St Saviour's Cathedral, Goulburn
|St Saviour's Cathedral|
|Cathedral Church of Saint Saviour|
|Location||170 Bourke Street, Goulburn, New South Wales|
|Denomination||Anglican Church of Australia|
|Former name(s)||Church of Saint Saviour|
|Founded||14 January 1874|
|Founder(s)||Bishop Mesac Thomas|
|Dedication||Jesus, in his title of Saviour|
|Architectural type||Victorian Revival|
|Length||45.7 metres (150 ft)|
|Width||16.4 metres (54 ft)|
|Diocese||Canberra and Goulburn|
|Dean||Very Revd. Phillip Noel Saunders|
|Official name||St. Saviour's Cathedral|
|Criteria||a., b., c., d., e., f., g.|
|Designated||20 April 2009|
The St Saviour's Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Anglican Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn, Australia. The cathedral is dedicated to Jesus, in his title of Saviour. The current dean is the Very Reverend Phillip Saunders.
Commenced in 1874 and finally dedicated in 1884, St Saviour's Cathedral is of State significance because it is one of the finest designs by the leading colonial ecclesiastical architect, Edmund Thomas Blacket. It reflects the characteristics of a Victorian Gothic style church and has a masterly use of materials, design and detail. Blacket also designed the Parish Hall adjacent to the Cathedral which was used as the Pro-Cathedral before the new Cathedral was finished. The Cathedral has a grand scale with nave, aisles, transepts, chancel, porches and tower; large and elaborate stone traceried windows and an impressive interior with a heavily carved hammer beam roof, clustered columns and foliage capitals, elaborately moulded arcades and chancel arch, and a striking use of figurative roundels in the nave, transepts and chancel. The tower however was not completed until 1988/9.
The Cathedral site is the place from which the Anglican Diocese of Goulburn developed. It also provides physical evidence of the growth and importance of Goulburn as a regional centre in the latter half of the 19th century. The building has social and spiritual significance for both Anglicans and the broader community as a place of worship. It is the centre of the Diocese; it draws visitors for its aesthetic value and for the highly significant cultural collection associated with the cathedral.The Moveable Collection is highly significant. The Cathedral's moveable collection shows a high degree of consistency between the design of the building and its contents. Two unique features are a pulpit crucifix carved by Blacket in 1842 and, within Australia, the 14 MacIntosh medallions depicting the life of Christ. The Cathedral provides a tangible connection with the Community of the Ascension, the first religious order for men in Australia, through the relocation to the Cathedral precinct of a number of items associated with the members. The Cathedral's twelve bells give it the distinction of being the only Regional Tower in the Southern Hemisphere with such a peal and the thirteenth bell, the Flat 6th, allows for special ringing effects.— Statement of significance, New South Wales State Heritage Register.
In 1840 a simple brick church to the designs of a Sydney architect, James Hume, was erected. This Church of Saint Saviour was in the manner of English parish churches with a bold square western tower and a simple axiality complimenting the Georgian town plan.
By the early 1860s, when the Diocese of Sydney could not functionally minister to the Goulburn area, it was decided that the Diocese of Goulburn should be created. Accordingly, Bishop Mesac Thomas was consecrated in 1861 and the need for a cathedral church came to be considered. When the brick church was taken down the bricks were reused in the floor of the current cathedral.
It was not until 1871, however, that cathedral plans came to be actively considered. Three years later, on 15 January 1874, the foundation stone of the cathedral church was laid. The Cathedral Church of Saint Saviour was designed by Edmund Blacket, a noted Colonial ecclesiastical architect. Blacket had already had some involvement with the church site at Goulburn. In 1843 he had designed a pulpit for James Hume's original brick church which was approved by Bishop Broughton and then installed.
Since Blacket's cathedral was to take ten years to construct, Blacket was also asked to design a smaller pro-cathedral and parish Sunday school. This building was completed in 1874 and still stands within the cathedral precinct, to the west of the cathedral itself. The first Anglican church, St Saviour's, was completed in 1839 and this later became the pro-cathedral. The first resident Anglican priest of that church was William Sowerby, who had been trained at St Bees Theological College in Cumberland, England, and moved to Australia in 1836 to answer the call for more clergy. Sowerby later became the first Dean of St Saviour's.
The Blacket cathedral was one of the architect's greatest works. It was really the only cathedral he designed unencumbered by distance, financial stringency and unsympathetic clients. It was a favourite building and Blacket spent much of the last nine years of his life working on it. Blacket gave to the cathedral a crucifix which he had carved in his youth; a controversial gift which the authorities hid away for many years. The cathedral is unmistakably a Blacket church, on a grand scale, with nave, aisles, transepts, chancel, porches and tower. It has large and elaborate stone traceried windows and an interior with a heavily carved hammer beam roof, clustered columns and foliage capitals, elaborately moulded arcades and chancel arch and the use of figurative roundels in the nave, transepts and chancel. The tower and spire, however, were never completed. The cathedral cost 20,000 pounds at the time of its completion in 1884.
