Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser

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Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser
English: God preserve Francis the Emperor
Autograph score of the original version

Imperial anthem of Habsburg monarchy
Also known asKaiserhymne, Volkshymne (English: Emperor's Hymn, People's Hymn)
Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze/Unsern Kaiser, unser Land! (English: God preserve, God protect/Our Emperor, our country!)
MusicJoseph Haydn, 1797
Preceded byVivat terra sancta
Succeeded by"Deutschösterreich, du herrliches Land"
Audio sample
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (Deutschlandlied) played by the United States Navy Band Instrumental.

"Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" (German pronunciation: [ɡɔt ɛʁˈhaltə fʁants dən ˈkaɪ̯zɐˈ]; lit.'"God save Francis the Emperor"') was a personal anthem to Francis II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and later of the Austrian Empire, with lyrics by Lorenz Leopold Haschka (1749–1827) and music by Joseph Haydn. It is sometimes called the "Kaiserhymne" (German: [ˈkaɪ̯zɐˈhʏmnə]; Emperor's Hymn). Haydn's tune has since been widely employed in other contexts: in works of classical music, in Christian hymns, in alma maters, and as the tune of the "Deutschlandlied", the national anthem of Germany.

Words and music[edit]

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      \time 4/4 \partial 2     
      \relative g' { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"clarinet"
        \repeat unfold 2 {
          g4. a8 | b4 a c b | a8 (fis) g4 e' d | c b a b8 (g) | d'2 \bar "|" \break
	a4 b | a8 (fis) d4 c' b | a8 (fis) d4 d' c | b4. b8 cis4 cis8 (d) | d2 \bar "|" \break
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\new Lyrics \lyricmode {
Gott4. er8 -- hal4 -- te Franz den Kai -- ser,
Un -- sern gu -- ten Kai -- ser Franz!2
Lang4. -- e8 le4 -- be Franz der Kai -- ser,
In des Glück -- es hell -- stem Glanz!2
Ihm4 er -- blü -- hen Lor -- beer -- rei -- ser,
Wo er geht,4. zum8 Eh4 -- ren -- kranz!2
Gott4. er8 -- hal4 -- te Franz4. den8 Kai4 -- ser,
Un4. -- sern8 gu4 -- ten Kai -- ser Franz!2  
\layout { indent = #0 }
\midi { \tempo 4 = 90 }

The lyrics are as follows:

Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser, unsern guten Kaiser Franz!
Lange lebe Franz der Kaiser, in des Glückes hellstem Glanz!
Ihm erblühen Lorbeerreiser, wo er geht, zum Ehrenkranz!
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser, unsern guten Kaiser Franz!

God save Francis the Emperor, our good Emperor Francis!
Long live Francis the Emperor in the brightest splendour of bliss!
May laurel branches bloom for him, wherever he goes, as a wreath of honour.
God save Francis the Emperor, our good Emperor Francis!


The song was written when Austria was seriously threatened by Revolutionary France and patriotic sentiments ran high. The story of the song's genesis was narrated in 1847 by Anton Schmid, who was Custodian of the Austrian National Library in Vienna:[1]

In England, Haydn came to know the favourite British national anthem, 'God Save the King', and he envied the British nation for a song through which it could, at festive occasions, show in full measure its respect, love, and devotion to its ruler.

When the Father of Harmony returned to his beloved Kaiserstadt,[a] he related these impressions to that real friend, connoisseur, supporter and encourager of many a great and good one of Art and Science, Freiherr van Swieten, Prefect of the I. R. Court Library, who at the time was at the head of the Concert Spirituel (supported by high aristocracy) and likewise Haydn's particular patron.[2] Haydn wished that Austria, too, could have a similar national anthem, wherein it could display a similar respect and love for its Sovereign. Also, such a song could be used in the fight then taking place with those forcing the Rhine; it could be used in a noble way to inflame the heart of the Austrians to new heights of devotion to the princes and fatherland, and to incite to combat, and to increase, the mob of volunteer soldiers who had been collected by a general proclamation.

