The goth subculture is a subculture that began in England during the early 1980s, where it developed from the audience of gothic rock, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. The name, goth subculture, was derived directly from the music genre. Notable post-punk groups that presaged that genre and helped develop and shape the subculture, include Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Bauhaus and The Cure. The goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, and has continued to diversify and spread throughout the world. Its imagery and cultural proclivities indicate influences from 19th-century Gothic literature and gothic horror films. The scene is centered on music festivals, nightclubs and organized meetings, especially in Western Europe.
The goth subculture has associated tastes in music, aesthetics, and fashion. The music preferred by the goth subculture includes a number of different styles, e.g. gothic rock, death rock, post-punk, cold wave, dark wave, and ethereal wave. Styles of dress within the subculture draw on punk, new wave and new romantic fashion as well as fashion of earlier periods such as the Victorian and Edwardian eras (Belle Époque), or combinations of the above. The style usually includes dark attire (often black), darker makeup and black hair. The subculture continues to draw interest from a large audience decades after its emergence.
- 1 Music
- 2 Art, historical and cultural influences
- 3 Characteristics of the scene
- 4 Sociology
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
Origins and development
The term "gothic rock" was coined in 1967, by music critic John Stickney to describe a meeting he had with Jim Morrison in a dimly lit wine-cellar which he called "the perfect room to honor the Gothic rock of the Doors". That same year, Velvet Underground with a track like "All Tomorrow's Parties", created a kind of "mesmerizing gothic-rock masterpiece" according to music historian Kurt Loder. In the late 1970s, the "gothic" adjective was used to describe the atmosphere of post-punk bands like Siouxsie and the Banshees, Magazine, and Joy Division. In a live review about a Siouxsie and the Banshees' concert in July 1978, critic Nick Kent wrote that concerning their music, "parallels and comparisons can now be drawn with gothic rock architects like the Doors and, certainly, early Velvet Underground". In March 1979, in his review of Magazine's second album Secondhand Daylight, Kent noted that there was "a new austere sense of authority" in the music, with a "dank neo-Gothic sound". Later that year, the term was also used by Joy Division's manager, Tony Wilson on 15 September in an interview for the BBC TV programme's Something Else. Wilson described Joy Division as "gothic" compared to the pop mainstream, right before a live performance of the band. The term was later applied to "newer bands such as Bauhaus who had arrived in the wake of Joy Division and Siouxsie and the Banshees". Bauhaus's first single issued in 1979, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", is generally credited as the starting point of the gothic rock genre.
In 1979, Sounds described Joy Division as "Gothic" and "theatrical". In February 1980, Melody Maker qualified the same band as "masters of this Gothic gloom". Critic Jon Savage would later say that their singer Ian Curtis wrote "the definitive Northern Gothic statement". However, it was not until the early-1980s that gothic rock became a coherent music subgenre within post-punk, and that followers of these bands started to come together as a distinctly recognizable movement. They may have taken the "goth" mantle from a 1981 article published in UK rock weekly Sounds: "The face of Punk Gothique", written by Steve Keaton. In a text about the audience of UK Decay, Keaton asked: "Could this be the coming of Punk Gothique? With Bauhaus flying in on similar wings could it be the next big thing?" In July 1982, the opening of the Batcave in London's Soho provided a prominent meeting point for the emerging scene, which would be briefly labelled "positive punk" by the NME in a special issue with a front cover in early 1983. The term "Batcaver" was then used to describe old-school goths.
Independent from the British scene, in the late 1970s and early 1980s in California, deathrock developed as a distinct branch of American punk rock, with acts such as Christian Death and 45 Grave.
The bands that defined and embraced the gothic rock genre included Bauhaus,  early Adam and the Ants, the Cure, the Birthday Party, Southern Death Cult, Specimen, Sex Gang Children, UK Decay, Virgin Prunes, Killing Joke, and the Damned. Near the peak of this first generation of the gothic scene in 1983, The Face's Paul Rambali recalled that there were "several strong Gothic characteristics" in the music of Joy Division. In 1984, Joy Division's bassist Peter Hook named Play Dead as one of their heirs: "If you listen to a band like Play Dead, who I really like, Joy Division played the same stuff that Play Dead are playing. They're similar."
By the mid-1980s, bands began proliferating and became increasingly popular, including the Sisters of Mercy, the Mission, Alien Sex Fiend, the March Violets, Xmal Deutschland, the Membranes, and Fields of the Nephilim. Record labels like Factory, 4AD and Beggars Banquet released much of this music in Europe, and through a vibrant import music market in the US, the subculture grew, especially in New York and Los Angeles, California, where many nightclubs featured "gothic/industrial" nights. The popularity of 4AD bands resulted in the creation of a similar US label, Projekt, which produces what was colloquially termed ethereal wave, a subgenre of dark wave music.
The 1990s saw further growth for some 1980s bands and the emergence of many new acts, as well as new goth-centric U.S. record labels such as Cleopatra Records, among others. According to Dave Simpson of The Guardian, "in the 90s, goths all but disappeared as dance music became the dominant youth cult". As a result, the goth "movement went underground and mistaken for cyber goth, Shock rock, Industrial metal, Gothic metal, Medieval folk metal and the latest subgenre, horror punk". Marilyn Manson was seen as a "goth-shock icon" by Spin.
Art, historical and cultural influences
The Goth subculture of the 1980s drew inspiration from a variety of sources. Some of them were modern or contemporary, others were centuries-old or ancient. Michael Bibby and Lauren M. E. Goodlad liken the subculture to a bricolage. Among the music subcultures that influenced it were Punk, New wave, and Glam. But it also drew inspiration from B movies, Gothic literature, horror films, vampire cults and traditional mythology. Among the mythologies that proved influential in Goth were Celtic mythology, Christian mythology, Egyptian mythology, and various traditions of Paganism.