Many attempts were made subsequent to Blacket's death in 1883 and the completion of the cathedral proper one year later, to complete the cathedral's tower and spire but all these attempts were to no avail. In 1909, Edmund's son Cyril prepared documents for the completion of the tower and spire. A commemorative stone was even laid within the tower base to signal recommencement of the tower building but nothing more was done. In the 1920s, a Melbourne architect, Louis A. Williams, was asked to advise the diocese on the state of the tower footings. He reported that "...as a result of my examination of the structure and [Blacket] drawings, I can assure you that the present tower stump and footings are of ample strength to bear the proposed superstructure." Still no further work was undertaken.
Some ten years later, Williams and a Sydney architect, Sir Charles Rosenthal, produced a joint scheme for the new cathedral tower and spire. Again, however, no work issued from all this activity. Perhaps this inactivity resulted from particularly pessimistic analyses of the tower foundations to carry the weight of the building. The stringencies imposed by World War Il also dampened enthusiasm and restricted available monies. It was not until 1984 and the introduction of the Australian Bicentennial commemorative program that funds became available for the completion of the tower and spire. A grant of $1,000,000 was announced in that year by the Premier of New South Wales and the Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn agreed to provide additional funds.
Tower spire project
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A series of tasks were early identified as critical to the project's success. The first task was the undertaking of a thorough geotechnical examination of the existing tower founding material. This investigation showed quite clearly that the existing footings to the tower were not adequate to carry the load of the intended tower and spire. Nine metre bore holes were drilled through the existing foundations and a footing/soil profile was established. This soil profile showed that beneath the sandstone and lime concrete footings was a 1.5 to 2.0 metre band of sandy clay, and weathered sandstone, which was judged inadequate to carry the tower loads, particularly under the stress of wind and seismic loading.
As a result of this study, engineering documentation was prepared for the underpinning of the existing tower. This work involved the excavation of the interior of the tower base to a depth of 8.5 metres. For this excavation, "drives" were taken out diagonally under each buttress for a length of four metres. These drives were then excavated clean and a reinforced concrete structure poured into the drive. The drive was then sealed and an adjacent area excavated. This process was continued until the tower walls were underpinned. This underpinning work was made more complex by the requirement to preserve intact the grave of Bishop Chalmers, directly to the east of the tower wall. At the completion of underpinning, the tower core was filled with mass concrete. During the excavation preparatory to the underpinning work, considerable ground water was also encountered at the cathedral sub-floor level. This ground water had followed the underlying rock strata and pooled at the cathedral east end and tower walls. Drainage of this sub-floor water is part of the associated cathedral conservation project.
A second task faced by the project team was the preparation of adequate "base" drawings for the tower project, and for the related conservation project that was to proceed simultaneously with the tower. Fortunately, the team was aided in this work by the Australian Survey Office, who undertook the photo grammetrical survey of the entire cathedral. Base plans had also to be produced of every stone course within the proposed building, to allow an early understanding of stone sizes and quantities.
A third task was the investigation of suitable stone types and sources for the proposed building. The demolished remains of a local stone bridge, the Fitzroy Bridge, which once spanned the Wollondilly River east of Goulburn were available. This stone, though plentiful in quantity and though from the same quarry source, was not adequate in quantity or dimension to fulfil the requirements for the proposed tower and spire. A search for the original quarry was begun and it was eventually found just east of a small town called Marulan, some 30 kilometres east of Goulburn. The quarry, which had not been disturbed for almost a hundred years, was an archaeological site, but not suited to the extraction of stone in the quantities required by the project. The costs of re-opening the quarry were outside the resources of the project. Other sources were investigated and eventually an operational quarry north of Sydney was selected for the supply of stone to the project. This quarry, Central Coast Quarries, had the ability to provide the quantities of stone work required as well as the capacity to produce profiled stone. The Fitzroy Bridge stone was used for the "rock faced: body work, being appropriately sized for that use. When the project commenced other sources became known, particularly another source of (original) Marulan stone left unused at another Goulburn church.
The final task of this first, investigative phase was for the consultant team to visit other bell towers and spires within Australia. Only one other "completion" project of similar size and philosophical intent has been completed in Australia, That project, at Bendigo in Victoria, was visited by the consultant team and considerable data was exchanged with that project's architects.
On 1 August 1986 the stonemasons commenced work at the Goulburn site. The team had been assembled from Goulburn and environs, which had a rich and continuing tradition of stonemasonry work. The project manager and a specialist setter-out draughtsman were brought out from England to assist the project as no similar expertise existed within Australia.
Initially, the stonemasons were engaged in preparing the Fitzroy Bridge stone for the rock faced work. The setter-out draughtsman commenced the preparation of stone "shop drawings" for use by the masons. Working from a 1:100 scale plans and elevations, the draughtsman prepared drawings scheduling every stone in the building. Full-size drawings were then prepared of architectural elements, such as windows, string course, profiles and friezes. From these full-size drawings profiles for all stones were prepared as well as isometric drawings for each "special" stone were made available to the stonemasons. With the profile and isometric shop drawings, the masons prepared the worked stone for the project.
Parallel with this activity, engineering drawings were prepared for the concrete structure within the tower. This structure was required to stabilise the tower upper structure and support the thirteen bell bell-peal to be hung on the tower. Considerable work was done on the likely loadings imposed by the large bell peal and the concrete internal frame adopted as a result.