Freiherr van Swieten hastily took counsel with His Excellency, the then President of Lower Austria, Franz Count von Saurau [de] ... and so there came into being a song which, apart from being one of Haydn's greatest creations, has won the crown of immortality.

It is also true that this high-principled Count used the most opportune moment to introduce a Volksgesang,[b] and thus he called to life those beautiful thoughts which will delight connoisseurs and amateurs here and abroad.

He immediately ordered the poet Lorenz Haschka to draft the poetry and then requested our Haydn to set it to music.

In January 1797, this double task was resolved, and the first performance of the Song was ordered for the birthday of the Monarch.

Saurau himself later wrote:

I had a text fashioned by the worthy poet Haschka; and to have it set to music, I turned to our immortal compatriot Haydn, who, I felt, was the only man capable of creating something that could be placed at the side of ... "God Save the King".[3]

"Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" was first performed on the Emperor's birthday, 12 February 1797. It proved popular, and came to serve unofficially as Austria's first national anthem.


As elsewhere in Haydn's music, it has been conjectured that Haydn took part of his material from folk songs he knew. This hypothesis has never achieved unanimous agreement, the alternative being that Haydn's original tune was adapted by the people in various versions as folk songs. For discussion, see Haydn and folk music.

Autograph sketch of "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser"

Irrespective of the original source, Haydn's own compositional efforts went through multiple drafts, discussed by Rosemary Hughes in her biography of the composer.[4] Hughes reproduces the draft fragment given below (i.e., the fifth through eighth lines of the song) and writes: "His sketches, preserved in the Vienna National Library, show the self-denial and economy with which he struggled to achieve [the song's] seemingly inevitable climax, pruning the earlier and more obviously interesting version of the fifth and sixth lines, which would have anticipated, and so lessened, its overwhelming effect."

The original version of the song (see autograph score, above) included a single line for voice with a rather crude piano accompaniment, with no dynamic indications and what David Wyn Jones calls "an unevenness of keyboard sonority".[5] This version was printed in many copies (two different printers were assigned to the work) and sent to theatres and opera houses across the Austrian territories with instructions for performance.[5] The Vienna premiere took place in the Burgtheater on 12 February 1797, the day the song was officially released. The Emperor was present, attending a performance of Dittersdorf's opera Doktor und Apotheker and Joseph Weigl's ballet Alonzo und Cora. The occasion celebrated his 29th birthday.[5]

Not long after, Haydn later wrote three additional versions of his song:

Haydn's piano reduction of his Kaiserquartett
  • He first wrote a version for orchestra, called "much more refined" by Jones.[5]
  • During 1797, Haydn was working on a commission for six string quartets from Count Joseph Erdödy. He conceived the idea of composing a slow movement for one of the quartets consisting of the Emperor's hymn as theme, followed by four variations, each involving the melody played by one member of the quartet. The finished quartet, now often called the "Emperor" quartet, was published as the third of the Opus 76 quartets, dedicated to Count Erdödy.[5] It is perhaps Haydn's most famous work in this genre.
  • The last version Haydn wrote was a piano reduction of the quartet movement,[5] published by Artaria in 1799.[6] The publisher printed it with the original cruder piano version of the theme, though a modern edition corrects this error.[7]

Haydn's own view of the song[edit]

Joseph Haydn seems to have been particularly fond of his creation. During his frail and sickly old age (1802–1809), the composer often would struggle to the piano to play his song, often with great feeling, as a form of consolation; and as his servant Johann Elssler narrated, it was the last music Haydn ever played:

The Kaiser Lied was still played three times a day, though, but on 26 May [1809] at half-past midday the Song was played for the last time and that 3 times over, with such expression and taste, well! that our good Papa was astonished about it himself and said he hadn't played the Song like that for a long time and was very pleased about it and felt well altogether till evening at 5 o'clock then our good Papa began to lament that he didn't feel well...[8]

Elssler goes on to narrate the composer's final decline and death, which occurred on 31 May.

Later uses of the tune in classical music[edit]

Later composers in the Western classical canon have repeatedly quoted or otherwise employed Haydn's tune, as is demonstrated by the following chronological list. As the tune was widely known, the uses by other composers were heard as quotations and served as an emblem of Austria, of Austrian patriotism, or of the Austrian monarchy.