The figures that the movement counted among its historic canon of ancestors were equally diverse. They included the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Friedrich Nietzsche (1844‒1900), Comte de Lautréamont (1846‒1870), Salvador Dalí (1904‒1989) and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905‒1980). Writers that have had a significant influence on the movement also represent a diverse canon. They include Ann Radcliffe (1764‒1823), John William Polidori (1795‒1821), Edgar Allan Poe (1809‒1849), Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873), Bram Stoker (1847‒1912), Oscar Wilde (1854‒1900), H. P. Lovecraft (1890‒1937), Anne Rice (1941‒), William Gibson (1948‒), Ian McEwan (1948‒), Storm Constantine (1956‒), and Poppy Z. Brite (1967‒).
18th and 19th centuries
Gothic literature is a genre of fiction that combines romance and dark elements to produce mystery, suspense, terror, horror and the supernatural. According to David H. Richter, settings were framed to take place at "…ruinous castles, gloomy churchyards, claustrophobic monasteries, and lonely mountain roads". Typical characters consisted of the cruel parent, sinister priest, courageous victor, and the helpless heroine, along with supernatural figures such as demons, vampires, ghosts, and monsters. Often, the plot focused on characters ill-fated, internally conflicted, and innocently victimized by harassing malicious figures. In addition to the dismal plot focuses, the literary tradition of the gothic was to also focus on individual characters that were gradually going insane.
English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto is one of the first writers who explored this genre. The American Revolutionary War-era "American Gothic" story of the Headless Horseman, immortalized in "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (published in 1820) by Washington Irving, marked the arrival in the New World of dark, romantic storytelling. The tale was composed by Irving while he was living in England, and was based on popular tales told by colonial Dutch settlers of the Hudson Valley, New York. The story would be adapted to film in 1922, in 1949 as the animated The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, and again in 1999.
Throughout the evolution of the goth subculture, classic romantic, Gothic and horror literature has played a significant role. E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776–1822), Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849), Charles Baudelaire (1821–1867), H. P. Lovecraft (1890–1937), and other tragic and romantic writers have become as emblematic of the subculture as the use of dark eyeliner or dressing in black. Baudelaire, in fact, in his preface to Les Fleurs du mal (Flowers of Evil) penned lines that could serve as a sort of goth malediction:
C'est l'Ennui! —l'œil chargé d'un pleur involontaire,
Il rêve d'échafauds en fumant son houka.
Tu le connais, lecteur, ce monstre délicat,
—Hypocrite lecteur,—mon semblable,—mon frère!
It is Boredom! — an eye brimming with an involuntary tear,
He dreams of the gallows while smoking his water-pipe.
You know him, reader, this delicate monster,
—Hypocrite reader,—my twin,—my brother!
Visual art influences
The gothic subculture has influenced different artists—not only musicians—but also painters and photographers. In particular their work is based on mystic, morbid and romantic motifs. In photography and painting the spectrum varies from erotic artwork to romantic images of vampires or ghosts. There is a marked preference for dark colours and sentiments, similar to Gothic fiction. At the end of the 19th century, painters like John Everett Millais and John Ruskin invented a new kind of Gothic.
20th century influences
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Some people credit Jalacy "Screamin' Jay" Hawkins, perhaps best known for his 1956 song "I Put A Spell On You," as a foundation of modern goth style and music. Some people credit the band Bauhaus' first single "Bela Lugosi's Dead", released in August 1979, with the start of goth subculture.
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The British sitcom, The IT Crowd featured a recurring goth character named Richmond Avenal, played by Noel Fielding. Fielding said in an interview that he himself had been a goth at age fifteen and that he had a series of goth girlfriends. This was the first time he dabbled in makeup. Fielding said that he loved his girlfriends dressing him up.
Characteristics of the scene
Notable examples of goth icons include several bandleaders: Siouxsie Sioux, of Siouxsie and the Banshees; Robert Smith, of The Cure; Peter Murphy, of Bauhaus; Rozz Williams, of Christian Death; Olli Wisdom, leader of the band Specimen and keyboardist Jonathan Melton aka Jonny Slut, who both evolved the Batcave style); Ian Curtis, of Joy Division; and Dave Vanian, of The Damned. Some members of Bauhaus were, themselves, fine art students or active artists. Nick Cave was dubbed as "the grand lord of gothic lushness". Nico is also a notable icon of goth fashion and music, with pioneering records like The Marble Index and Desertshore and the persona she adopted after their release.
One female role model is Theda Bara, the 1910s femme fatale known for her dark eyeshadow. In 1977, Karl Lagerfeld hosted the Soirée Moratoire Noir party, specifying "tenue tragique noire absolument obligatoire" (black tragic dress absolutely required). The event included elements associated with leatherman style.
African and Caribbean influences on gothic style are often missing from conversations: Jalacy "Screamin' Jay" Hawkins used voodoo imagery mixed with "spooky theatrics" to create a unique style, positioning him as one of the first goths.  He would often use onstage props that reflected his goth and voodoo style, such as skulls, staffs, candles, tombstones, and bones.
Siouxsie Sioux was particularly influential on the dress style of the Gothic rock scene; Paul Morley of NME described Siouxsie and the Banshees' 1980 gig at Futurama: "[Siouxsie was] modeling her newest outfit, the one that will influence how all the girls dress over the next few months. About half the girls at Leeds had used Sioux as a basis for their appearance, hair to ankle." Robert Smith, Musidora, Bela Lugosi, Bettie Page, Vampira, Morticia Addams, Nico, Rozz Williams, David Bowie, Lux Interior, Dave Vanian, are also style icons.
The 1980s established designers such as Drew Bernstein of Lip Service, while the 1990s saw a surge of US-based gothic fashion designers, many of whom continue to evolve the style through the current day. Style magazines such as Gothic Beauty have given repeat features to a select few gothic fashion designers who began their labels in the 1990s, such as Kambriel, Rose Mortem, and Tyler Ondine of Heavy Red.
