Gottfried Helnwein

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Gottfried Helnwein
Save The World Awards 2009 show04 - Gottfried Helnwein.jpg
Born (1948-10-08) 8 October 1948 (age 74)
Vienna, Austria
EducationAcademy of Fine Arts Vienna
Known forpainting, photography, installation art
Notable workNinth November Night (1988), Epiphany I (Adoration of the Magi) (1996), Disasters of War 3 (2007), The Murmur of the Innocents 14 (2010), I Walk Alone (2003), Peinlich (1971)
MovementHyperrealism, installation art, performance art

Gottfried Helnwein (born 8 October 1948) is an Austrian-Irish visual artist. He has worked as a painter, draftsman, photographer, muralist, sculptor, installation and performance artist, using a wide variety of techniques and media.

His work is concerned primarily with psychological and sociological anxiety, historical issues and political topics. His subject matter is the human condition. The metaphor for his art is dominated by the image of the child, particularly the wounded child, scarred physically and emotionally from within.[1] His works often reference taboo and controversial issues from recent history, especially the Nazi rule and the horror of the Holocaust. As a result, his work is often considered provocative and controversial.

Helnwein studied at the University of Visual Art in Vienna (Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Wien). He lives and works in Ireland and Los Angeles.


Helnwein was born in Vienna shortly after World War II. His father Joseph Helnwein worked for the Austrian Post and Telegraphy administration (Österreichische Post- und Telegraphenverwaltung), and his mother Margarethe was a housewife.[2][3]

Helnwein had a strict Roman Catholic upbringing. As a student he organized plays and art exhibitions at the Catholic Marian Society (Marianische Kongregation) of the Jesuit University Church in Vienna.[4][5]

1965 he enrolled at the "Higher Federal Institution for Graphic Education and Experimentation" in Vienna (Höhere Bundes-Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt, Wien).[6] In the following years he started his first performances for small audiences where he cut his face and hands with razor blades and bandaged himself.[7]

From 1969 to 1973 he studied at the University of Visual Art in Vienna (Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Wien).[8] He was awarded the Master-class prize (Meisterschulpreis) of the University of Visual Art, Vienna, the Kardinal-König prize and the Theodor-Körner prize.[9][10]

In 1983 Helnwein met Andy Warhol in his Factory in New York City, who posed for a series of photo-sessions.[11]

Helnwein was offered a chair by the University of Applied Sciences in Hamburg in 1982. When his demand to admit also children to study at the university was rejected, he declined.[12]

In 1985 Rudolf Hausner, recommended Helnwein as his successor as professor of the master-class for painting at the University of Visual Art in Vienna, but Helnwein left Vienna and moved to Germany.[13]

He bought a medieval castle close to Cologne and the Rhine-river. Four years later in 1989 he established a studio in Tribeca New York and thenceforth spent his time between the United States and Germany.[2][14]

Helnwein moved to Dublin, Ireland in 1997 and one year later, he bought Castle Gurteen de la Poer in County Waterford.[15] In 2002 he established a studio in downtown Los Angeles and he lives and works since then in Ireland and Los Angeles.[16] Helnwein has four children with his wife Renate: Cyril, Mercedes, Ali Elvis and Wolfgang Amadeus, who are all artists.[17] In 2004 Helnwein received Irish citizenship.[18][19]

On 3 December 2005, his friend Marilyn Manson and Dita Von Teese were married in a private, non-denominational ceremony at Helnwein's castle.[20] The wedding was officiated by surrealist film director Alejandro Jodorowsky[21] Gottfried Helnwein was best man[22][23]

In 2013 the Albertina Museum in Vienna organized a retrospective of Helnwein's work. The show was seen by 250,000 visitors and was the most successful exhibition of a contemporary artist in the history of the Albertina.[24][25][26]


Helnwein is part of a tradition going back to the 18th century, to which Messerschmidt's grimacing sculptures belong. One sees, too, the common ground of his works with those of Arnulf Rainer and Hermann Nitsch, two other Viennese, who display their own bodies in the frame of reference of injury, pain, and death. And one sees how this fascination with body language goes back to the expressive gesture in the work of Egon Schiele.[27]

The Child[edit]

State Russian Museum St. Petersburg, Helnwein's Head of a Child ("Kindskopf", 1991, oil and acrylic on canvas, 600 x 400 cm), being installed in the retrospective of Gottfried Helnwein, 1997, (Collection of the State Russian Museum St. Petersburg)

Helnwein's early work consists mainly of hyper-realistic watercolors, depicting wounded children, as well as photographs and performances – often with children – in public spaces. The bandaged child became the most important figure next to the artist himself allied with him in his actions: the embodiment of the innocent, defenceless individual at the mercy of brute force.