Use in national anthems, alma maters, and hymns[edit]


English: Emperor's Hymn/People's Hymn

Imperial anthem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Also known asGott erhalte, Gott beschütze (English: God preserve, God protect)
LyricsJohann Gabriel Seidl, 1854
MusicJoseph Haydn, 1797
  • 1854 (lyrics)
  • 1867 (officially in the new state)
Succeeded by"Deutschösterreich, du herrliches Land" (Austria)
"Himnusz" (Hungary)

After the death of Francis in 1835, the tune was given new lyrics that praised his successor, Ferdinand: "Segen Öst'reichs hohem Sohne / Unserm Kaiser Ferdinand!" ("Blessings to Austria's high son / Our Emperor Ferdinand!"). After Ferdinand's abdication in 1848, the original lyrics were used again because his successor (Francis Joseph) was also named Francis. However, in 1854, yet again new lyrics were selected: "Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze / Unsern Kaiser, unser Land!" ("God preserve, God protect / Our Emperor, our country!").

There were versions of the hymn in several languages of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (e.g., Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Hungarian, Ukrainian, Polish, Italian).

At the end of the First World War in 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was abolished and divided into multiple states, one of them being the residual state of Austria, which was a republic and had no emperor. The tune ceased to be used for official purposes. When the last Emperor, Charles I, died in 1922, monarchists created an original stanza for his son Otto von Habsburg. Since the emperor was in fact never restored, this version never attained official standing.

The hymn was revived in 1929 with completely new lyrics, known as "Sei gesegnet ohne Ende", which remained the national anthem of Austria until the Anschluss. The first stanza of the hymn's 1854 version was sung in 1989 during the funeral of Empress Zita of Austria[14] and again in 2011 during the funeral of her son Otto von Habsburg.[15]


Long after Haydn's death, his melody was used as the tune for Hoffmann von Fallersleben's poem Das Lied der Deutschen (1841). The third stanza (which begins with "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit") is sung to the same melody, and is the present national anthem of Germany and formerly of West Germany. The first verse of Fallersleben's poem was formerly the national anthem of the Weimar Republic,[16] and later, Nazi Germany.[17]


In the ordinary nomenclature of hymn tunes, the melody of "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" is classified as 87.87D trochaic metre. When employed in a hymn it is sometimes known as "Austria", or "Austrian Hymn". It has been paired with various lyrics.

School Hymns[edit]


1797 original version[edit]

German original English translation

Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,
Unsern guten Kaiser Franz!
Lange lebe Franz, der Kaiser,
In des Glückes hellstem Glanz!
Ihm erblühen Lorbeerreiser,
Wo er geht, zum Ehrenkranz!
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,
Unsern guten Kaiser Franz!

Laß von seiner Fahne Spitzen
Strahlen Sieg und Fruchtbarkeit!
Laß in seinem Rate Sitzen
Weisheit, Klugheit, Redlichkeit;
Und mit Seiner Hoheit Blitzen
Schalten nur Gerechtigkeit!
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,
Unsern guten Kaiser Franz!

Ströme deiner Gaben Fülle
Über ihn, sein Haus und Reich!
Brich der Bosheit Macht, enthülle
Jeden Schelm- und Bubenstreich!
Dein Gesetz sei stets sein Wille,
Dieser uns Gesetzen gleich.
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,
Unsern guten Kaiser Franz!

Froh erleb' er seiner Lande,
Seiner Völker höchsten Flor!
Seh' sie, Eins durch Bruderbande,
Ragen allen andern vor!
Und vernehm' noch an dem Rande
Später Gruft der Enkel Chor.
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,
Unsern guten Kaiser Franz!

God keep Francis the Emperor,
Our good emperor Francis!
Long live Francis the emperor,
In the brightest splendour of happiness!
May sprigs of laurel bloom for him
As a garland of honour, wherever he goes.
God keep Francis the Emperor,
Our good emperor Francis!