Gothic fashion is marked by conspicuously dark, antiquated and homogeneous features. It is stereotyped as eerie, mysterious, complex and exotic. A dark, sometimes morbid fashion and style of dress, typical gothic fashion includes colored black hair and black period-styled clothing. Both male and female goths can wear dark eyeliner and dark fingernail polish, most especially black. Styles are often borrowed from punk fashion and − more currently − from the Victorian and Elizabethan periods. It also frequently expresses pagan, occult or other religious imagery. Gothic fashion and styling may also feature silver jewelry and piercings.
Ted Polhemus described goth fashion as a "profusion of black velvets, lace, fishnets and leather tinged with scarlet or purple, accessorized with tightly laced corsets, gloves, precarious stilettos and silver jewelry depicting religious or occult themes". Of the male "goth look", goth historian Pete Scathe draws a distinction between the Sid Vicious archetype of black spiky hair and black leather jacket, in contrast to the gender-ambiguous guys wearing makeup. The first is the early goth gig-going look, which was essentially punk, whereas the second is what evolved into the Batcave nightclub look. Early goth gigs were often very hectic affairs, and the audience dressed accordingly.
In contrast to the LARP-based Victorian and Elizabethan pomposity of the 2000s, the more Romantic side of 1980s trad-goth − mainly represented by women − was characterized by new wave/post-punk-oriented hairstyles (both long and short, partly shaved and teased) and street-compliant clothing, including black frill blouses, midi dresses or tea-length skirts, and floral lace tights, Dr. Martens, spike heels (pumps), and pointed toe buckle boots (winklepickers), sometimes supplemented with accessories such as bracelets, chokers and bib necklaces. This style, retroactively referred to as Ethergoth, took its inspiration from Siouxsie Sioux and mid-1980s protagonists from the 4AD roster like Liz Fraser and Lisa Gerrard.
The New York Times noted: "The costumes and ornaments are a glamorous cover for the genre's somber themes. In the world of Goth, nature itself lurks as a malign protagonist, causing flesh to rot, rivers to flood, monuments to crumble and women to turn into slatterns, their hair streaming and lipstick askew".
Goth fashion has a reciprocal relationship with the fashion world. In the later part of the first decade of the 21st century, designers such as Alexander McQueen, Anna Sui, Rick Owens, Gareth Pugh, Ann Demeulemeester, Philipp Plein, Hedi Slimane, John Richmond, John Galliano, Olivier Theyskens and Yohji Yamamoto brought elements of goth to runways. This was described as "Haute Goth" by Cintra Wilson in the New York Times.
Thierry Mugler, Claude Montana, Jean Paul Gaultier and Christian Lacroix have also been associated with the fashion trend. In Spring 2004, Riccardo Tisci, Jean Paul Gaultier, Raf Simons and Stefano Pilati dressed their models as "glamorous ghouls dressed in form-fitting suits and coal-tinted cocktail dresses". Swedish designer Helena Horstedt and jewelry artist Hanna Hedman also practice a goth aesthetic.
Gothic styling often goes hand in hand with aesthetics, authenticity and expression, and is mostly considered to be an "artistical concept". Clothes are frequently self-designed.
In recent times, especially in the course of commercialization of parts of the Goth subculture, many non-involved people developed an interest in dark fashion styles and started to adopt elements of Goth clothing (primarily mass-produced goods from malls) without being connected to subcultural basics, e.g. goth music and the history of the subculture. Within the Goth movement they have been regularly described as poseurs or mallgoths. (see also section Identity).
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Some of the early gothic rock and deathrock artists adopted traditional horror film images and drew on horror film soundtracks for inspiration. Their audiences responded by adopting appropriate dress and props. Use of standard horror film props like swirling smoke, rubber bats, and cobwebs featured as gothic club décor from the beginning in The Batcave. Such references in bands' music and images were originally tongue-in-cheek, but as time went on, bands and members of the subculture took the connection more seriously. As a result, morbid, supernatural and occult themes became more noticeably serious in the subculture. The interconnection between horror and goth was highlighted in its early days by The Hunger, a 1983 vampire film starring David Bowie, Catherine Deneuve and Susan Sarandon. The film featured gothic rock group Bauhaus performing Bela Lugosi's Dead in a nightclub. Tim Burton created a storybook atmosphere filled with darkness and shadow in some of his films like Beetlejuice (1988), Batman (1989), Edward Scissorhands (1990), and the stop motion films The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993), which was produced/co-written by Burton, and Corpse Bride (2005), which he co-produced. The Nickelodean cartoon Invader Zim is also based off the goth subculture.
As the subculture became well-established, the connection between goth and horror fiction became almost a cliché, with goths quite likely to appear as characters in horror novels and film. For example, The Craft, The Crow, The Matrix and Underworld film series drew directly on goth music and style. The dark comedies Beetlejuice, The Faculty, American Beauty, Wedding Crashers, the Nickelodean cartoon The Loud House, and a few episodes of the animated TV show South Park portray or parody the goth subculture. In South Park, several of the fictional schoolchildren are depicted as goths. The goth kids on the show are depicted as finding it annoying to be confused with the Hot Topic "vampire" kids from the episode "The Ungroundable" in season 12. and even more frustrating to be compared with emo kids. The goth kids are usually depicted listening to goth music, writing or reading Gothic poetry, drinking coffee, flipping their hair and smoking.
Books and magazines
A prominent American literary influence on the gothic scene was provided by Anne Rice's re-imagining of the vampire in 1976. In The Vampire Chronicles, Rice's characters were depicted as self-tormentors who struggled with alienation, loneliness, and the human condition. Not only did the characters torment themselves, but they also depicted a surreal world that focused on uncovering its splendor. These Chronicles assumed goth attitudes, but they were not intentionally created to represent the gothic subculture. Their romance, beauty, and erotic appeal attracted many goth readers, making her works popular from the 1980s through the 1990s. While Goth has embraced Vampire literature both in its 19th-century form and in its later incarnations, Rice's postmodern take on the vampire mythos has had a "special resonance" in the subculture. Her vampire novels feature intense emotions, period clothing, and "cultured decadence". Her vampires are socially alienated monsters, but they are also stunningly attractive. Rice's goth readers tend to envision themselves in much the same terms and view characters like Lestat de Lioncourt as role models.
