Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild, BWV 79
|Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild
|Church cantata by J. S. Bach|
|Performed||31 October 1725Leipzig:|
|Bible text||Psalms 84:11|
|Vocal||SATB choir and soloists|
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (God the Lord is sun and shield), BWV 79,[a] in Leipzig in 1725, his third year as Thomaskantor, for Reformation Day and led the first performance on 31 October 1725.
The text was written by an unknown poet, who did not refer to the prescribed readings for the day. Bach began the libretto for the feast with a quotation from Psalm 84 and included two hymn stanzas, the first from Martin Rinckart's "Nun danket alle Gott", associated with Reformation Day in Leipzig, as the third movement, and as the last movement the final stanza of Ludwig Helmbold's "Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren". Bach composed a work of "festive magnificence", structured in six movements, with an aria following the opening chorus, a pair of recitative and duet following the first chorale. He scored the work for three vocal soloists, a four-part choir, and a Baroque instrumental ensemble of two horns, timpani, two transverse flutes (added for a later performance), two oboes, strings and continuo. He achieved a unity within the structure by using the horns not only in the opening but also as obbligato instruments in the two chorales, the first time even playing the same motifs.
Bach performed the cantata again, probably in 1730. He later reworked the music of the opening chorus and a duet again in his Missa in G major, BWV 236, and the music of an alto aria in his Missa in A major, BWV 234.
History and words
Bach composed the cantata in his third year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig. While he had written complete annual cycles for many occasions of the liturgical year the first two years in the position, he slowed down in the third. For the Reformation Day, he composed this new cantata, his first extant work for the occasion. The prescribed readings for the feast day were from the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, "be steadfast against adversaries" (2 Thessalonians 2:3–8), and from the Book of Revelation, fear God and honour him (Revelation 14:6–8). The writer of the text – an unknown poet – was not concerned about the readings, and began with a quotation from Psalm 84 (Psalms 84:11). He included the first stanza from Martin Rinckart's hymn "Nun danket alle Gott" and as the closing chorale the final stanza of Ludwig Helmbold's hymn "Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren". According to the Bach scholar Klaus Hofmann, the first of these hymns was sung regularly after the sermon on Reformation Day in Leipzig.
Bach first performed the cantata on 31 October 1725. He repeated it again, probably in 1730, with minor changes in the scoring, doubling the oboes by flutes and assigning a flute as the obbligato instrument in the alto aria.  He used the music of the opening chorus and the duet again in his Missa in G major, BWV 236, and the music of the alto aria in his Missa in A major, BWV 234.
Structure and scoring
Bach structured the cantata in six movements. A choral movement is followed by an aria, a chorale, recitative and duet, closed by another chorale. He scored the work for three vocal soloists (soprano, alto, bass), a four-part choir and a Baroque instrumental ensemble of two horns (Co), timpani (Ti), two flauto traverso (Ft), two oboes (Ob), two violins (Vl), viola (Va), and basso continuo. The title page of the autograph score reads: "Festo Reformat. / Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild / a / 4 Voci / 2 Corni / Tamburi / 2 Hautb. / 2 Viol. / Viola / e / Cont. / di / J.S.Bach".
In the following table of the movements, the scoring follows the Neue Bach-Ausgabe. The keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time (4/4). The continuo, playing throughout, is not shown.
|1||Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn und Schild||anon.||Chorus||SATB||2Co Ti 2Ft 2Ob||2Vl Va||G major|
|2||Gott ist unser Sonn und Schild||anon.||Aria||A||Ob||D major||6/8|
|3||Nun danket alle Gott||Rinckart||Chorale||SATB||2Co Ti 2Ft 2Ob||2Vl Va|
|4||Gottlob! Wir wissen den rechten Weg zur Seligkeit||anon.||Recitative||B|
|5||Gott, ach Gott, verlaß die Deinen nimmermehr||anon||Aria||S B||2Vl||B minor|
|6||Erhalt uns in der Wahrheit||Helmbold||Chorale||SATB||2Co Ti 2Ft 2Ob||2Vl Va|
As Hofmann points out, Bach achieved "festive magnificence", using two horns and timpani not only in the opening chorus but also as obbligato instruments in the two chorales. Bach established unity of form by using a horn motif from the first movement again in the first chorale, juxtaposed to the hymn tune.
The cantata opens with a choral movement, "Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild" (God the Lord is sun and shield). The instrumental ritornello introduces two themes: "a festive, march-like theme for the horns and timpani, and a more lively counter-theme that develops from a note that is heard seven times." The musicologist Julian Mincham notes that the ritornello, structured in three parts, is among the longest among Bach's opening choruses. The horns are silent in the middle section, but the voices enter "an imitative discussion of a simplified version of the string theme from the ritornello. Complex contrapuntal texture is used as the vehicle to convey the important and ultimately optimistic message ... The driving rhythms infusing the intricate swirling counterpoint produce an effect that is totally infectious", as Mincham writes. John Eliot Gardiner, who conducted during his Bach Cantata Pilgrimage in 2000 the cantatas for Reformation at the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg where the Reformation began, describes the opening chorus as a ceremonial procession, and hears the "insistent drum beat" going along with the "fanfares of the high horns" as "the hammering of Luther’s theses to the oak door at the back of the church".
The aria for alto and an obbligato oboe, "Gott ist unsre Sonn und Schild!" (God is our sun and shield!), expresses similar ideas as the first movement in a personal way, described as "tranquil and individual" by Mincham. In a later version, the oboe is replaced by a transverse flute.