From the tips of his flag
May victory and fruitfulness shine!
In his council
May knowledge, wisdom and honesty sit!
And with his Highness's lightning
May justice but prevail!
God keep Francis the Emperor,
Our good emperor Francis!

May the abundance of thy gifts
Pour over him, his house and Empire!
Break the power of wickedness, and reveal
Every trick of rogues and knaves!
May thy Law always be his Will,
And may this be like laws to us.
God keep Francis the Emperor,
Our good emperor Francis!

May he gladly experience the highest bloom
Of his land and of his peoples!
May he see them, united by the bonds of brothers,
Loom over all others!
And may he hear at the edge
Of his late tomb his grandchildren's chorus.
God keep Francis the Emperor,
Our good emperor Francis!

During Haydn's lifetime, his friend the musicologist Charles Burney, made an English translation of the first verse which is more poetical albeit less literal than the one given above:

God preserve the Emp'ror Francis
Sov'reign ever good and great;
Save, o save him from mischances
In Prosperity and State!
May his Laurels ever blooming
Be by Patriot Virtue fed;
May his worth the world illumine
And bring back the Sheep misled!
God preserve our Emp'ror Francis!
Sov'reign ever good and great.

Burney's penultimate couplet about sheep has no counterpart in the original German and appears to be Burney's own contribution.

1854 version[edit]

German original IPA transcription[c] English translation

Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze
unsern Kaiser, unser Land!
Mächtig durch des Glaubens Stütze
führ' Er uns mit weiser Hand!
Laßt uns Seiner Väter Krone
schirmen wider jeden Feind;
𝄆 Innig bleibt mit Habsburgs Throne
Österreichs Geschick vereint. 𝄇

Fromm und bieder, wahr und offen
laßt für Recht und Pflicht uns stehn,
laßt, wenn's gilt, mit frohem Hoffen
muthvoll in den Kampf uns gehn!
Eingedenk der Lorbeerreiser,
die das Heer so oft sich wand,
𝄆 Gut und Blut für unsern Kaiser,
Gut und Blut für's Vaterland! 𝄇

Was der Bürger Fleiß geschaffen
schütze treu des Kriegers Kraft;
mit des Geistes heitern Waffen
siege Kunst und Wissenschaft!
Segen sei dem Land beschieden,
und sein Ruhm dem Segen gleich:
𝄆 Gottes Sonne strahl' in Frieden
auf ein glücklich Österreich! 𝄇

Laßt uns fest zusammenhalten,
In der Eintracht liegt die Macht;
Mit vereinter Kräfte Walten
Wird das Schwere leicht vollbracht,
Laßt uns Eins durch Brüderbande
Gleichem Ziel entgegengehn!
𝄆 Heil dem Kaiser, Heil dem Lande,
Österreich wird ewig stehn! 𝄇

An des Kaisers Seite waltet,
Ihm verwandt durch Stamm und Sinn,
Reich an Reiz, der nie veraltet,
Uns’re holde Kaiserin.
Was als Glück zu höchst gepriesen
Ström’ auf sie der Himmel aus:
𝄆 Heil Franz Josef, Heil Elisen,
Segen Habsburgs ganzem Haus! 𝄇

[gɔt ɛɐ̯ˈhaltə gɔt bəˈʃʏtsə]
[ˈʊnzɐn ˈkaɪ̯zɐ ˈʊnzɐ lant]
[ˈmɛçtɪç dʊɐ̯ç dɛs ˈglaʊ̯bˌns ˈʃtʏtsə]
[fyːɐ̯ eːɐ̯ ʊns mɪt ˈvaɪ̯zɐ hant]
[last ʊns ˈzaɪ̯nɐ ˈfɛːtɐ ˈkʁoːnə]
[ˈʃɪɐ̯mˌn ˈviːdɐ ˈjeːdˌn ˈfaɪ̯nt]
𝄆 [ˈɪnɪç blaɪ̯pt mɪt ˈhapsˌbʊɐ̯ks ˈtʁoːnə]
[ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯çs gəˈʃɪk ˈfɛɐ̯ʔaɪ̯nt] 𝄇