Richard Wright's novel Native Son contains gothic imagery and themes that demonstrate the links between blackness and the gothic; themes and images of "premonitions, curses, prophecies, spells, veils, demonic possessions, graves, skeletons" are present, suggesting gothic influence. Other classic themes of the gothic are present in the novel, such as transgression and unstable identities of race, class, gender, and nationality. 
The re-imagining of the vampire continued with the release of Poppy Z. Brite's book Lost Souls in October 1992. Despite the fact that Brite's first novel was criticized by some mainstream sources for allegedly "lack[ing] a moral center: neither terrifyingly malevolent supernatural creatures nor (like Anne Rice's protagonists) tortured souls torn between good and evil, these vampires simply add blood-drinking to the amoral panoply of drug abuse, problem drinking and empty sex practiced by their human counterparts", many of these so-called "human counterparts" identified with the teen angst and goth music references therein, keeping the book in print. Upon release of a special 10th anniversary edition of Lost Souls, Publishers Weekly—the same periodical that criticized the novel's "amorality" a decade prior—deemed it a "modern horror classic" and acknowledged that Brite established a "cult audience".
Neil Gaiman's graphic novel series The Sandman influenced goths with characters like the dark, brooding Dream and his sister Death. The 2002 release 21st Century Goth by Mick Mercer, an author, noted music journalist and leading historian of gothic rock, explored the modern state of the goth scene around the world, including South America, Japan, and mainland Asia. His previous 1997 release, Hex Files: The Goth Bible, similarly took an international look at the subculture.
In the US, Propaganda was a gothic subculture magazine founded in 1982. In Italy, Ver Sacrum covers the Italian goth scene, including fashion, sexuality, music, art and literature. Some magazines, such as the now-defunct Dark Realms and Goth Is Dead included goth fiction and poetry. Other magazines cover fashion (e.g., Gothic Beauty); music (e.g., Severance) or culture and lifestyle (e.g., Althaus e-zine).
31 October 2011 ECW Press published the Encyclopedia Gothica written by author and poet Liisa Ladouceur with illustrations done by Gary Pullin. This non-fiction book describes over 600 words and phrases relevant to Goth subculture.
Visual contemporary graphic artists with this aesthetic include Gerald Brom, Dave McKean, and Trevor Brown as well as illustrators Edward Gorey, Charles Addams, Lorin Morgan-Richards, and James O'Barr. The artwork of Polish surrealist painter Zdzisław Beksiński is often described as gothic. British artist Anne Sudworth published a book on gothic art in 2007.
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The goth scene continues to exist in the 2010s. In Western Europe, there are large annual festivals in Germany, including Wave-Gotik-Treffen (Leipzig) and M'era Luna (Hildesheim), both annually attracting tens of thousands of attendees. Famous Castle PArty is the biggest festival in Poland . The Lumous Gothic Festival (more commonly known as Lumous) is the largest festival dedicated to the goth subculture in Finland and the northernmost gothic festival in the world. The Ukrainian festival "Deti Nochi: Chorna Rada" (Children of the night) is the biggest gothic event in Ukraine. Goth events like "Ghoul School" and "Release the Bats" promote deathrock and are attended by fans from many countries, and events such as the Drop Dead Festival in the US attract attendees from over 30 countries. In England, Whitby Goth Weekend is a music festival held twice a year in Whitby, North Yorkshire. In the US, events such as Bats Day in the Fun Park celebrate the culture, as well as the Goth Cruise, and the Gothic Cruise.
In the 1980s, goths decorated their walls and ceiling with black fabrics and accessories like rosaries, crosses and plastic roses. Black furniture and cemetery-related objects like candlesticks, death lanterns and skulls. In the 1990s the interior design approach of the 1980s was replaced by a less macabre style.
Gender and sexuality
Since the late 1970s, the UK goth scene refused "traditional standards of sexual propriety" and accepted and celebrated "unusual, bizarre or deviant sexual practices". In the 2000s, many members "... claim overlapping memberships in the queer, polyamorous, bondage-discipline/sadomasochism, and pagan communities".
Though sexual empowerment is not unique to women in the goth scene, it remains an important part of many goth women's experience: The "... [s]cene's celebration of active sexuality" enables goth women "... to resist mainstream notions of passive femininity". They have an "active sexuality" approach which creates "gender egalitarianism" within the scene, as it "allows them to engage in sexual play with multiple partners while sidestepping most of the stigma and dangers that women who engage in such behavior" outside the scene frequently incur, while continuing to "... see themselves as strong".
Men dress up in androgynous way: "... Men 'gender blend,' wearing makeup and skirts". In contrast, the "... women are dressed in sexy feminine outfits" that are "... highly sexualized" and which often combine "... corsets with short skirts and fishnet stockings". Androgyny is common among the scene: "... androgyny in Goth subcultural style often disguises or even functions to reinforce conventional gender roles". It was only "valorised" for male goths, who adopt a "feminine" appearance, including "make-up, skirts and feminine accessories" to "enhance masculinity" and facilitate traditional heterosexual courting roles.
While goth is "considered a music-based scene", "... to be Goth implies much more than shared musical tastes; it is ... an 'aesthetic,' a particular way of seeing and of being seen". Observers have raised the issue of to what degree individuals are truly members of the goth subculture. On one end of the spectrum is the "Uber goth", a person who is described as seeking a pallor so much that he or she applies "... as much white foundation and white powder as possible". On the other end of the spectrum another writer terms "poseurs": "goth wannabes, usually young kids going through a goth phase who do not hold to goth sensibilities but want to be part of the goth crowd..". It has been said that a "mall goth" is a teen who dresses in a goth style and spends time in malls with a Hot Topic store, but who does not know much about the goth subculture or its music, thus making him or her a poseur. In one case, even a well-known performer has been labelled with the pejorative term: a "number of goths, especially those who belonged to this subculture before the late-1980s, reject Marilyn Manson as a poseur who undermines the true meaning of goth".