Art historian Peter Gorsen specified the relation between Helnwein's work and Viennese Actionism.[28]

In 2004, The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco organized the first one-person exhibition of Gottfried Helnwein at an American Museum: "The Child, works by Gottfried Helnwein" at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor.[29]

The show was seen by almost 130,000 visitors and the San Francisco Chronicle quoted it the most important exhibition of a contemporary artist in 2004. Steven Winn, Chronicle Arts and Culture critic, wrote: "Helnwein's large format, photo-realist images of children of various demeanors boldly probed the subconscious. Innocence, sexuality, victimization and haunting self-possession surge and flicker in Helnwein's unnerving work".[30]

Self portraits[edit]

Blackout (Scorpions album) cover art by Gottfried Helnwein, 1982

At the same time when Helnwein painted watercolors of injured and abused children, from 1969, around 1970/71 he also began a series of self-portrayals in photographs and performances (actions) in his studio and in the streets of Vienna. Actionistic self-portrayals in the manner of a happening featuring his injured and bandaged body and surgical instruments deforming his face go back to Helnwein's student days. Since then, bandages have become part of the aesthetic "uniform" of his self-portraits.[31]

The artist exposed himself as victim and martyr: bandages around his head and forks and surgical instruments piercing his mouth or cheek. Frequently the distortions of these tormented images make it difficult to recognize Helnwein's face. He appears as a screaming man, mirroring the frightening aspects of life: a twentieth-century Man of Sorrows. His frozen cry, showing the artist in a state of implacable trauma, recalls Edvard Munch's Scream and Francis Bacon's screaming popes. Some of Helnwein's grimacing faces also recall the grotesque physiognomic distortions by the eighteenth-century Viennese sculptor Franz Xavier Messerschmidt. They could also be seen as part of the Austrian pictorial tradition that resurfaced in the perturbed and distorted expressionist faces painted by Kokoschka and Egon Schiele before World War I, reappearing in the exaggerated mimicry in Arnulf Rainer's "Face Farces".[32]

William S. Burroughs commented on Helnwein's self-portraits in an essay in 1992:

There is a basic misconception that any given face, at any given time, looks more or less the same, like a statue's face. Actually, the human face is as variable from moment to moment as a screen on which images are reflected, from within and from without. Gottfried Helnwein's paintings and photographs attack this misconception, showing the variety of faces of which any face is capable. And in order to attack the basic misconception, he must underline and exaggerate by distortion, by bandages and metal instruments that force the face into impossible molds. Images of torture and madness abound, as happens from moment to moment in the face seen as a sensitive reflection of extreme perceptions and experience. How can a self-portrait depict statuesque calm in the face of the horrors that surround us all?[33]

In a conversation with Robert A. Sobieszek, curator of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Helnwein declared: "The reason why I took up the subject of self-portraits and why I have put myself on stage was to function as a kind of representative for the suffering, abused and oppressed human being. I needed a living body to demonstrate and exemplify the effect of violence inflicted upon a defenseless victim. There is nothing autobiographical or therapeutical about it, and I don't think it says anything about me personally. Also I was the best possible model for my experiments: endlessly patient and always available."[34]

Comics and trivial art[edit]

Another strong element in his works are comics. Helnwein has sensed the superiority of cartoon life over real life ever since he was a child. Growing up in a dreary, destroyed post-war Vienna, the young boy was surrounded by unsmiling people, haunted by a recent past they could never speak about. What changed his life was the first German-language Donald Duck comic book that his father brought home one day. Opening the book felt like finally arriving in a world where he belonged:
"a decent world where one could get flattened by steam-rollers and perforated by bullets without serious harm. A world in which the people still looked proper, with yellow beaks or black knobs instead of noses." (Helnwein[35])[36]