[fʁoːm ʊnt ˈbiːdɐ vaːɐ̯ ʊnt ˈɔfˌn]
[last fyːɐ̯ ʁɛçt ʊnt pflɪçt ʊns ʃteːn]
[last vɛn ɛs gɪlt mɪt ˈfʁoːəm ˈhɔfˌn]
[muːtfɔl ɪn deːn kampf ʊns geːn]
[ˈaɪ̯ngəˌdɛŋk deːɐ̯ ˈlɔɐ̯ˌbeːɐ̯ˈʁaɪ̯sɐ]
[diː das heːɐ̯ zoː ɔft zɪç vant]
𝄆 [guːt ʊnt bluːt fyːɐ̯ ˈʊnzɐn ˈkaɪ̯zɐ]
[guːt ʊnt bluːt fyːɐ̯ ɛs ˈfaːtɐˌlant] 𝄇

[vas deːɐ̯ ˈbʏɐ̯gɐ flaɪ̯s gəˈʃafˌn]
[ˈʃʏtsə tʁɔʏ̯ dɛs ˈkʁiːgɐs kʁaft]
[mɪt dɛs ˈgaɪ̯stəs ˈhaɪ̯tɐn ˈvafˌn]
[ˈziːgə kʊnst ʊnt ˈvɪsˌnʃaft]
[ˈzeːgˌn zaɪ̯ deːm lant bəˈʃiːdˌn]
[ʊnt zaɪ̯n ʁuːm deːm ˈzeːgˌn glaɪ̯ç]
𝄆 [ˈgɔtəs ˈzɔnə ʃtʁaːl ɪn ˈfʁiːdˌn]
[aʊ̯f aɪ̯n ˈglʏklɪç ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] 𝄇

[last ʊns fɛst tsuːzamn̩ˈhɛːltˌn]
[ɪn deːɐ̯ ˈaɪ̯nˌtʁaxt liːkt diː maxt]
[mɪt fɛɐ̯ˈʔaɪ̯ntɐ ˈkʁɛftə ˈvaltˌn]
[vɪɐ̯t das ˈʃveːʁə laɪ̯çt fɔlˈbʁaxt]
[last ʊns aɪ̯ns dʊɐ̯ç ˈbʁyːdɐˈbandə]
[ˈglaɪ̯çˌm tsiːl ɛntˈgeːgˌngeːn]
𝄆 [haɪ̯l deːm ˈkaɪ̯zɐ haɪ̯l deːm ˈlandə]
[ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç vɪɐ̯t ˈeːvɪç ʃteːn] 𝄇

[an dɛs ˈkaɪ̯zɐs ˈzaɪ̯tə ˈvaltət]
[iːm fɛɐ̯ˈvant dʊɐ̯ç ʃtam ʊnt zɪn]
[ʁaɪ̯ç an ʁaɪ̯ts deːɐ̯ niː fɛɐ̯ˈʔaltət]
[ʊns ʁə ˈhɔːldə ˈkaɪ̯zeːʁɪn]
[vas als ˈglʏk tsuː høːçst gəˈpʁiːzˌn]
[ʃtʁøːm aʊ̯f ziː deːɐ̯ ˈhɪmˌl aʊ̯s]
𝄆 [haɪ̯l fʁants ˈjoːzɛf haɪ̯l eˈliːzˌn]
[ˈzeːgˌn ˈhapsˌbʊɐ̯ks ˈgantsˌm haʊ̯s] 𝄇

God preserve, God protect,
Our Emperor, our Country!
Powerful through the support of the Faith,
He leads us with a wise hand!
Let us defend the Crown of his fathers,
Shielding it from every foe.
𝄆 Forever with the Habsburg Throne,
Austria's fate remains united. 𝄇

Devout and honest, true and open,
Let us stand for right and duty!
Let us, if needed, with joyous Hope,
Go courageously in the battle!
Mindful of the laurel wreaths,
That the army so often wove itself.
𝄆 Treasure and Blood for Our Emperor,
Treasure and Blood for Our Fatherland! 𝄇

