Gosei (五省 go-sei, lit., five reflections) are subjects for daily meditation at Japan's Naval Academy.
These reflections were originally devised by Vice Admiral Hajime Matsushita, who was the Chief of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy , and used from 1932 to its abolishment in 1945. Every evening cadets are expected to meditate on these inter-related questions.
- Hast thou not gone against sincerity (至誠に悖る勿かりしか)
- Hast thou not felt ashamed of thy words and deeds (言行に恥づる勿かりしか)
- Hast thou not lacked vigor (気力に缺くる勿かりしか)
- Hast thou exerted all possible efforts (努力に憾み勿かりしか)
- Hast thou not become slothful (不精に亘る勿かりしか)
The Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF), from its establishment in 1954, encourages the use of the Gosei as a self-reflective exercise during the course of daily living.
- Smith, Peter C. (2006). Fist from the Sky: Japan's Dive-Bomber Ace of World War II, p. 63., p. 63, at Google Books
- Kennedy, Maxwell T. (2009). Danger's Hour, p. 91., p. 91, at Google Books
- Kennedy, Maxwell Taylor. (2009). Danger's Hour: The Story of the USS Bunker Hill and the Kamikaze Pilot Who Crippled Her. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743260800; OCLC 259953844
- Smith, Peter C. (2006). Fist from the Sky: Japan's Dive-Bomber Ace of World War II. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole. ISBN 9780811733304; OCLC 70986720