Media and academic commentary
The BBC described academic research that indicated that goths are "refined and sensitive, keen on poetry and books, not big on drugs or anti-social behaviour". Teens often stay in the subculture "into their adult life", and they are likely to become well-educated and enter professions such as medicine or law. The subculture carries on appealing to teenagers who are looking for meaning and for identity. The scene teaches teens that there are difficult aspects to life that you "have to make an attempt to understand" or explain.
The Guardian reported that a "glue binding the [goth] scene together was drug use"; however, in the scene, drug use was varied. Goth is one of the few subculture movements that is not associated with a single drug, in the way that the Hippie subculture is associated with cannabis and the Mod subculture is associated with amphetamines. A 2006 study of young goths found that those with higher levels of goth identification had higher drug use.
Media perceptions on violence and self-harm
The goth scene is often described as non-violent. However, two non peer-reviewed studies by the A.S.H.A.[who?] concluded a higher than average propensity toward violence, and for one of the papers, self-harm, within the goth subculture.
In the weeks following the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, media reports about the teen gunmen, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, portrayed them as part of a gothic cult. An increased suspicion of goth subculture subsequently manifested in the media. This led to a moral panic over teen involvement in goth subculture and a number of other activities, such as violent video games. Harris and Klebold had initially been thought to be members of "The Trenchcoat Mafia"; an informal club within Columbine High School. Later, such characterizations were considered incorrect.
Media reported that the gunman in the 2006 Dawson College shooting in Montreal, Quebec, Kimveer Singh Gill, was interested in goth subculture. Gill's self-professed love of Goth culture was the topic of media interest, and it was widely reported that the word "Goth", in Gill's writings, was a reference to the alternative industrial and goth subculture rather than a reference to gothic rock music. Gill, who committed suicide after the attack, wrote in his online journal: "I'm so sick of hearing about jocks and preps making life hard for the goths and others who look different, or are different". Gill described himself in his profile on Vampirefreaks.com as "... Trench ... the Angel of Death" and he stated that "Metal and Goth kick ass". An image gallery on Gill's Vampirefreaks.com blog had photos of him pointing a gun at the camera or wearing a long black trench coat.
Mick Mercer stated that Gill was "not a Goth. Never a Goth. The bands he listed as his chosen form of ear-bashing were relentlessly metal and standard grunge, rock and goth metal, with some industrial presence". Mercer stated that "Kimveer Gill listened to metal", "He had nothing whatsoever to do with Goth" and further commented "I realise that like many Neos [neophyte], Kimveer Gill may even have believed he somehow was a Goth, because they're [Neophytes] only really noted for spectacularly missing the point".
Prejudice and violence directed at goths
In part because of public misunderstanding surrounding gothic aesthetics, people in the goth subculture sometimes suffer prejudice, discrimination, and intolerance. As is the case with members of various other subcultures and alternative lifestyles, outsiders sometimes marginalize goths, either by intention or by accident. Actress Christina Hendricks talked of being bullied as a goth at school and how difficult it was for her to deal with societal pressure: "Kids can be pretty judgmental about people who are different. But instead of breaking down and conforming, I stood firm. That is also probably why I was unhappy. My mother was mortified and kept telling me how horrible and ugly I looked. Strangers would walk by with a look of shock on their face, so I never felt pretty. I just always felt awkward". Prejudice moves people into circles of bonding where they share these similar experiences and are accepted. Young goths have to define themselves and learn beauty is an aspect of cultural relativism.
On 11 August 2007, a couple walking through Stubbylee Park in Bacup (Lancashire) were attacked by a group of teenagers because they were goths. Sophie Lancaster subsequently died from her injuries. On 29 April 2008, two teens, Ryan Herbert and Brendan Harris, were convicted for the murder of Lancaster and given life sentences; three others were given lesser sentences for the assault on her boyfriend Robert Maltby. In delivering the sentence, Judge Anthony Russell stated, "This was a hate crime against these completely harmless people targeted because their appearance was different to yours". He went on to defend the goth community, calling goths "perfectly peaceful, law-abiding people who pose no threat to anybody". Judge Russell added that he "recognised it as a hate crime without Parliament having to tell him to do so and had included that view in his sentencing". Despite this ruling, a bill to add discrimination based on subculture affiliation to the definition of hate crime in British law was not presented to parliament.
In 2013, police in Manchester announced they would be treating attacks on members of alternative subcultures, like goths, the same as they do for attacks based on race, religion, and sexual orientation.
A study published on the British Medical Journal concluded that "identification as belonging to the Goth subculture [at some point in their lives] was the best predictor of self harm and attempted suicide [among young teens]", and that it was most possibly due to a selection mechanism (persons that wanted to harm themselves later identified as goths, thus raising the percentage of those persons who identify as goths). According to The Guardian, some goth teens are at more likely to harm themselves or attempt suicide. A medical journal study of 1,300 Scottish schoolchildren until their teen years found that the 53% of the goth teens had attempted to harm themselves and 47% had attempted suicide. The study found that the "correlation was stronger than any other predictor". The study was based on a sample of 15 teenagers who identified as goths, of which 8 had self-harmed by any method, 7 had self-harmed by cutting, scratching or scoring, and 7 had attempted suicide.
The authors held that most self-harm by teens was done before joining the subculture, and that joining the subculture would actually protect them and help them deal with distress in their lives. The authors insisted on the study being based on small numbers and on the need of replication to confirm the results. The study was criticized for using only a small sample of goth teens and not taking into account other influences and differences between types of goths; by taking a study from a larger number of people.
