The council was formed as the Greater Argyle Council in 2004 as an amalgamation of Goulburn City and parts of the former Mulwaree Shire. It was renamed in 2005 following objections from the community.
Goulburn Mulwaree Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as one entire ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office. The Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 8 September 2012, and the makeup of the Council is as follows: