-hostile stage during the Later Three Kingdoms, but in 927, Goryeo was defeated by Later Baekje in present-day Daegu and King Taejo lost his most able supporters in the battle. For three years after, Later Baekje dominated the Later Three Kingdoms, but after a defeat at Andong in 930, it lost its power.
The Later Three Kingdoms era ended when Goryeo annexed Silla in 935 and defeated Later Baekje in 936. King Taejo moved the capital to his hometown of Kaesǒng, and ruled the Korean peninsula as the first King of Goryeo. Taejo married a daughter of the Silla royal family and allowed most of their nobility to keep their lands. Even though he ruled the united nation for only seven years before his son took the throne upon his death, the succession was not challenged.
Following the destruction of Balhae by the Khitans, a great portion of the Balhae population including Balhae's last crown prince and much of its ruling class sought refuge in Goryeo, where they were warmly welcomed. The last crown prince Dae Gwang-hyeon was included into the ruling family by Wang Geon, thus unifying the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Taejo felt a strong familial kinship with Balhae, calling it his "Relative Country" and "Married Country", and protected Balhae refugees, many of whom were also of Goguryeo origin. This was in strong contrast to Later Silla, which had endured a hostile relationship with Balhae.
Taejo displayed strong animosity toward the Khitans who had destroyed Balhae. The Liao dynasty sent 30 envoys with 50 camels as a gift in 942, but Wang Geon exiled the envoys and starved the camels under a bridge in retribution for Balhae, despite the major diplomatic repercussions. Taejo proposed to Gaozu of Later Jìn that they attack the Khitans as revenge for the destruction of Balhae, according to the Zizhi Tongjian. Furthermore, in his Ten Mandates to his descendants, he stated that the Khitans are no different than beasts and should be guarded against.
In order to strengthen the power of the central government, Gwangjong, the fourth emperor, made a series of laws, including that of freeing slaves in 958 and one creating the exam for hiring civil officials. To assert power internationally, Gwangjong also proclaimed Goryeo an empire independent from any other country of its day.
The fifth king, Gyeongjong, launched land-ownership reformation called the "Jeonsigwa" (전시과; 田柴科) and the 6th king, Seongjong appointed officials to local areas, which were previously succeeded by the lords. Between 993 and 1019, the Goryeo–Khitan War ravaged the northern border.
Khitan invasions and Jurchen expedition
The Jurchens in the Yalu River region were tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations; posing a potential threat to Goryeo's border security, the Jurchens offered tribute to the Goryeo court, expecting lavish gifts in return. According to the Goryeosa, in 918, the ancient capital of Pyongyang had been in ruins for a long time and foreign barbarians were using the surrounding lands as hunting grounds and occasionally raiding the borders of Goryeo; therefore, Wang Geon ordered his subjects to repopulate the ancient capital, and soon sent his cousin Wang Sik-ryeom to defend it. Afterward, he decreed Pyongyang as the Western Capital.
In 993, the Khitan Liao dynasty invaded Goryeo's northwest border with an army that the Liao commander claimed to number 800,000. After a military stalemate, the Goryeo diplomat, Seo Hui, negotiated with the chief Liao general and reached a settlement. In the settlement, Goryeo agreed to end its alliance with Song China, to adopt Liao's calendar, and to become a Liao tributary state. Seo Hui negotiated and obtained Liao consent to incorporate the land between the border of Liao and Goryeo up to the Yalu River, which was at the time occupied by troublesome Jurchen tribes, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor to Goryeo. With this settlement the Liao withdrew, but Goryeo continued to communicate with the Song, having strengthened its defenses by building a fortress in the newly gained northern territories.
In 1009, General Gang Jo of Goryeo led a coup against King Mokjong, killing him and establishing military rule. The Liao attacked with 400,000 troops in 1010, claiming to avenge the murdered Mokjong.
Gang Jo blocked the Liao's first attack, but he was defeated in the second one and was executed. King Hyeonjong of Goryeo was forced to flee the capital, which was sacked and burnt by the Khitan, to Naju temporarily. Unable to establish a foothold and fearing a counterattack by the regrouped Korean armies, the Khitan forces withdrew. Afterward, the Goryeo king sued for peace, but the Liao emperor demanded that he come in person and also cede key border areas; the Goryeo court refused the demands, resulting in a decade of hostility between the two nations, during which both sides fortified their borders in preparation of war. Liao attacked Goryeo in 1015, 1016, and 1017, but the results were indecisive.
In 1018, Liao assembled an army of 100,000 troops to invade Goryeo. In preparation, General Gang Gam-chan ordered a stream to the east of Heunghwajin to be dammed. When the Khitan troops crossed the Yalu River, Gang Gam-chan opened the dam and attacked the enemy troops with 12,000 mounted troops, catching them by surprise, inflicting severe losses, and cutting off their line of retreat. The Khitan troops soldiered on and headed toward the capital, but were met with stiff resistance and constant attacks, and were forced to retreat back north. Gang Gam-chan and his troops waited at Gwiju and surrounded the Khitan, annihilating most of them. Barely a few thousand Liao troops survived after the Battle of Gwiju.
In the late summer of 1019, the Liao assembled another large army. Both sides recognizing the difficulty of achieving a decisive victory, King Hyeonjong sent a tributary mission to the Liao in 1020 and Emperor Shengzong graciously pardoned him. After that, the tributary relationship between Goryeo and Liao was resumed and Goryeo suspended its relationship with the Song. Goryeo had no more conflicts with the Liao state, and Goryeo no longer feared Liao. Beginning in the 1030s, Goryeo resumed unofficial contacts with Song and received hundreds of merchant ships each year. However, Goryeo was viewed with apprehension by some in the Song court; in addition, Goryeo was considered the only state not to be conquered by Liao, and was thought to be feared by Liao.
After Goryeo's victories over Liao, Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. In 1087, the first version of the Tripitaka Koreana was completed after many years of labor.
By the time of eleventh king, Munjong, the central government of Goryeo gained complete authority and power over local lords. Munjong and later kings emphasized the importance of civilian control of the military.
The Jurchens north of Goryeo had traditionally rendered tribute to the Goryeo monarchs and called Goryeo their "parent country", but thanks to the defeat of Liao in 1018, the Wanyan tribe of the Heishui Mohe unified the Jurchen tribes and gained in might.