In 2000, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art presented Helnwein's painting "Mouse I" (1995, oil and acrylic on canvas, 210 cm x 310 cm) at the exhibition The Darker Side of Playland: Childhood Imagery from the Logan Collection.
Alicia Miller commented on Helnwein's work in Artweek: "In 'The Darker Side of Playland', the endearing cuteness of beloved toys and cartoon characters turns menacing and monstrous. Much of the work has the quality of childhood nightmares. In those dreams, long before any adult understanding of the specific pains and evils that live holds, the familiar and comforting objects and images of a child's world are rent with something untoward. For children, not understanding what really to be afraid of, these dreams portend some pain and disturbance lurking into the landscape. Perhaps nothing in the exhibition exemplifies this better than Gottfried Helnwein's 'Mickey'. His portrait of Disney's favorite mouse occupies an entire wall of the gallery; rendered from an oblique angle, his jaunty, ingenuous visage looks somehow sneaky and suspicious. His broad smile, encasing a row of gleaming teeth, seems more a snarl or leer. This is Mickey as Mr. Hyde, his hidden other self now disturbingly revealed. Helnwein's Mickey is painted in shades of gray, as if pictured on an old black-and-white TV set. We are meant to be transported to the flickering edges of our own childhood memories in a time imaginably more blameless, crime-less and guiltless. But Mickey's terrifying demeanor hints of things to come ...".[37]

Although Helnwein's work is rooted in the legacy of German expressionism, he has absorbed elements of American pop culture. In the 1970s, he began to include cartoon characters in his paintings. In several interviews he claimed: "I learned more from Donald Duck than from all the schools that I have ever attended." Commenting on that aspect in Helnwein's work, Julia Pascal wrote in the New Statesman: "His early watercolor Peinlich (Embarrassing)[38] shows a typical little 1950s girl in a pink dress and carrying a comic book. Her innocent appeal is destroyed by the gash deforming her cheek and lips. It is as if Donald Duck had met Mengele".[39]

Living between Los Angeles and Ireland, Helnwein met and photographed the Rolling Stones in London, and his portrait of John F. Kennedy made the cover of Time magazine on the 20th anniversary of the president's assassination.[40] His self-portrait as screaming bandaged man, blinded by forks (1982) became the cover of the Scorpions album Blackout. Andy Warhol, Muhammad Ali, William Burroughs[41] and the German industrial metal band Rammstein[42] posed for him; some of his art-works appeared in the cover-booklet of Michael Jackson's History album.[43] Referring to the fall of the Berlin Wall Helnwein created the book Some Facts about Myself, together with Marlene Dietrich.[44] In 2003 he became friends with Marilyn Manson[45] and started a collaboration with him on the multi-media art-project The Golden Age of Grotesque and on several experimental video-projects. Among his widely published works is a spoof of the famous Edward Hopper painting Nighthawks, entitled Boulevard of Broken Dreams, depicting Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe, James Dean and Humphrey Bogart. This painting in turn inspired the song of the same name by Green Day.[46]

Examining his imagery from the 1970s to the present, one sees influences as diverse as Bosch, Goya, John Heartfield, Beuys and Mickey Mouse, all filtered through a postwar Viennese childhood.[47] 'Helnwein's oeuvre embraces total antipodes: The trivial alternates with visions of spiritual doom, the divine in the child contrasts with horror-images of child-abuse. But violence remains to be his basic theme – the physical and the emotional suffering, inflicted by one human being unto another.'[48]

References to the Holocaust[edit]

Gottfried Helnwein, Epiphany I (Adoration of the Magi), mixed media on canvas, 1996