- History of modern Western subcultures
- List of gothic festivals
- List of gothic rock artists
- Visual kei
- Nym, Alexander: Schillerndes Dunkel. Geschichte, Entwicklung und Themen der Gothic-Szene, Plöttner Verlag 2010, ISBN 3-862-11006-0, pp. 145−169
- Farin, Klaus; Wallraff, Kirsten; Archiv der Jugendkulturen e.V., Berlin (1999). Die Gothics: Interviews, Fotografien (Orig.-Ausg. ed.). Bad Tölz: Tilsner. p. 23. ISBN 9783933773098.
- John Stickney (24 October 1967). "Four Doors To The Future: Gothic Rock Is Their Thing". The Williams Record. Posted at "The Doors : Articles & Reviews Year 1967". Mildequator.com. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
"The Doors are not pleasant, amusing hippies proffering a grin and a flower; they wield a knife with a cold and terrifying edge. The Doors are closely akin to the national taste for violence, and the power of their music forces each listener to realize what violence is in himself".... "The Doors met New York for better or for worse at a press conference in the gloomy vaulted wine cellar of the Delmonico hotel, the perfect room to honor the Gothic rock of the Doors".
- Loder, Kurt (December 1984). V.U. (album liner notes). Verve Records.
- Kent, Nick (29 July 1978). "Banshees make the Breakthrough live review - London the Roundhouse 23 July 1978". NME.
- Kent, Nick (31 March 1979). "Magazine's Mad Minstrels Gains Momentum (Album review)". NME. p. 31.
- "Something Else [featuring Joy Division]". BBC television [archive added on youtube]. 15 September 1979.
Because it is unsettling, it is like sinister and gothic, it won't be played. [interview of Joy Division's manager Tony Wilson next to Joy Division's drummer Stephen Morris from 3:31]
- Reynolds 2005, p. 352.
- Reynolds 2005, p. 432.
- De Moines (26 October 1979). "Live review by Des Moines (Joy Division Leeds)". Sounds.
Curtis may project like an ambidextrous barman puging his physical hang-ups, but the 'Gothic dance music' he orchestrates is well-understood by those who recognise their New Wave frontiersmen and know how to dance the Joy Division! A theatrical sense of timing, controlled improvisation...
- Bohn, Chris. "Northern gloom: 2 Southern stomp: 1. (Joy Division: University of London Union – Live Review)". Melody Maker (16 February 1980).
Joy Division are masters of this Gothic gloom
- Savage, Jon (July 1994). "Joy Division: Someone Take These Dreams Away". Mojo via Rock's Backpages (subscription required). Retrieved 10 July 2014.
a definitive Northern Gothic statement: guilt-ridden, romantic, claustrophobic
- Keaton, Steve (21 February 1981). "The Face Of Punk Gothique". Sounds.
- Johnson, David (February 1983). "69 Dean Street: The Making of Club Culture". The Face (issue 34, page 26, republished at Shapersofthe80s). Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- North, Richard (19 February 1983). "Punk Warriors". NME.
- Ohanesian, Liz (4 November 2009). "The LA Deathrock Starter Guide". LA Weekly. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Reynolds 2005, p. 429.
- Reynolds 2005, p. 421.
- Mason, Stewart. "Pornography – The Cure : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards : AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Reynolds 2005, p. 431.
- Reynolds 2005, p. 435.
- Rambali, Paul. "A Rare Glimpse Into A Private World". The Face (July 1983).
Curtis' death wrapped an already mysterious group in legend. From the press eulogies, you would think Curtis had gone to join Chatterton, Rimbaud and Morrison in the hallowed hall of premature harvests. To a group with several strong Gothic characteristics was added a further piece of romance.
- Houghton, Jayne (June 1984). "Crime Pays!". ZigZag. p. 21.
- Simpson, Dave (29 September 2006). "Back in black: Goth has risen from the dead - and the 1980s pioneers are (naturally) not happy about it". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Klosterman, Chuck (June 2003), "Who: Marilyn Manson", Spin
- Goodlad & Bibby 2007.
- Richter 1987.
- Koszarski 1994, p. 140.
- "The American Film Institute, catalog of motion pictures, Volume 1, Part 1, Feature films 1941-1950, The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr Toad"
- Roger Ebert (19 November 1999). "Sleepy Hollow". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- Simpson, Dave (29 September 2006). "Back in black: Goth has risen from the dead - and the 1980s pioneers are (naturally) not happy about it". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014. "Severin admits his band (Siouxsie and the Banshees) pored over gothic literature - Edgar Allan Poe and Charles Baudelaire".
- Goodlad & Bibby 2007, p. 14.
- Kilpatrick 2004, p. 210.
- Spuybroek 2011, p. 42.
- Kilpatrick, Nancy (2004). The goth Bible: A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. New York: Saint Martin's Griffin. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-312-30696-0.
- Noel Fielding: rocking a new look. The Guardian. Author - Simon Hattenstone. Published 1 February 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Johnson, David (1 February 1983). "69 Dean Street: The Making of Club Culture". The Face (issue 34, page 26, republished at Shapersofthe80s.com). Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Harriman, Andi; Bontje, Marloes: Some Wear Leather, Some Wear Lace. The Worldwide Compendium of Postpunk and Goth in the 1980s, Intellect Books 2014, ISBN 1-783-20352-8, p. 66
- Stevens, Jenny (15 February 2013). "Push The Sky Away". NME. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Hannaham 1997, p. 93
- Steele & Park 2008, p. 26
- Steele & Park 2008, p. 35
- Reynolds, p. 425.
- Hannaham 1997, p. 113
- Steele & Park 2008, p. 18
- Grunenberg 1997, p. 172
- Steele & Park 2008, p. 38
- Holiday, Steven (12 December 2014). "Gothic Beauty". Portland, OR: Holiday Media. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- La Ferla, Ruth (30 October 2005). "Embrace the Darkness". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- Eric Lipton Disturbed Shooters Weren't True Goth from the Chicago Tribune, 27 April 1999
- Polhemus, Ted (1994). Street Style. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 97. Cited in Mellins 2013, pp. 17–18.