In 1107, General Yun Gwan led a newly formed army, a force of approximately 17,000 men called the Byeolmuban, and attacked the Jurchen. Though the war lasted for several years, the Jurchen were ultimately defeated, and surrendered to Yun Gwan. To mark the victory, General Yun built nine fortresses to the northeast of the border (Hangul: 東北九城). In 1108, however, General Yun was given orders to withdraw his troops by the new ruler, King Yejong. Due to manipulation and court intrigue from opposing factions, he was discharged from his post. Opposition factions fought to ensure the new fortresses were turned over to the Jurchen.
During the reign of Jurchen leader Wuyashu in 1103-1113, the border between the two nations was stabilized and Korean forces withdrew from Jurchen territories, acknowledging Jurchen control over the contested region.
|Monarchs of Korea Goryeo|
The House Yi of Inju (Hangul: 인주이씨(仁州李氏)) married women to the kings from the time of Munjong to the 17th King, Injong. Eventually the House of Yi gained more power than the monarch himself. This led to the coup of Yi Ja-gyeom in 1126. It failed, but the power of the monarch was weakened; Goryeo underwent a civil war among the nobility.
In 1135, Myocheong argued in favor of moving the capital to Seogyeong (present-day Pyongyang). This proposal divided the nobles. One faction, led by Myocheong, believed in moving the capital to Pyongyang and expanding into Manchuria. The other one, led by Kim Bu-sik (author of the Samguk Sagi), wanted to keep the status quo. Myocheong failed to persuade the king; he rebelled and established the state of Daebang, but it failed and he was killed.
Although Goryeo was founded by the military, its authority was in decline. In 1014, a coup occurred but the effects of the rebellion didn't last long, only making generals discontent with the current supremacy of the civilian officers.
In addition, under the reign of King Uijong, the military officers were prohibited from entering the Security council, and even at times of state emergency, they were not allowed to assume commands. After political chaos, Uijong started to enjoy travelling to local temples and studying sutra, while he was almost always accompanied by a large group of civilian officers. The military officers were largely ignored and were even mobilized to construct temples and ponds.
In 1170, a group of army officers led by Jeong Jung-bu, Yi Ui-bang and Yi Go launched a coup d'état and succeeded. King Uijong went into exile and King Myeongjong was placed on the throne. Effective power, however, lay with a succession of generals who used an elite guard unit known as the Tobang to control the throne: military rule of Goryeo had begun. In 1179, the young general Gyeong Dae-seung rose to power and began an attempt to restore the full power of the monarch and purge the corruption of the state.
However, he died in 1183 and was succeeded by Yi Ui-min, who came from a nobi (slave) background. His unrestrained corruption and cruelty led to a coup by general Choe Chung-heon, who assassinated Yi Ui-min and took supreme power in 1197. For the next 61 years, the Choe house ruled as military dictators, maintaining the Kings as puppet monarchs; Choe Chung-heon was succeeded in turn by his son Choe U, his grandson Choe Hang and his great-grandson Choe Ui.
When he took control, Choe Chungheon forced Myeongjong off the throne and replaced him with King Sinjong. What was different from former military leaders was the active involvement of scholars in Choe's control, notably Prime Minister Yi Gyu-bo who was a confucian scholar-official.
Although the House of Choe established strong private individuals loyal to it, continuous invasion by the Mongols ravaged the whole land, resulting in a weakened defense ability, and also the power of the military regime waned.
Mongol invasions and Yuan domination
Fleeing from the Mongols, in 1216 the Khitans invaded Goryeo and defeated the Korean armies multiple times, even reaching the gates of the capital and raiding deep into the south, but were defeated by Korean General Kim Chwi-ryeo who pushed them back north to Pyongan, where the remaining Khitans were finished off by allied Mongol-Goryeo forces in 1219.
In 1231, Mongols under Ögedei Khan invaded Goryeo following the aftermath of joint Goryeo-Mongol forces against the Khitans in 1219. The royal court moved to Ganghwado in the Bay of Gyeonggi in 1232. The military ruler of the time, Choe U, insisted on fighting back. Goryeo resisted for about 30 years but finally sued for peace in 1259.
Meanwhile, the Mongols began a campaign from 1231 to 1259 that ravaged parts of Gyeongsang and Jeolla. There were six major campaigns: 1231, 1232, 1235, 1238, 1247, 1253; between 1253 and 1258, the Mongols under Möngke Khan's general Jalairtai Qorchi launched four devastating invasions against Korea at tremendous cost to civilian lives throughout the Korean peninsula.
Civilian resistance was strong, and the Imperial Court at Ganghwa attempted to strengthen its fortress. Korea won several victories but the Korean military could not withstand the waves of invasions. The repeated Mongol invasions caused havoc, loss of human lives and famine in Korea. In 1236, Gojong ordered the recreation of the Tripitaka Koreana, which was destroyed during the 1232 invasion. This collection of Buddhist scriptures took 15 years to carve on some 81,000 wooden blocks, and is preserved to this day.
In March 1258, the dictator Choe Ui was assassinated by Kim Jun. Thus, dictatorship by his military group was ended, and the scholars who had insisted on peace with Mongolia gained power. Goryeo was never conquered by the Mongols, but exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent Crown Prince Wonjong to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince. Khubilai, who became khan of the Mongols and emperor of China in 1260, did not impose direct rule over most of Goryeo. Goryeo Korea, in contrast to Song China, was treated more like an Inner Asian power. The dynasty was allowed to survive, and intermarriage with Mongols was encouraged, even with the Mongol imperial family, while the marriage between Chinese and Mongols was strictly forbidden when the Song dynasty was ended. Some military officials who refused to surrender formed the Sambyeolcho Rebellion and resisted in the islands off the southern shore of the Korean Peninsula.
After 1270 Goryeo became a semi-autonomous client state of the Yuan dynasty. The Mongols and the Kingdom of Goryeo tied with marriages and Goryeo became quda (marriage alliance) vassal of the Yuan dynasty for about 80 years and monarchs of Goryeo were mainly imperial sons in-law (khuregen). The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess.[self-published source] The kings of Goryeo held an important status like other important families of Mardin, the Uyghurs and Mongols (Oirats, Khongirad, and Ikeres). It is claimed that one of Goryeo monarchs was the most beloved grandson of Kublai Khan.
The Goryeo dynasty survived under the Yuan until King Gongmin began to push the Mongolian garrisons of the Yuan back in the 1350s. By 1356 Goryeo regained its lost northern territories.
When King Gongmin ascended to the throne, Goryeo was under the influence of the Mongol Yuan China. He was forced to spend many years at the Yuan court, being sent there in 1341 as a virtual prisoner before becoming king. He married the Mongol princess Queen Noguk. But in the mid-14th century the Yuan was beginning to crumble, soon to be replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. King Gongmin began efforts to reform the Goryeo government and remove Mongolian influences.