On 1 August 1986, the stonemasons commenced work at the Goulburn site. The team had been assembled from Goulburn and environs, which had a rich and continuing tradition of stonemasonry work. The project manager and a specialist setter-out draughtsman were brought out from England to assist the project as no similar expertise existed within Australia.
Building commenced in February 1987. The first work was to remove the existing Church of Saint Saviour's tenor bell, the existing (temporary) roof, and the weathered render to the top of the wall. During this work, the 1909 commemoration stone was discovered. It has always been a tenet of the consultant's work on the project that their building would resemble Edmund Blacket's original design as closely as possible. In accordance with this principal, it was decided very early that the tower/spire would be a mass masonry structure, with the concrete substructure introduced only as demanded by seismic and bell ringing loads. The mass structure employed was of face sandstone with 'through' stones as required, with a mass brickwork backing making up the rest of the wall. This dry press brickwork was to be laid integrally with the stonework in garden bond.
The spire is yet to be completed.
St Saviour's has twelve bells. Eight of these were obtained from St Mark's Church in Leicester, England. They were restored at John Taylor Bell Foundry in Loughborough. The eight bells were "baptised", in the grounds of the cathedral, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, and installed ready to ring by October 1988. The eight bells were named after the ships of the First Fleet. In increasing order of size, they are: Supply, Friendship, Lady Penrhyn, Prince of Wales, Charlotte, Scarborough, Alexander and the Tenor bell Sirius, which is the largest bell at 21 long hundredweight (1,100 kg).
In 1985 a grant was received from the Bicentennial Authority to enable the completion of the tower and spire and to install the rest of the bells which were included in Blacket's original 1871 design. In 1993 two more bells, Golden Grove and Fishburn were added to the top of the bell ring to give the Cathedral a ring of ten bells. The final two trebles, Endeavour and Borrowdale, were added in May 2005, thus completing the peal of twelve bells.
Ringing tower bells requires training for several months. The bells swing through a full 360° so that they can be rung in a specific order. The ringer must control the swing of the bell so that they ring in the correct place. Bellringers do not ring by a musical score but by numbers. Special sequences can be rung so that every combination of the bells are rung.
The Service Bell is named Mesac, after the first bishop. It is the fourteenth bell in the tower but is not part of the full circle peal. The Mesac Bell is the original bell out of the St Saviour's Church and was created at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. St Saviour's belltower is the only regional tower in the Southern Hemisphere to boast a peal of 12+1 bells, attracting many national and international ringers to the tower.
|3rd||Golden Grove||1993||257||5.05||HMS Golden Grove|
|6th flat||Arthur Phillip||2005||377||7.42||Arthur Phillip|
|7th||Lady Penrhyn||1872||404||7.96||HMS Lady Penrhyn|
|8th||Prince of Wales||1872||424||8.34||HMS Prince of Wales|
The organ was built in 1884 by Forster & Andrews of Hull and was originally placed in the west gallery. In 1902 the organ was moved from the gallery to its present position in the chancel end of the south aisle, where it was reconfigured and provided with tubular-pneumatic action. Restored in 1978-9 by Brown and Arkley, the action was changed to electro-pneumatic. The organ has 3 manuals and 37 speaking stops.
Deans and bishops
Deans of Goulburn
The following individuals have served as Deans of Goulburn:
|Ordinal||Name||Term start||Term end||Notes|
|2||William Henry Pownell||1891||1895|
|-||post vacant||c. 1908||1947|||
|3||Arnold Collingwood King||1947||1966|||
|4||Ronald Earl Moon||1986||1992|
|5||Godfrey Charles Fryar||1993||1998||Later the Bishop of Rockhampton, 2003.|
|6||Kenyon Vincent McKie||1999||2004|||
|7||Phillip Noel Saunders||2004||incumbent|
Incumbents of St Saviour's
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The following individuals have served as incumbents at St Saviour's:
|Ordinal||Name||Term start||Term end||Notes|
|2||Alfred Teed Puddicombe||1876||1896|
|3||William Charles Pritchard||1896||1901|
|5||Arthur Robert Bartlett||1903||1913|
|6||George Albert Carver||1914||1921|
|7||John William Ward||1921||1927|
|8||Arthur Philip Wales||1927||1932|
|9||Gordon Hamilton Hirst||1932||1937|
|10||Kenneth Lesley McKeown||1937||1941|
|11||Arnold Collingswood King||1941||1966|
|12||Harold Ernest Palmer||1967||1981|
|13||Lyall Alexander Turley||1981||1985|
|14||Ronald Earl Moon||1986||1992|
|15||Godfrey Charles Fryar||1993||1998|
|16||Kenyon Vincent McKie||1999||2004|
|17||Phillip Noel Saunders||2004||incumbent|
- "St. Saviour's Cathedral". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
- "After 110 years the tower rises". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 26 February 1986. p. 32. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "New Anglican dean for Goulburn". Trove. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
- "New Goulburn Dean brings wide pastoral experience". Goulburn Post. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
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