- "An Early History of Goth". Pete Scathe. 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Aurelio Voltaire Hernandez: What Is Goth?, Publishers Group UK, ISBN 1-578-63322-2
"Serene, thoughtful and creative, ethergoths are defined by their affinity ... darkwave and classically inspired Gothic music. Ethergoths are more likely to be found sipping tea, writing poetry and listening to the Cocteau Twins than jumping up and down at a club."
- Wilson, Cintra (17 September 2008). "You just can't kill it". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
- Grunenberg 1997, p. 173
- Steele & Park 2008, p. 3
- Bolton, Andrew (2013). Anna Sui. New York: Chronicle Books. pp. 100–109. ISBN 978-1452128597 – via Google Books.
- La Ferla, Ruth: "Embrace the Darkness". New York Times, 30 October 2005. 
- Johanna Lenander, "Swede and Sour: Scandinavian Goth," New York Times: T Magazine, 27 March 2009.  Access date: 29 March 2009.
- Nancy Kilpatrick. Goth Bible: A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. St. Martin's Griffin, 2004, p. 24
- Ladouceur 2011, pp. 137–138.
- Modell, Josh (2008-11-19). "The Ungroundable". The A.V. Club.
- Fickett, Travis (2008-11-20). "IGN: The Ungroundable Review". IGN. News Corporation. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Modell, Josh (2008-11-19). "The Ungroundable". The A.V. Club.
- "FAQ Archives: Why aren't the goth kids in the class w/ the rest of the kids when they show them all at their desk?". South Park Studios. 6 May 2004. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Jones 2015, pp. 179–204.
- Smethurst, James (Spring 2001). "Invented by Horror: The Gothic and African American Literary Ideology in Native Son". African American Review. 35: 29–30. doi:10.2307/2903332. JSTOR 2903332.
- "firction reviews: Lost Souls by Poppy Z. Brite". publishersweekly.com. 31 August 1992. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Fiction review: The American Fantasy Tradition by Brian M. Thomsen". publishersweekly.com. 1 September 2002. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Blu Interview with Mick Mercer Starvox.net
- Kyshah Hell Interview with Mick Mercer Morbidoutlook.com
- Mick Mercer Archived 9 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine Broken Ankle Books
- Dark Realms
- Liisa., Ladouceur (2011). Encyclopedia Gothica. Pullin, Gary. Toronto: ECW Press. ISBN 978-1770410244. OCLC 707327955.
- "Book Review: Encyclopedia Gothica, by Liisa Ladouceur". National Post. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Rouner, Jef (28 October 2011). "Encyclopedia Gothica: Liisa Ladouceur Explains It All". Houston Press. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "Book Review: 'Encyclopedia Gothica' - Liisa Ladouceur - Terrorizer". Terrorizer. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "REVIEW: Encyclopedia Gothica - Macleans.ca". Macleans.ca. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "The Cursed Paintings of Zdzisław Beksiński". Culture.pl. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- Sudworth 2007.
- "Festival Website".
- "Gothic room furnishings".
- Siegel 2007, p. 350.
- Wilkins 2004.
- Wilkins 2004, p. 329.
- Spooner, Catherine (28 May 2009). "Goth Culture: Gender, Sexuality and Style". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Goodlad & Bibby 2007, p. 36.
- Kilpatrick 2004, p. 24.
- Ladouceur 2011.
- Siegel 2007, p. 344.
- Winterman, Denise. "Upwardly gothic". BBC News Magazine.
- Morgan, Fiona (16 December 1998). "The devil in your family room". Salon. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Young, Sweeting & West 2006.
- "Goth subculture may protect vulnerable children". New Scientist. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- Pokhrel et al. 2010; Rutledge, Rimer & Scott 2008.
- Goldberg, Carey (1 May 1999). "For Those Who Dress Differently, an Increase in Being Viewed as Abnormal". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Janelle Brown (23 April 1999). "Doom, Quake and mass murder". Salon. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
- Cullen, Dave (23 September 1999). "Inside the Columbine High investigation". Salon. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- 14 September 2006. Shooting by Canadian trench coat killer affects industrial / goth scene Side-line.com. Retrieved on 13 March 2007.
- "Chronologie d'un folie (Kimveer's online Journal)". La Presse. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- CBC News: Montreal gunman called himself 'angel of death'
- canada.com Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Mick Mercer Mick Mercer talks about Kimveer Gill[permanent dead link] mickmercer.livejournal.com
- Goldberg, Carey (1 May 1999). "Terror in Littleton: The Shunned; For Those Who Dress Differently, an Increase in Being Viewed as Abnormal". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Goth couple badly hurt in attack". BBC News-UK. 11 August 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Byrne, Paul (29 April 2008). "Life jail trms for teenage thugs who killed goth girl". dailyrecord.co.uk. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Pilling, Kim (29 April 2008). "Two teenagers sentenced to life over murder of Goth". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Henfield, Sally (29 April 2008). "Sophie's family and friends vow to carry on campaign". lancashiretelegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Smyth, Catherine (4 April 2008). "Call for hate crimes law change". manchestereveningnews.co.uk. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Manchester goths get police protection". 3 News NZ. 5 April 2013. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
- Polly Curtis and John Carvel. "Teen goths more prone to suicide, study shows". The Guardian, Friday 14 April 2006
- "Goths 'more likely to self-harm'". BBC. 13 April 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Gaia Vince (14 April 2006). "Goth subculture may protect vulnerable children". New Scientist. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Taubert, Mark; Kandasamy, Jothy (2006). "Self Harm in Goth Youth Subculture: Conclusion Relates Only to Small Sample". BMJ (letter to the editor). 332 (7551): 1216. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7551.1216. PMC 1463972. PMID 16710018.