His first act was to remove all pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officers from their positions. Mongols had annexed the northern provinces of Goryeo after the invasions and incorporated them into their empire as the Ssangseong and Dongnyeong Prefectures. The Goryeo army retook these provinces partly thanks to defection from Yi Jachun, a minor Korean official in service of Mongols in Ssangseong, and his son Yi Seonggye. In addition, Generals Yi Seonggye and Ji Yongsu led a campaign into Liaoyang.
After the death of Gongmin's wife Noguk in 1365, he fell into depression. In the end, he became indifferent to politics and entrusted that great task to the Buddhist monk Shin Don. But after six years, Shin Don lost his position. In 1374, Gongmin was killed by Choe Mansaeng (최만생) and others.
During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated an invading Mongol tumen in 1364. During the 1380s, Goryeo turned its attention to the Wokou menace and used naval artillery created by Choe Museon to annihilate hundreds of pirate ships.
In 1388, King U (son of King Gongmin and a concubine) and general Choe Yeong planned a campaign to invade present-day Liaoning of China. King U put the general Yi Seong-gye (later Taejo) in charge, but he stopped at the border and rebelled.
During the 10th century, the Khitans tried to establish relations with Goryeo at least on two occasions. In 942, the Khitan ruler Taizu sent an embassy with a gift of 50 camels to Goryeo, but Taejo refused them, banishing the envoys and starving the camels to death.
Goryeo had maintained relations with most of the Five Dynasties and southern kingdoms in China. By 962, formal relations were established with the Song dynasty. Relations with Song were close, with many embassies being exchanged between Goryeo and Song, but relations would be interrupted by the rise of the Liao and Jin dynasties.
After about 30 years of peace, the Khitans invaded Goryeo. After several military campaigns, a state of peace was established in 1020. For around 100 years, the Far East was relatively peaceful and Munjong strengthened the Liao-Song-Goryeo line.
In 1102, the Jurchen threatened and another crisis emerged. In 1115 the Jurchen founded the Jin dynasty, and in 1125 Jin annihilated Liao, which was Goryeo's suzerain, and started invasion of Song. In response to the circumstantial changes, Goryeo declared itself to be a tributary state of Jin in 1126. After that, peace was maintained and Jin never actually did invade Goryeo.
Tension continued through the 12th century and into the 13th century, when the Mongol invasions started. After nearly 30 years of warfare, Goryeo swore allegiance to the Mongols, with the direct dynastic rule of Goryeo monarchy.
In the Goryeo dynasty, trade was frequent. In the start of the dynasty, Byeokrando was the main port. Byeokrando was a port close to the Goryeo capital. Trade included:
|1||Song dynasty||Silk, pearls, tea, spices, medicine, books, instruments||Gold and silver, ginseng, marble, paper, ink|
|2||Liao dynasty||Horses, sheep, low-quality silk||Minerals, cotton, marble, ink and paper, ginseng|
|3||Jurchen||Gold, horses, weapons||Silver, cotton, silk|
|4||Japan||Mercury, minerals||Ginseng, books|
|5||Abbasid dynasty||Mercury, spices, tusk||Gold, silver|
At the time of Goryeo, Korean nobility was divided into 6 classes.
- Gukgong (국공; 國公), Duke of a nation
- Gungong (군공; 郡公), Duke of a county
- Hyeonhu (현후; 縣侯), Marquis of a town
- Hyeonbaek (현백; 縣伯), Count of a town
- Gaegukja (개국자; 開國子) or Hyeonja (현자; 縣子), Viscount of a town
- Hyeonnam (현남; 縣男), Baron of a town
Buddhism in medieval Korea evolved in ways which rallied support for the state.
Initially, the new Seon schools were regarded by the established doctrinal schools as radical and dangerous upstarts. Thus, the early founders of the various "nine mountain" monasteries met with considerable resistance, repressed by the long influence in court of the Gyo schools. The struggles which ensued continued for most of the Goryeo period, but gradually the Seon argument for the possession of the true transmission of enlightenment would gain the upper hand. The position that was generally adopted in the later Seon schools, due in large part to the efforts of Jinul, did not claim clear superiority of Seon meditational methods, but rather declared the intrinsic unity and similarities of the Seon and Gyo viewpoints. Although all these schools are mentioned in historical records, toward the end of the dynasty, Seon became dominant in its effect on the government and society, and the production of noteworthy scholars and adepts. During the Goryeo period, Seon thoroughly became a "religion of the state," receiving extensive support and privileges through connections with the ruling family and powerful members of the court. Although Buddhist takes primary place, Taoism was worshiped in some temples, as did shamanism.
Although most of the scholastic schools waned in activity and influence during this period of the growth of Seon, the Hwaeom school continued to be a lively source of scholarship well into the Goryeo, much of it continuing the legacy of Uisang and Wonhyo. In particular the work of Gyunyeo (均如; 923-973) prepared for the reconciliation of Hwaeom and Seon, with Hwaeom's accommodating attitude toward the latter. Gyunyeo's works are an important source for modern scholarship in identifying the distinctive nature of Korean Hwaeom.
Another important advocate of Seon/Gyo unity was Uicheon. Like most other early Goryeo monks, he began his studies in Buddhism with the Hwaeom school. He later traveled to China, and upon his return, actively promulgated the Cheontae (天台宗, or Tiantai in Chinese) teachings, which became recognized as another Seon school. This period thus came to be described as "five doctrinal and two meditational schools" (ogyo yangjong). Uicheon himself, however, alienated too many Seon adherents, and he died at a relatively young age without seeing a Seon-Gyo unity accomplished.
The most important figure of Seon in the Goryeo was Jinul (知訥; 1158–1210). In his time, the sangha was in a crisis of external appearance and internal issues of doctrine. Buddhism had gradually become infected by secular tendencies and involvements, such as fortune-telling and the offering of prayers and rituals for success in secular endeavors. This kind of corruption resulted in the profusion of increasingly larger numbers of monks and nuns with questionable motivations. Therefore, the correction, revival, and improvement of the quality of Buddhism were prominent issues for Buddhist leaders of the period.