In the first chorale, "Nun danket alle Gott" (Now let everyone thank God), Bach uses the first theme of the opening again, simultaneously with the chorale tune. Helmuth Rilling notes the unity of topic, praise and thanks to God, for the first three movements. The praise, individual in the preceding aria, is now communal again, "a rousing hymn, now given the most extrovert of settings!" Gardiner assumes that the sermon may have followed the chorale.
The only recitative, sung by the bass, "Gottlob, wir wissen den rechten Weg zur Seligkeit" (Praise God, we know the right way to blessedness), mentions the reason for thanks on this occasion. The phrase "Du hast uns durch dein Wort gewiesen" (You have instructed us through Your word) addresses "the basic issues of the Reformation", as Rilling points out.
A duet for bass and soprano, "Gott, ach Gott, verlaß die Deinen nimmermehr!" (God, ah God, abandon Your own ones never again!), expresses a prayer for protection. The voices are in homophony, beginning without the instruments, while a "sharply contoured violin theme" appears first alone, then together with the voices. All violins play it in unison. The motif was attributed by the Bach scholar Albert Schweitzer to tumult, representing the "raging of enemies" mentioned in the text. Gardiner hears in the "innocent" setting of the voices "a pre-echo … of Papageno and Papagena, a Mozartian impression, reinforced by the hint of Eine kleine Nachtmusik in the violin ritornelli".
Erhalt uns in der Wahrheit
Uphold us in the truth,
The horns play again independently, but not in the rousing way of movement 3.
|Title||Conductor / Choir / Orchestra||Soloists||Label||Year||Instr.|
|The RIAS Bach Cantatas Project (1949–1952)||Ristenpart, KarlKarl Ristenpart RIAS Kammerchor RIAS-Kammerorchester||Audite||1950|
|J. S. Bach: CantataBWV 39 & BWV 79||Lehmann, FritzFritz Lehmann Berliner Motettenchor Berliner Philharmoniker||Archiv Produktion||1952|
|J. S. Bach: Kantate 'Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn' und Schild||Richter, KarlKarl Richter Münchener Bach-Chor Members of the Bavarian State Opera Munich||Decca||1955|
|J.S. Bach: Cantata No. 140, Cantata No. 57||Ristenpart, KarlKarl Ristenpart Chorus of the Conservatory of Sarrebruck Chamber Orchestra of the Saar||Accord||1958|
|Les Grandes Cantates de J.S. Bach Vol. 19||Werner, FritzFritz Werner Heinrich-Schütz-Chor Heilbronn Pforzheim Chamber Orchestra||Erato||1964|
|J. S. Bach: Cantatas BWV 80 & BWV 79||Gönnenwein, WolfgangWolfgang Gönnenwein Süddeutscher Madrigalchor Consortium Musicum||EMI||1967|
|J. S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk • Complete Cantatas • Les Cantates, Fol / Vol. 20 – BWV 76-79||Leonhardt, GustavGustav Leonhardt Leonhardt-Consort||Teldec||1980|
|Bach Made in Germany Vol. 4 – Cantatas X||Rotzsch, Hans-JoachimHans-Joachim Rotzsch Thomanerchor Gewandhausorchester||Eterna||1982|
|Lecture Concerts – New Recordings Cantatas||Rilling, HelmuthHelmuth Rilling Bach-Collegium Stuttgart||Hänssler||1997|
|Bach Edition Vol. 15 – Cantatas Vol. 8||Leusink, Pieter JanPieter Jan Leusink Holland Boys Choir Netherlands Bach Collegium||Brilliant Classics||2000||Period|
|For the 19th Sunday after Trinity; For the Feast of Reformation||Gardiner, John EliotJohn Eliot Gardiner Monteverdi Choir English Baroque Soloists||Soli Deo Gloria||2000||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 16||Koopman, TonTon Koopman Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir||Antoine Marchand||2001||Period|
|J.S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 40 – BWV 79, 137, 164, 168||Suzuki, MasaakiMasaaki Suzuki Bach Collegium Japan||BIS||2007||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält||Biller, Georg ChristophGeorg Christoph Biller Thomanerchor Gewandhausorchester||
|J.S. Bach Lutheran Masses, Vol. II||Christophers, HarryHarry Christophers The Sixteen Orchestra of The Sixteen||
- "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.
- Dellal, Pamela. "BWV 79 – Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Wolff, Christoph (2001). Bach’s Third Yearly Cycle of Cantatas (1725−1727) − I(1725) (PDF). p. 7−10. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Dürr, Alfred (1971). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German). 1. Bärenreiter-Verlag. OCLC 523584.
- "Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren / Text and Translation of Chorale". Bach Cantatas Website. 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Hofmann, Klaus (2007). "Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (For the Lord God is a Sun and a Shield), BWV 79" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. p. 4. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Bischof, Walter F. "BWV 79 – Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild". University of Alberta. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Grob, Jochen (2014). "BWV 79 / BC A 184" (in German). s-line.de. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 5 BWV 79 Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild / The Lord God is both our Sun and our Shield". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2005). "Cantatas for the Feast of the Reformation / Schlosskirche, Wittenberg" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. pp. 5−7. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Rilling, Helmuth. "Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (God the Lord is sun and shield), BWV 79". WKSU-FM. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren". Bach Cantatas Website. 2005. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Oron, Aryeh. "Cantata BWV 79 Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild". Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild, BWV 79: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn und Schild BWV 79; BC A 184 / Sacred cantata (Reformation Day 31 October) Bach Digital
- BWV 79 Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild text, scoring, University of Alberta
- BWV 79.3 bach-chorales.com
- BWV 79.6 bach-chorales.com