- Phillipov, Michelle (2006). "Self Harm in Goth Youth Subculture: Study Merely Reinforces Popular Stereotypes". BMJ (letter to the editor). 332 (7551): 1215–1216. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7551.1215-b. PMC 1463947. PMID 16710012.
- Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick (2006). "Self Harm in Goth Youth Subculture: Authors' Reply". BMJ (letter to the editor). 332 (7553): 1335. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7553.1335-a. PMC 1473089. PMID 16740576.
- Goodlad, Lauren M. E.; Bibby, Michael (2007). "Introduction". In Goodlad, Lauren M. E.; Bibby, Michael (eds.). Goth: Undead Subculture. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. pp. 1–37. ISBN 978-0-8223-8970-5.
- Jones, Timothy (2015). The Gothic and the Gothic Carnivalesque in American Culture. Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-1-78316-230-7. JSTOR j.ctt17w8hdq.
- Kilpatrick, Nancy (2004). Goth Bible: A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-30696-0.
- Koszarski, Richard (1994). An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915–1928. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08535-0.
- Ladouceur, Liisa (2011). Encyclopedia Gothica. Illustrated by Pullin, Gary. Toronto: ECW Press.
- Mellins, Maria (2013). Vampire Culture. London: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-4725-0385-5.
- Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steven; Black, David; Sun, Ping (2010). "Peer Group Self-Identification as a Predictor of Relational and Physical Aggression Among High School Students". Journal of School Health. 80 (5): 249–258. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00498.x. PMC 3134410. PMID 20529198.
- Reynolds, Simon (2005). Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21569-0.
- Richter, David H. (1987). "Gothic Fantasia: The Monsters and The Myths: A Review-Article". The Eighteenth Century. 28 (2): 149–170. ISSN 0193-5380. JSTOR 41467717.
- Rutledge, Carolyn M.; Rimer, Don; Scott, Micah (2008). "Vulnerable Goth Teens: The Role of Schools in This Psychosocial High-Risk Culture". Journal of School Health. 78 (9): 459–464. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00331.x. ISSN 1746-1561.
- Siegel, Carol (2007). "That Obscure Object of Desire Revisited: Poppy Z. Brite and the Goth Hero as Masochist". In Goodlad, Lauren M. E.; Bibby, Michael (eds.). Goth: Undead Subculture. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. pp. 335–356. ISBN 978-0-8223-8970-5.
- Spuybroek, Lars (2011). The Sympathy of Things: Ruskin and the Ecology of Design. Rotterdam, Netherlands: V2_Publishing. ISBN 978-90-5662-827-7.
- Sudworth, Anne (2007). Gothic Fantasies: The Paintings of Anne Sudworth. London: AAPPL Artists' and Photographers' Press. ISBN 978-1-904332-56-5.
- Wilkins, Amy C. (2004). "'So Full of Myself as a Chick': Goth Women, Sexual Independence, and Gender Egalitarianism" (PDF). Gender & Society. 8 (3): 328–349. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.413.9162. doi:10.1177/0891243204264421. ISSN 0891-2432. JSTOR 4149405.
- Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick (2006). "Prevalence of Deliberate Self Harm and Attempted Suicide within Contemporary Goth Youth Subculture: Longitudinal Cohort Study". BMJ. 332 (7549): 1058–1061. doi:10.1136/bmj.38790.495544.7C. ISSN 1756-1833.
- Baddeley, Gavin (2002). Goth Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture. Plexus. ISBN 978-0-85965-308-4.
- Brill, Dunja (2008). Goth Culture: Gender, Sexuality and Style. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
- Catalyst, Clint (2000). Cottonmouth Kisses. San Francisco, California: Manic D Press. ISBN 978-0-916397-65-4.
A first-person account of an individual's life within the Goth subculture.
- Davenport-Hines, Richard (1999). Gothic: Four Hundred Years of Excess, Horror, Evil and Ruin. New York: North Port Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-590-8.
A chronological/aesthetic history of Goth covering the spectrum from Gothic architecture to The Cure.
- Digitalis, Raven (2007). Goth Craft: The Magickal Side of Dark Culture. Woodbury, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-0-7387-1104-1.
Includes a lengthy explanation of Gothic history, music, fashion, and proposes a link between mystic/magical spirituality and dark subcultures.
- Fuentes Rodríguez, César (2007). Mundo Gótico (in Spanish). Quarentena Ediciones. ISBN 978-84-933891-6-1.
Covering literature, music, cinema, BDSM, fashion, and subculture topics.
- Hodkinson, Paul (2002). Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture. Oxford: Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85973-600-5.
- ——— (2005). "Communicating Goth: On-line Media". In Gelder, Ken (ed.). The Subcultures Reader (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 567–574. ISBN 978-0-415-34416-6.
- Mercer, Mick (1996). Hex Files: The Goth Bible. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-8033-7.
An international survey of the Goth scene.
- ——— (2002). 21st Century Goth. London: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN 978-1-903111-28-4.
An exploration of the modern state of the Goth subculture worldwide.
- Scharf, Natasha (2011). Worldwide Gothic: A Chronicle of a Tribe. Church Stretton, England: Independent Music Press. ISBN 978-1-906191-19-1.
A global view of the goth scene from its birth in the late 1970s to the present day.
- Vas, Abdul (2012). For Those About to Power. Madrid: T.F. Editores. ISBN 978-84-15253-52-5.
- Venters, Jillian (2009). Gothic Charm School: An Essential Guide for Goths and Those Who Love Them. Illustrated by Venters, Pete. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-166916-3.
An etiquette guide to "gently persuade others in her chosen subculture that being a polite Goth is much, much more subversive than just wearing T-shirts with "edgy" sayings on them".
- Voltaire (2004). What is Goth?. Boston: Weiser Books. ISBN 978-1-57863-322-7.
An illustrated view of the goth subculture.