Jinul sought to establish a new movement within Korean Seon, which he called the "samādhi and prajñā society", whose goal was to establish a new community of disciplined, pure-minded practitioners deep in the mountains. He eventually accomplished this mission with the founding of the Seonggwangsa monastery at Mt. Jogye (曹溪山). Jinul's works are characterized by a thorough analysis and reformulation of the methodologies of Seon study and practice. One major issue that had long fermented in Chinese Seon, and which received special focus from Jinul, was the relationship between "gradual" and "sudden" methods in practice and enlightenment. Drawing upon various Chinese treatments of this topic, most importantly those by Zongmi (780-841) and Dahui (大慧; 1089–1163), Jinul created a "sudden enlightenment followed by gradual practice" dictum, which he outlined in a few relatively concise and accessible texts. From Dahui, Jinul also incorporated the gwanhwa (觀話) method into his practice. This form of meditation is the main method taught in Korean Seon today. Jinul's philosophical resolution of the Seon-Gyo conflict brought a deep and lasting effect on Korean Buddhism.
The general trend of Buddhism in the latter half of the Goryeo was a decline due to corruption, and the rise of strong anti-Buddhist political and philosophical sentiment. However, this period of relative decadence would nevertheless produce some of Korea's most renowned Seon masters. Three important monks of this period who figured prominently in charting the future course of Korean Seon were contemporaries and friends: Gyeonghan Baeg'un (景閑白雲; 1298–1374), Taego Bou (太古普愚; 1301–1382) and Naong Hyegeun (懶翁慧勤; 1320–1376). All three went to Yuan China to learn the Linji (臨濟 or Imje in Korean) gwanhwa teaching that had been popularized by Jinul. All three returned, and established the sharp, confrontational methods of the Imje school in their own teaching. Each of the three was also said to have had hundreds of disciples, such that this new infusion into Korean Seon brought about considerable effect. Despite the Imje influence, which was generally considered to be anti-scholarly in nature, Gyeonghan and Naong, under the influence of Jinul and the traditional tong bulgyo tendency, showed an unusual interest in scriptural study, as well as a strong understanding of Confucianism and Taoism, due to the increasing influence of Chinese philosophy as the foundation of official education. From this time, a marked tendency for Korean Buddhist monks to be "three teachings" exponents appeared.
A significant historical event of the Goryeo period is the production of the first woodblock edition of the Tripitaka, called the Tripitaka Koreana. Two editions were made, the first one completed from 1210 to 1231, and the second one from 1214 to 1259. The first edition was destroyed in a fire, during an attack by Mongol invaders in 1232, but the second edition is still in existence at Haeinsa in Gyeongsang province. This edition of the Tripitaka was of high quality, and served as the standard version of the Tripitaka in East Asia for almost 700 years.
Emperor Gwangjong creating the national civil service examinations. and King Seongjong was a key figure in establishing Confucianism. King Seongjong established Gukjagam. Gukjagam was the highest educational institution of the Goryeo dynasty. This was facilitated by the establishment in 1398 of the Seonggyungwan – an academy with a Confucian curriculum – and the building of an altar at the palace, where the king would worship his ancestors.
According to Goryeosa, Muslims arrived in the peninsula in the year 1024 in the Goryeo kingdom, a group of some 100 Muslims, including Hasan Raza, came in September of the 15th year of Hyeonjong of Goryeo and another group of 100 Muslim merchants came the following year.
Trading relations between the Islamic world and the Korean peninsula continued with the succeeding Goryeo kingdom through to the 15th century. As a result, a number of Muslim traders from the Near East and Central Asia settled down in Korea and established families there. Some Muslim Hui people from China also appear to have lived in the Goryeo kingdom.
With the Mongol armies came the so-called Saengmokin (Semu), or "colored-eye people", this group consisted of Muslims from Central Asia. In the Mongol social order, the Saengmokin occupied a position just below the Mongols themselves, and exerted a great deal of influence within the Yuan dynasty.
It was during this period satirical poems were composed and one of them was the Sanghwajeom, the "Colored-eye people bakery", the song tells the tale of a Korean woman who goes to a Muslim bakery to buy some dumplings.
Small-scale contact with predominantly Muslim peoples continued on and off. During the late Goryeo period, there were mosques in the capital Gaeseong, called Ye-Kung, whose literary meaning is a "ceremonial hall".
One of those Central Asian immigrants to Korea originally came to Korea as an aide to a Mongol princess who had been sent to marry King Chungnyeol of Goryeo. Goryeo documents say that his original name was Samga but, after he decided to make Korea his permanent home, the king bestowed on him the Korean name of Jang Sunnyong. Jang married a Korean and became the founding ancestor of the Deoksu Jang clan. His clan produced many high officials and respected Confucian scholars over the centuries. Twenty-five generations later, around 30,000 Koreans look back to Jang Sunnyong as the grandfather of their clan: the Jang clan, with its seat at Toksu village.
The same is true of the descendants of another Central Asian who settled down in Korea. A Central Asian named Seol Son fled to Korea when the Red Turban Rebellion erupted near the end of the Mongol's Yuan dynasty. He, too, married a Korean, originating a lineage called the Gyeongju Seol that claims at least 2,000 members in Korea.
Soju was first distilled around the 13th century, during the Mongol invasions of Korea. The Mongols had acquired the technique of distilling Arak from the Muslim World during their invasion of Central Asia and the Middle East around 1256, it was subsequently introduced to Koreans and distilleries were set up around the city of Kaesong. Indeed, in the area surrounding Kaesong, Soju is known as Arak-ju (hangul: 아락주). Under the reign of King Chungryeol, soju quickly became popular drink, while the stationed region of Mongolian troops came to produce high-quality soju, for instance in Andong.
Tripitaka Koreana (팔만대장경) is a Tripitaka with approximately 80,000 Buddhist scripts. The scripts are stored in Haeinsa, South Gyeongsang province. The second version was made in 1251 by Gojong in an attempt to fight away the Mongol invasions by Buddhism. The scripts are kept clean by leaving them to dry outside every year.
The ceramics of Goryeo are considered by some to be the finest small-scale works of ceramics in Korean history. Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish and insects, and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays.
While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered bottles, larger low bowls or shallow smaller bowls, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware. Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.
Lacquerware with mother of pearl inlay
During the Goryeo period, lacquerware with mother-of-pearl inlay reached a high point of technical and aesthetic achievement and was widely used by members of the aristocracy for Buddhist ritual implements and vessels, as well as horse saddles and royal carriages. Inlaid lacquers combine texture, color, and shape to produce a dazzling effect in both large and small objects. Although Korean lacquerware of the Goryeo period was highly prized throughout East Asia, fewer than fifteen examples are known to have survived, one of which is this exquisite box in the Museum's collection. This paucity of material is largely attributable to the fragility of lacquer objects and, to a certain extent, to wars and raids by foreign powers, notably those launched from Japan by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536–1598) in the late sixteenth century.