1988 in remembrance of Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) 50 years earlier, Helnwein erected a large installation in the city center of Cologne, between Ludwig Museum and the Cologne Cathedral: Selektion – Neunter November Nacht ("Selektion – Ninth November Night) A four-meter-high, hundred-meter-long picture lane in which the artist recalls the events of Reichskristallnacht, often taken to be the beginning of the Holocaust, on 9 November 1938. He confronts the passersby with larger-than-life children's faces lined up in a seemingly endless row, as if for concentration camp selection. Just days into the exhibit, these portraits were vandalized by unknown persons, symbolically cutting the throats of the depicted children's faces. Helnwein consciously left the panels with the gashes and included them into the presentation, because he decided it made the work stronger and more relevant.[49][50]

Mitchell Waxman wrote 2004, in The Jewish Journal, Los Angeles: "The most powerful images that deal with Nazism and Holocaust themes are by Anselm Kiefer and Helnwein, although, Kiefer's work differs considerably from Helnwein's in his concern with the effect of German aggression on the national psyche and the complexities of German cultural heritage. Kiefer is known for evocative and soulful images of barren German landscapes. But Kiefer and Helnwein's work are both informed by the personal experience of growing up in a post-war German speaking country. William Burroughs said that the American revolution begins in books and music, and political operatives implement the changes after the fact. To this maybe we can add art. And Helnwein's art might have the capacity to instigate change by piercing the veil of political correctness to recapture the primitive gesture inherent in art.".[51]

One of the best known paintings of Helnwein's oeuvre is Epiphany IAdoration of the Magi, (1996, oil and acrylic on canvas, 210 cm x 333 cm, collection of the Denver Art Museum).[52] It is part of a series of three paintings: Epiphany I, Epiphany II (Adoration of the Shepherds), Epiphany III (Presentation at the Temple), created between 1996 and 1998. In Epiphany I, SS officers surround a mother and child group. To judge by their looks and gestures, they appear to be interested in details such as head, face, back and genitals. The arrangement of the figures clearly relates to motive and iconography of the adoration of the three Magi, such as were common especially in the German, Italian and Dutch 15th century artworks. Julia Pascal wrote about this work in the New Statesman: "This Austrian Catholic Nativity scene has no Magi bearing gifts. Madonna and child are encircled by five respectful Waffen SS officers palpably in awe of the idealised, blonde Virgin. The Christ toddler, who stands on Mary's lap, stares defiantly out of the canvas." Helnwein's baby Jesus is often considered to represent Adolf Hitler.[53]


  • Helnwein. Retrospective at the Albertina Museum Vienna, Hatje Cantz, 2013 Klaus Albrecht Schröder, Elsy Lahner, Howard N. Fox, Siegfried Mattl. ISBN 978-3-7757-3584-1.
  • The Child, Works by Gottfried Helnwein. One man exhibition 2004, San Francisco Fine Arts Museums. Robert Flynn Johnson, Harry S. Parker, Robert Flynn Johnson, The Child – Works by Gottfried Helnwein. ISBN 978-0-88401-112-5)
  • Face it, Works by Gottfried Helnwein. One man exhibition 2006, Lentos Museum of Modern Art Linz. Stella Rollig, Thomas Edlinger, Nava Semel, Stella Rollig, Presence and Time: Gottfried Helnwein's Pictures. Christian Brandstätter, Wien 2006. ISBN 978-3-902510-39-6.
  • Angels Sleeping – Retrospective Gottfried Helnwein. Retrospective 2004, Rudolfinum Gallery Prague. Peter Nedoma, 2008. Essay. ISBN 978-80-86443-11-9.
  • Gottfried Helnwein – Monograph. Retrospective 1997, State Russian Museum St. Petersburg. Alexander Borovsky, Klaus Honnef, Peter Selz, William Burroughs, Heiner Müller, H.C. Artmann, Klaus Honnef, Helnwein – The Subversive Power of Art. Palace Edition 1997, ISBN 978-3-930775-31-6. Koenemann 1999, ISBN 978-3-8290-1448-9.
  • Helnwein – Ninth November Night. 2003. Documentary, Commemoration of the 65th Anniversary of Kristallnacht, Museum of Tolerance, Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles. Johnathon Keats, Simon Wiesenthal, Johnathon Keats, Helnwein – The Art of Humanity

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Robert Flynn Johnson, Curator of the San Francisco Fine Arts Museums, "The Child – Works by Gottfried Helnwein", essay for the catalogue of the one man show at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, ISBN 978-0-88401-112-5, 2004
  2. ^ a b Michaelsen, Sven (20 November 2013). "Gottfried Helnwein: Der österreichische Maler im Interview". Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  3. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - His father Joseph Helnwein works at the Austrian Post and Telegraph administration, his mother Margarethe is a housewife".
  4. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - Strict Roman Catholic upbringing".
  5. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - First year at school with the Roman Catholic "School-Brothers"".
  6. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - 1965 to 1969 Studies at the "Higher Federal Institution for Graphic Education and Experimentation" in Vienna".
  7. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - First "Aktions" for small audiences".
  8. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - Helnwein studies at the University of Visual Art in Vienna (Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Wien)".
  9. ^ Alexander Borovsky, The State Russian Museum St. Petersburg, Gottfried Helnwein, monograph, Palace Edition, p. 405-417, ISBN 3-930775-31-X
  10. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - Gottfried Helnwein".
  11. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - Artist - Biography - Helnwein meets with Andy Warhol at his factory in New York".
  12. ^ Interview, Andreas Mackler talks with Gottfried Helnwein, 13. / 14. July and 21. / 22. September 1990, Verlag C.H.Beck, p.87, ISBN 3406340571,
  13. ^ Herbert Hufnagel, Kurier, Wien, Akademie: Helnwein als Professor-ein Schock?, Interview with Gottfried Helnwein, 13. Feb. 1985
  14. ^ Barnaby Conrad III, San Francisco Chronicle, German Portraits of Pain, Gottfried Helnwein reminds Society of its Past, 9 July 1992
  15. ^ Gemma Tipton, Irish Times, Fantasy and Reality in one Place, 4 June 2016
  16. ^ Lynell George, Los Angeles Times, Gottfried Helnwein - Dark Inspirations, 30 May 2008
  17. ^ Nicholas Haramis, New York Times, The Helnweins will see you now, 2 December 2014
  18. ^ Mic Moroney, Irish Arts Review, Apocalypse now, Spring 2015, p.86-89
  19. ^ Rose Martin, Irish Examiner, Déise delight – a Suir bet, 26 February 2011
  20. ^ Maeve Quigley, "Rocker ties Knot with Dita", Sunday Mirror, UK, 4 December 2005 Gottfried Helnwein | Ireland | Ireland Special | Rocker Ties Knot With Dita
  21. ^ People magazine, "Marilyn Manson Marries Girlfriend in Ireland", 4 December 2005
  22. ^ The wedding ceremony, Dita and Manson at Castle De la Poer, Ireland 2005, Alejandro Jodorowsky officiates at the wedding, Helnwein is best man, Gottfried Helnwein | Artist | Studio | Wedding ceremony, Dita and Manson at Castle De la Poer
  23. ^ Hamish Bowles, Steven Klein, "The Bride Wore Purple", Vogue, pages 546–556, March 2006
  24. ^ Madonna mit dem Kind und der SS, Berliner Zeitung, Arno Widmann, 6 October 2013
  25. ^ Helnwein, Gottfried. "Gottfried Helnwein - News - News Update - 250 000 Visitors Saw the Helnwein-Retrospective at the Albertina Museum".
  26. ^ Susanne Zobl, "Helnwein schliesst seine Albertina Ausstellung - 250 000 Besucher", News, Wien, 2013,
  27. ^ Roland Recht, 'Der Untermensch', Gottfried Helnwein, one-man show, Musée d'Art Moderne, Strasbourg, 1987
  28. ^ Peter Gorsen, "The Divided Self – Gottfried Helnwein in his Self-Portraits", "Der Untermensch", Verlag Braus, Heidelberg, 1988.
  29. ^ Nirmala Nataraj, "Gottfried Helnwein's The Child – Innocence Lost", SF Station, San Francisco, 15 August 2004 Gottfried Helnwein's The Child | SF Station