What was wrought by the diligence of citizens,
may the soldier’s power faithfully protect!
With cheery weapons of mind,
Arts and Science may triumph!
Blessings be granted into the Land,
And its fame match the blessings.
𝄆 God’s sunshine in peace,
On a happy Austria! 𝄇

Let us always stand together,
For unity there is power!
With our combined strength,
The difficult is easily overcome!
Let us, brotherly united,
Go towards the same goal.
𝄆 Hail to the Emperor, Hail to the Empire,
Austria will forever stand! 𝄇

At the side of Emperor prevails,
Related to him by descent and mind!
Rich in charm that never becomes outdated,
Our gracious empress!
What is praised as luck most highly,
Heaven pour on them!
𝄆 Hail to Franz Joseph, Hail to Elisabeth,
Blessing to the entire House of Habsburg! 𝄇

For translations into several of the languages that were spoken in the Austrian Empire, see Translations of Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ German: 'city of the emperor'.
  2. ^ German: "people's song"
  3. ^ See Help:IPA/Standard German and Standard German phonology.


  1. ^ Quotation from Robbins Landon & Jones 1988, p. 301
  2. ^ "Concert Spirituel" normally denotes an important orchestra of Paris in Haydn's time; see Concert Spirituel. Here, however, it is more likely that Schmid was using the term to refer to the Gesellschaft der Associierten, a concert-sponsoring society of noblemen that Swieten had organized in Vienna. Swieten was not active in Paris.
  3. ^ Landon, Howard Chandler Robbins (1977). Haydn: Chronicle and Works. Thames and Hudson. p. 241. ISBN 9780500011645.
  4. ^ Hughes 1970, p. 124.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Jones 2009, p. 120
  6. ^ Gerlach 1996, p. iv.
  7. ^ Gerlach 1996, p. v. Gerlach's edition of the work includes a facsimile of the original piano version.
  8. ^ Robbins Landon & Jones 1988, p. 314.
  9. ^ For discussion see Mathew 2013, p. 103
  10. ^ "Carl Czerny: Variations op. 73 on Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser", Aeiou Encyclopedia
  11. ^ a b Barker, Andrew (2009). "Setting the Tone: Austria's National Anthems from Haydn to Haider". Austrian Studies. 17: 12–28. doi:10.1353/aus.2009.0019. JSTOR 27944906. S2CID 245841267.
  12. ^ "Souvenir de Vienne", Op. 9 (Clara Schumann): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  13. ^ Mikusi, Balázs (September 2016). "Review: Reviving Haydn: New Appreciations in the Twentieth Century (Eastman Studies in Music, vol. 124) by Bryan Proksch". Notes. 74 (1): 86–88. doi:10.1353/not.2016.0114. S2CID 163899829.
  14. ^ Kaiserhymne 01.04.1989 Begräbnis Zita on YouTube
  15. ^ Kaiserhymne – Requiem für Otto von Habsburg, Trauergottesdienst in Wien, 16. Juli 2011 on YouTube
  16. ^ ""National Anthem of the Weimar Republic" (1922-1933)". Interwar Crisis. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  17. ^ Geisler, Michael E. (2005). National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative. UPNE. ISBN 978-1-58465-437-7.
  18. ^ First published in Olney Hymns (1779).
  19. ^ "Light of ages and of nations".
  20. ^ "Praise the Lord! Ye Heavens Adore Him". Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  21. ^ Columbia University Songs. Oliver Ditson Company. 1904.
  22. ^ a b Spaeth, Sigmund (1936). "The Tune Detective Goes Collegiate". The American Scholar. 5 (1): 23–26. ISSN 0003-0937. JSTOR 41206409.


  • Gerlach, Sonja (1996). Haydn: Variationen über die Hymne "Gott erhalte"; authentische Fassung für Klavier. Munich: G. Henle.
  • Hughes, Rosemary (1970). Haydn. London: Dent.
  • Jones, David Wyn (2009). Oxford Composer Companions: Haydn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mathew, Nicholas (2013). Political Beethoven. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Robbins Landon, H. C.; Jones, David Wyn (1988). Haydn: His Life and Music. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-37265-8.

External links[edit]