These ceramics are of a hard porcellaneous body with porcelain stone as one of the key ingredients; however, it is not to be confused with porcelain. The body is low clay, quartz rich, high potassia and virtually identical in composition to the Chinese Yueh ceramics which scholars hypothesize occasioned the first production of celadon in Korea. The glaze is an ash glaze with iron colourant, fired in a reduction atmosphere in a modified Chinese-style 'dragon' kiln. The distinctive blue-grey-green of Korean celadon is caused by the iron content of the glaze with a minimum of titanium contaminant, which modifies the color to a greener cast, as can be seen in Chinese Yueh wares. However, the Goryeo potters took the glaze in a different direction than their Chinese forebears; instead of relying solely on underglaze incised designs, they eventually developed the sanggam technique of inlaying black (magnetite) and white (quartz) which created bold contrast with the glaze. Scholars also theorize that this developed in part to an inlay tradition in Korean metalworks and lacquer, and also to the dissatisfaction with the nearly invisible effect of incising when done under a thick celadon glaze.
It is generally accepted that the world's first metal movable type was invented in Goryeo during the 13th century by Choe Yun-ui. However, according to the Chinese scholar Pan Jixing, a primitive form of metal movable type existed in China as early as the 11th century: it was a metal plate to print money and official documents, but it was not developed enough to print more than two embedded characters at a time. The first metal movable type book was the Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun that was printed in 1234. Technology in Korea took a big step in Goryeo and strong relation with the Song dynasty contributed to this. In the dynasty, Korean ceramics and paper, which come down to now, started to be manufactured.
During the late Goryeo Dynasty, Goryeo was at the cutting edge of shipboard artillery. In 1356 early experiments were carried out with gunpowder weapons that shot wood or metal projectiles. In 1373 experiments with incendiary arrows and "fire tubes" possibly an early form of the Hwacha were developed and placed on Korean warships. The policy of placing cannons and other gunpowder weapons continued well into the Joseon dynasty and by 1410, over 160 Joseon warships had cannons on board. Choe Mu-seon, a medieval Korean inventor, military commander and scientist who introduced widespread use of gunpowder to Korea for the first time and creating various gunpowder based weapons.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Goryeo.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Goryeo_celadon.|
- List of monarchs
- List of Korea-related topics
- Names of Korea
- The History of the Koryo Dynasty (高麗史, the 1st source written in Hanja, the file type is PDF.) Seoul National Univ.
- Goryeo ware
- 서긍(徐兢) (1123). 고려도경 (高麗圖經).
- 박용운 (1996). 고려시대 개경연구 147~156쪽.
- 이헌창 (2003). 한국경제통사 53쪽.
- "Koryŏ dynasty | Korean history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Kim 2012, p. 120.
- Lee 1984, p. 103.
- "고려". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). Korea Creative Contents Agency. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- Kim 2012, p. 112.
- Kim 2012, pp. 143–144.
- Rossabi 1983, p. 158.
- Johnston, William M. (2013). Encyclopedia of Monasticism. Routledge. p. 275. ISBN 9781136787157. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Kim 2012, p. 148.
- Till, Geoffrey; Bratton, Patrick (2012). Sea Power and the Asia-Pacific: The Triumph of Neptune?. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 9781136627248. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Lee, Kang Hahn (31 July 2017). "Koryŏ's Trade with the Outer World". Korean Studies. 41: 52–74. doi:10.1353/ks.2017.0018. ISSN 1529-1529. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Ronald, Ma (1997). Financial Reporting In The Pacific Asia Region. World Scientific. p. 239. ISBN 9789814497626. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Korea, 1000–1400 A.D." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Chung, Yang-mo (1998). Arts of Korea. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 234. ISBN 9780870998508. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Decision - 19 COM VIII.C.1". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Korean Classics". Asian Collections: An Illustrated Guide. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Gutenberg Bible". Timelines: Sources from History. British Library. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Kim 2012, p. 160.
- Kim 2012, pp. 167–168.
- Kim 2012, p. 169.
- 이정완; 최효성 (2015). 만만한 취업 한국사: 국내 주요 기업 입사대비 최단기 한국사 마스터북 (in Korean). 박문각. p. 165. ISBN 9791170231. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Rawski, Evelyn S. (2015). Early Modern China and Northeast Asia: Cross-Border Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 198–200. ISBN 9781316300350. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- Em, Henry (2013). The Great Enterprise: Sovereignty and Historiography in Modern Korea. Duke University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN 0822353725. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- 이윤섭 (2012). "고려의 천하관". 역동적 고려사 (in Korean). 필맥. ISBN 9788997751006. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- 고려의 황도 개경 (in Korean). 창비. 2002. p. 30. ISBN 9788936482213. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- 김창현. "개경(開京)". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- "3경". 우리역사넷 (in Korean). National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- Breuker, Remco E. (2003). "Koryo as an Independent Realm: The Emperor's Clothes?". Korean Studies. 27 (1): 78. doi:10.1353/ks.2005.0001. ISSN 1529-1529. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- 성기환 (2008). 생각하는 한국사 2: 고려시대부터 조선·일제강점까지 (in Korean). 버들미디어. ISBN 9788986982923. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- 이상각 (2014). 고려사 - 열정과 자존의 오백년 (in Korean). 들녘. ISBN 9791159250248. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "(2) 건국―호족들과의 제휴". 우리역사넷 (in Korean). National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Rossabi, Morris (1983-05-20). China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. University of California Press. p. 323. ISBN 9780520045620. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780674615762. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Kim, Djun Kil (2005-01-30). The History of Korea. ABC-CLIO. p. 57. ISBN 9780313038532. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Grayson, James H. (2013-11-05). Korea - A Religious History. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 9781136869259. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- 장덕호 (1 March 2015). "한반도 중심에 터 닦으니 화합·통합의 새시대 '활짝'". 중앙일보 (in Korean). JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- 박, 종기 (2015-08-24). 고려사의 재발견: 한반도 역사상 가장 개방적이고 역동적인 500년 고려 역사를 만나다 (in Korean). 휴머니스트. ISBN 9788958629023. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Ackermann, Marsha E.; Upshur, Jiu-Hwa Lo, eds. (2008). Encyclopedia of world history. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.
- Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0674615762. "When Parhae perished at the hands of the Khitan around this same time, much of its ruling class, who were of Koguryŏ descent, fled to Koryŏ. Wang Kŏn warmly welcomed them and generously gave them land. Along with bestowing the name Wang Kye ("Successor of the Royal Wang") on the Parhae crown prince, Tae Kwang-hyŏn, Wang Kŏn entered his name in the royal household register, thus clearly conveying the idea that they belonged to the same lineage, and also had rituals performed in honor of his progenitor. Thus Koryŏ achieved a true national unification that embraced not only the Later Three Kingdoms but even survivors of Koguryŏ lineage from the Parhae kingdom."
- 박종기 (2015). 고려사의 재발견: 한반도 역사상 가장 개방적이고 역동적인 500년 고려 역사를 만나다 (in Korean). 휴머니스트. ISBN 9788958629023. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- 박용운. "'고구려'와 '고려'는 같은 나라였다". 조선닷컴. Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "Parhae | historical state, China and Korea". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- 이기환 (22 June 2015). "[여적]태조 왕건이 낙타를 굶겨죽인 까닭". 경향신문 (in Korean). Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "왕건의 할아버지는 사생아였다?". M매거진 (in Korean). 매경닷컴. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Breuker 2010, pp. 220-221. "The Jurchen settlements in the Amnok River region had been tributaries of Koryŏ since the establishment of the dynasty, when T'aejo Wang Kŏn heavily relied on a large segment of Jurchen cavalry to defeat the armies of Later Paekche. The position and status of these Jurchen is hard to determine using the framework of the Koryŏ and Liao states as reference, since the Jurchen leaders generally took care to steer a middle course between Koryŏ and Liao, changing sides or absconding whenever that was deemed the best course. As mentioned above, Koryŏ and Liao competed quite fiercely to obtain the allegiance of the Jurchen settlers who in the absence of large armies effectively controlled much of the frontier area outside the Koryŏ and Liao fortifications. These Jurchen communities were expert in handling the tension between Liao and Koryŏ, playing out divide-and-rule policies backed up by threats of border violence. It seems that the relationship between the semi-nomadic Jurchen and their peninsular neighbours bore much resemblance to the relationship between Chinese states and their nomad neighbours, as described by Thomas Barfield."
- "丙申谕群臣曰:“平壤古都荒废虽久,基址尙存,而荆棘滋茂,蕃人游猎於其间,因而侵掠边邑,为害 大矣。 宜徙民实之以固藩屏为百世之利"(高丽史)
- "서경". 우리역사넷 (in Korean). National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, pp.102-103.
- Nahm 1988, p. 89.
- Twitchett, Denis C.; Franke, Herbert; Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780521243315. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Hatada, Smith Jr & Hazard 1969, p. 51f: "From ancient times, Korea has been directly affected by changes occurring in the adjoining part of Asia, and her fate has been intertwined with continental Asiatic affairs. For example, it was during the chaotic period on the continent coinciding with the end of T'ang and the Five Dynasties (907-960) in China that Wang Kŏn was able to found the new dynasty without interference from the continent. But once the unification of Korea was completed, tribute was immediately sent to the various states of the Five Dynasties, and when Sung unified China in 960, Koryŏ rendered tribute to Sung. In each case this was necessary to enhance the authority of the ruler of Korea by the support of the ruler of China. ..."
- Ebrey & Walthall 2014, , p. 171, at Google Books: "In the case of the Khitan Liao, two decades of military confrontation ended in 1020 with a negotiated settlement to transfer Goryeo’s vassal status from the Song to the Liao." "Liao forces invaded Goryeo territory in 993. ... the Khitans negotiated a peace that forced Goryeo to adopt the Liao calendar and end tributary relations with Song ... In 1010, on the pretext that the rightful king had been deposed without the approval of the Liao court, the Khitan emperor personally led an attack that culminated in the burning of the Goryeo capital. Several other confrontations followed until Goryeo reaffirmed its tributary relationship with Liao in 1020."
- Hyun 2013, p. 106: "the Khitan army attacked Goryeo, who was forced to accept the status of a Liao tributary in 994."
- Yun 1998, pp.63-65. Yun cites Goryeosa 3:27a6–7.
- Hatada, Smith Jr & Hazard 1969, p. 52: "In the thirteenth year of the reign of King Sŏngjong (994), Koryŏ submitted to the Khitan and adopted their calendar".
- Simons 1995, p. 95: "In 994, during the reign of King Songjong, Koryo was forced to acknowledged the dominance of Khitan".
- Yun 1998, p.64: "By the end of the negotiation, Sô Hûi had ... ostensibly for the purpose of securing safe diplomatic passage, obtained an explicit Khitan consent to incorporate the land between the Ch’ôngch’ôn and Amnok Rivers into Koryô territory."
- Kim, Djun Kil. The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN 9781610695824. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- “自契丹东京至我安北府数百里之地,皆为生女真所据。光宗取之,筑嘉州、松城等城,今契丹之来,其志不过取 北二城,其声言取高勾丽旧地者,实恐我也”(高丽史)
- Hyun 2013, p.106: "Even though the Goryeo court agreed to set up tribute exchanges with the Liao court, that same year [=994] it also sent an envoy to the Song court to appeal, but in vain, for military assistance against the Khitan."
- Bowman 2013, p. 203: "Fearful of plots against him, Mokchong summons Kang Cho from his administrative post in the northwest. However, Kang Cho himself engineers a successful coup in which Mokchong is assassinated."
- Bowman 2013, p. 203: "Liao initiates a fresh attack on Koryo's northern border with the ostensible purpose of avenging the murdered Mokchong."
- Ebrey & Walthall 2014, , p. 171, at Google Books: "In 1010, on the pretext that the rightful king had been deposed without the approval of the Liao court, the Khitan emperor personally led an attack that culminated in the burning of the Goryeo capital."
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p. 111.
- Simons 1995, p. 93: "a second Liao incursion resulted in heavy losses, the sacking of Kaesong, and the imposition of Liao suzerainty over the Koryo state." p. 95: "a prelude to more invasions during the reign of King Hyonjong (1010-1031) and the occupation of Kaesong, the Koryo capital."
- Hatada, Smith Jr & Hazard 1969, p. 52: "in the reign of King Hyŏnjong (1010-1031) there were numerous Khitan invasions, and even the capital Kaesŏng was occupied."
- Twitchett, Denis C.; Franke, Herbert; Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780521243315. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Twitchett, Denis C.; Franke, Herbert; Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780521243315. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
From 1015 to 1019 there was incessant warfare, with attacks on Koryŏ in 1015, 1016, and 1017 in which victory went sometimes to Koryŏ, sometimes to the Khitan, but in sum were indecisive.
- Twitchett, Denis C.; Franke, Herbert; Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 9780521243315. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
In 1018 a huge new expeditionary force was mobilized by the Khitan and placed under the command of Hsiao P'ai-ya. The army crossed the Yalu late in 1018 but was ambushed by a superior Koryŏ force, suffering severe losses. The Koryŏ army had also cut their line of retreat, and so Hsiao P'ai-ya marched south, planning to take the capital Kaegyŏng, as in 1011. But this time the Koreans had prepared defenses around the capital, and the Khitan, constantly harried by Korean attacks, were forced to retreat toward the Yalu. At Kuju, between the Ch'a and T'o rivers, they were encircled and attacked by the main Koryŏ forces, which almost annihilated the Khitan army. Only a few thousand men managed to return to the Liao border.
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p. 112.
- Hyun 2013, p.10.
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p.112: "When in 1031 Hyǒnjong died, his son and successor Wang Hǔm (Tǒkchong; r. 1031-4) was invested as king by the Liao court. From this date until almost the end of the Liao, Koryǒ remained a loyal vassal, and peace prevailed between the two states."
- Breuker, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. BRILL. p. 245. ISBN 978-9004183254. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Breuker, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. BRILL. p. 245. ISBN 978-9004183254. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
The absence of official contacts did not interrupt unofficial relations from blossoming. From the third decade of the eleventh century onwards, the Standard Koryŏ history records the arrival of hundreds of merchants each year and tens of well-educated Song émigrés, a situation which continued until the twelfth century. Relations between Koryŏ and the Song, then, from the 1030s to the 1080s were intensive and fruitful, except on the level of the state.
- Breuker, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. BRILL. p. 246. ISBN 978-9004183254. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Breuker, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. BRILL. p. 246. ISBN 978-9004183254. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Breuker, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. BRILL. p. 247. ISBN 978-9004183254. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Lee, Kenneth B. Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 9780275958237. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Bowman, John. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780231500043. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Breuker, Remco E. Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. BRILL. p. 137. ISBN 978-9004183254. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780674615762. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012-11-20). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 207. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland; West, Stephen H (1995). China Under Jurchen Rule. ISBN 9780791422731. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Franke, Herbert; Twitchett, Denis C; Fairbank, John King (1994-11-25). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States . ISBN 9780521243315. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Michael J. Seth (16 October 2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-7425-6717-7.
- Michael J. Seth (1 January 2006). A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-0-7425-4005-7.
- Matthew Bennett (January 1998). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient & Medieval Warfare. Taylor & Francis. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-1-57958-116-9.
- Haywood, John; Jotischky, Andrew; McGlynn, Sean (1998). Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600-1492. Barnes & Noble. p. 3.24. ISBN 978-0-7607-1976-3.
- Carlos Kenneth Quiñones; Joseph Tragert (26 January 2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding North Korea. Alpha Books. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-1-59257-169-7.
- Song-nae Pak, 《Science and Technology in Korean History:Excursions, Innovations, and Issues》, Jain Publishing Company, 2005. ISBN 0895818388 pp.69-70
- Edward J. Shultz, 《Generals and Scholars: Military Rule in Medieval Korea》, University of Hawaii Press, 2000. ISBN 0824823249 pp.9-10
- Edward 2000, p. 11.
- Edward 2000, pp.18-20
- S. Wise Bauer, 《The History of the Renaissance World:From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople》, W.W Norton&Company, 2013. ISBN 0393059766 pp.71-74
- Hyonhui Yi, Songsu Pak, Naehyon Yun, 《New History of Korea》, Jimoondang, 2005. ISBN 8988095855 p.336
- http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=b18a0209a |Daum Encyclopædia Britannica
- Edward 2000, p. 1.
- Djun Kil Kim, 《The History of Korea: 2nd edition》, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610695828, p.76
- Kyong-suk Kang, 《Korean Ceramics》, Korea Foundation, 2008. ISBN 8986090309 p.97
- Joseph P. Linskey, 《Korean Studies series》, Chimundang, 2003. ISBN 8988095499, p.43
- Edward 2000, p. 2.
- "Kim Chwi-ryeo". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
- Goryeosa: Volume 103. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
- Patricia Ebrey; Anne Walthall (1 January 2013). Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-1-133-60651-2.
- Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0674615762.
- Lee, Kenneth B. Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72. ISBN 9780275958237. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- 국방부 군사편찬연구소, 고려시대 군사 전략 (2006) (The Ministry of National Defense, Military Strategies in Goryeo)
- Currie, Lorenzo. Through the Eyes of the Pack. Xlibris Corporation. p. 181. ISBN 9781493145164. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- Ed. Morris Rossabi - China among equals: the Middle Kingdom and its neighbors, 10th-14th centuries, p.244
- The Mongols Co-opt the Turks to Rule All under Heaven: Crippled the Dual-System and Expelled by Chinese Rebellion by Wontack Hong
- Baasanjavyin Lkhagvaa-Solongos, Mongol-Solongosyin harilstaanii ulamjlalaas, p.172
- Hyun 2013, p.3: "The Goryeo ... sent tributary missions to the Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou successively, which Goryeo officials recognized as proper successors of the Tang, the new "centers" of China."
- Franke 1994, p. 229: "the king of Koryŏ declared himself a vassal of Chin in the summer of 1126."
- Ebrey & Walthall 2014, , p. 171, at Google Books: "In the case of the Jurchen Jin, the [Goryeo] court decided to transfer its tributary relationship from the Liao to Jin before serious violence broke out." Also p.172: "Koryŏ enrolled as a Jin tributary".
- Vermeersch, Sem. (2008). The Power of the Buddhas: the Politics of Buddhism during the Koryŏ Dynasty (918-1392), p. 3.
- Lee seung-yeon, 《On the formation of the Upper Monastic Area of Seon Buddhist Temples from Korea's Late Silla to the Goryeo Era》, Sungkyunkwan University, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. ISBN 3319000535 pp.7-9
- Hee-sung Keel, 《Chinul:The Founder of the Korean Son Tradition》, Jain Publishing Company, 1978. ISBN 0895811553. pp.6-10
- Shin ki-seop, 《Korea Annual》, Hapdong News Agency, p.76
- Djun Kil Kim, 《The History of Korea: 2nd edition》, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610695828, p.9
- Pyong-jo Chong, 《History of Buddhism》, Jimoondang, 2007. ISBN 8988095243 p.83
- Madhusudan Sakya, 〈Current Perspectives in Buddhism: Buddhism today / issues&global dimensions〉, Cyber Tech Publications, 2011. ISBN 8178847337. p.108
- Alexander Wynee, 《Buddhism: An Introduction》, I.B. Tauris, 2015. ISBN 1848853971 p.236
- Damien Keown, Charles S.Prebish, 《Encyclopedia of Buddhism》, Routledge, 2013. ISBN 1136985883 p.226
- Steven Heine, 《Like Cats and Dogs:Contesting the Mu Koan in Zen Buddhism》, OUP USA, 2013. ISBN 0199837309 p.82
- Sonja Vegdahl, Ben Hur, 《CultureShock! Korea: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette》, Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd, 2008. ISBN 9814408948 p.9
- Madhusudan Sakya, 〈Current Perspectives in Buddhism: Buddhism today / issues&global dimensions〉, Cyber Tech Publications, 2011. ISBN 8178847337. p.111
- Kim 2014, p. 64.
- John H.T., 〈Korea:Korean Cultural Insights〉, Korean National Tourism Organization, 2000. p.25
- Choong Soon Kim, 《Kimchi and IT:Tradition and Transformation in Korea》, Iljogak, 2007. ISBN 8933705287 p. 212
- Keith Pratt, Richard Rutt, James Hoare (1999). Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7007-0464-4.
- Jae-eun Kang, 《The Land of Scholars:Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism》, Home&Sekey Books, 2006. ISBN 1931907307, p.149
- Kim dae-hang, 《Classic Poetic Songs of Korea》, Ewha Womans University Press, 2009. ISBN 8973008439 p.51
- (Miya 2006; Miya 2007)
- Andrei Nikolaevich Lan Kov, 《The dawn of modern Korea: the transformation in life and cityscape》, Eunhang namu, 2007. ISBN 895660214X. p.266
- Sok-pong So, 《Brother Nations, Korea and Turkey:a history of Turkish soldiers' participation in the Korean War》, Ministry of Patriots & Veterans Affairs, 2007. p.31
- Grayson, James Huntley (2002). Korea: A Religious History. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-7007-1605-0.
- 〈Harvard Asia Quarterly〉, Vol.10 1-2, Harvard Asia Law Society, Harvard Asia Business Club and Asia at the Graduate school of Design, 2006. p.27
- "Moving beyond the green blur: a history of soju". JoongAng Daily.
- National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 〈Sul, Korean Alcoholic Beverages〉, 2013. ISBN 892990176X, p.25
- Michael J. Pettid, 《Korean Cuisine:An Illustrated History》, Reaktion Books, 2008. ISBN 1861893485 p.118
- Wood, Nigel. "Technological Parallels between Chinese Yue wares and Korean celadons." in Papers of the British Association for Korean Studies (BAKS Papers), vol 5. Gina Barnes and Beth McKillop, eds. London: British Association for Korean Studies, 1994; pp. 39-64.
- "Korean Classics : Asian Collections: An Illustrated Guide (Library of Congress - Asian Division)". Library of Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Gutenberg Bible". British Library. The British Library Board. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Korea, 1000–1400 A.D. | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Movable type - Oxford Reference". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne (2013-01-01). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1285528670. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "韩国剽窃活字印刷发明权只是第一步". news.ifeng.com.
- Pan Jixing, A history of movable metal type printing technique in China 2001, pp. 41-54
- The official history of Koryo, is printed by woodblock 1580.
- Kim, Jinwung (2012), A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict, Indiana University Press, ISBN 9780253000248, retrieved 8 February 2019
- Lee, Ki-Baik (1984), A New History of Korea, Harvard University Press, ISBN 9780674615762, retrieved 8 February 2019
- Rossabi, Morris (1983), China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries, University of California Press, ISBN 9780520045620, retrieved 8 February 2019
- Bowman, John Stewart (2013), Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, ISBN 978-0231500043
- Clark, Donald N. (1998), "Sino-Korean tributary relations under the Ming", in Twitchett, Denis; Mote Frederick W. (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Volume 8: The Ming Dynasty, 1368−1644, Part 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 272–300, ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne (2014), Pre-Modern East Asia: To 1800: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Third Edition, Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, ISBN 978-1-133-60651-2.
- Franke, Herbert (1994), "The Chin dynasty", in Franke, Herbert; Twitchett Denis (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Volume 6: Alien Regime and Border States, 907-1368, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 215–320, ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
- Hatada, Takashi; Smith Jr, Warren W.; Hazard, Benjamin H. (1969), A History of Korea, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, ISBN 978-0-87436-064-6.
- Hyun, Jeongwon (2013), Gift Exchange among States in East Asia during the Eleventh Century (Thesis (Ph.D.)), University of Washington, hdl:1773/24231.
- Nahm, Andrew C. (1988), Korea: Tradition & Transformation: A History of the Korean People, Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym, ISBN 978-0-930878-56-6.
- Rossabi, Morris (1994), "The reign of Khubilai khan", in Franke, Herbert; Twitchett Denis (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Volume 6: Alien Regime and Border States, 907-1368, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 414–489, ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
- Simons, Geoff (1995), Korea: The Search for Sovereignty, New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-12531-8.
- Twitchett, Denis; Tietze, Klaus-Peter (1994), "The Liao", in Franke, Herbert; Twitchett Denis (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, Volume 6: Alien Regime and Border States, 907-1368, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 43–153, ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
- Vermeersch, Sem. (2008). The Power of the Buddhas: the Politics of Buddhism during the Koryǒ Dynasty (918–1392). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674031883; OCLC 213407432
- Yun, Peter I. (1998), Rethinking the Tribute System: Korean States and northeast Asian Interstate Relations, 600-1600 (Thesis (Ph.D.)), University of California, Los Angeles, ISBN 9780599031203.
- Zhao, Quansheng (2003), "China and the Korean peace process", in Tae-Hwan Kwak; Seung-Ho Joo (eds.), The Korean Peace Process and the Four Powers, Hampshire: Ashgate, pp. 98–118, ISBN 978-0-7546-3653-3CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
- Rogers, Michael C.. 1959. "Factionalism and Koryŏ Policy Under the Northern Sung". Journal of the American Oriental Society 79 (1). American Oriental Society: 16–25. doi:10.2307/596304. https://www.jstor.org/stable/596304
- Rogers, Michael C.. 1961. "Some Kings of Koryo as Registered in Chinese Works". Journal of the American Oriental Society 81 (4). American Oriental Society: 415–422. doi:10.2307/595688. https://www.jstor.org/stable/595688