  30. ^ Steven Winn, Chronicle Arts and Culture Critic, "Critics Choices 2004, Top Ten", The San Francisco Chronicle, 26 December 2004
  31. ^ Peter Gorsen, Die Verwandlungskunst des Doppelgängers - zu den Selbstbildnissen bei Gottfried Helnwein, 'Der Untermensch', Verlag Braus, Heidelberg, J&V Verlag, Wien, January 1988. ISBN 3-925835-07-5
  32. ^ Peter Selz, Helnwein - The Artist as Provocateur, The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Palace Edition 1997, pp. 11–98, ISBN 5900872556
  33. ^ William S. Burroughs, "Helnwein's Work", 1990. Helnwein Faces, 1992 Edition Stemmle. ISBN 3-7231-0427-4
  34. ^ Robert A. Sobieszek, Ghost in the Shell, Photography and the Human Soul, 1850-2000, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2000.
  35. ^ Gottfried Helnwein, "Memories of Duckburg", translation from German: "Micky Maus unter dem roten Stern", Zeit-Magazin, Hamburg, 12 May 1989. Gottfried Helnwein | Texts | Selected Authors | Memories of Duckburg American Prayer
  36. ^ Petra Halkes, "A Fable in Pixels and Paint – Gottfried Helnwein's American Prayer". Image & Imagination, Le Mois de la Photo à Montréal, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005 (ISBN 978-0-7735-2969-4)
  37. ^ Alicia Miller, "The Darker Side of Playland: Childhood Imagery from the Logan Collection at SFMOMA", Artweek, US, 1 November 2000. Gottfried Helnwein | Press | English Press | 'The Darker Side of Playland: Childhood Imagery from the Logan Collection' at SF MOMASFMOMA San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
  38. ^ Gottfried Helnwein, Peinlich, color pencil, india-ink, and watercolor on cardboard, 60 x 35 cm, 1971 comic-helnwein
  39. ^ Pascal, Julia (10 April 2006). "Nazi Dreaming". New Statesman, UK.
  40. ^ "J.F.K.: How Good A President Was He?". Time. 14 November 1983. cover.
  41. ^ Gabriel Bauret, "Gottfried Helnwein", Camera International, Paris, 1 December 1992 Gottfried Helnwein William S. Burroughs Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Studio Helnwein, photo-session with Rammstein, Schloss Burgbrohl, 5 July 1998, Foto-Session with Rammstein Rammstein II Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ History – Past, Present and Future, CD cover booklet, Michael Jackson, 2005 Gottfried Helnwein | News | News Update | Helnwein's Art-Works in Michael Jackson's "History" Album Little Susie, History, Michel Jackson
  44. ^ Gottfried Helnwein, Marlene Dietrich, "Some Facts about Myself", Edition Cantz, Stuttgart, Kathleen Madden, New York, 1991, (ISBN 978-3-89322-226-1)
  45. ^ Evie Sullivan, Interview with Marilyn Manson, Inrock, Japan, July 2004 Interview with Marilyn Manson The Golden Age, Weeping Officer (Marilyn Manson) Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ Green Day: "American Idiots & the New Punk Explosion", The Disinformation Company, 2006, (Page 198), (ISBN 978-1-932857-32-0) Gottfried Helnwein | Artist | Bibliography | Green Day: American Idiots & the New Punk Explosion
  47. ^ Julia Pascal, "Nazi Dreaming", New Statesman, UK, 10 April 2006
  48. ^ Gregory Fuller, "Endzeit-Stimmung – Düstere Bilder in Goldener Zeit", Du Mont Publishing House, Cologne, 1994.
  49. ^ Roland Mischke, "Aefflinge und Tschandalen", Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 11. October 1988.
  50. ^ Simon Wiesenthal, "Thoughts", Ninth November Night, Installation by Gottfried Helnwein, 09. November 1988
  51. ^ Mitchell Waxman, "The Helnwein Epiphany", The Jewish Journal, Los Angeles, 23 July 2004
  52. ^ Kelly Grovier, Art since 1989, Thames & Hudson, World of Art, London, 2015, ISBN 9780500204269
  53. ^ "Julia Pascal, "Nazi Dreaming", New Statesman, UK, 10 April 2006". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2007.

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