Gould water tower
Location of Gould in Lincoln County, Arkansas.
|• Total||1.55 sq mi (4.02 km2)|
|• Land||1.55 sq mi (4.02 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)|
|Elevation||164 ft (50 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||486.78/sq mi (187.97/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0077045|
Gould is a city in Lincoln County, Arkansas, United States. Its population was 1,305 at the 2000 U.S. census. It is included in the Pine Bluff, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gould is a farming community. It was named after the American railroad magnate Jay Gould.
Gould is located at (33.985920, -91.561578).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2), all land. It sits near the western edge of the Arkansas Delta in the Delta Lowlands sub-region.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,305 people, 498 households, and 340 families residing in the city. The population density was 844.4 people per square mile (325.1/km²). There were 602 housing units at an average density of 389.5/sq mi (150.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.01% Black or African American, 20.23% White, 0.38% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.77% from other races, and 0.54% from two or more races. 1.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 498 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.9% were married couples living together, 32.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.17.
In the city, the population was spread out with 31.9% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 70.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $19,031, and the median income for a family was $24,028. Males had a median income of $25,833 versus $18,583 for females. The per capita income for the city was $11,881. About 28.0% of families and 35.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.9% of those under age 18 and 33.6% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure
As of 2011 Earnest Nash, Jr. is the Mayor of Gould. He is a member of the Gould Citizens Advisory Council, a political group.
Around 2011 Gould had almost $300,000 ($334127.22 when adjusted for inflation) in unpaid taxes. The mayor, the group, and the city council experienced conflict over how to pay the taxes. The council believed that the citizen's group was trying to take too much influence in the city government. In June 2011 the council passed an ordinance saying that it is illegal to form any group without the permission of the city council. The mayor vetoed the law. On July 12, 2011, the council overrode the veto. The council also overrode a veto on a bill stating that the citizen's council may no longer exist and that the mayor may not meet with any organization in any location inside or outside the Gould city limits without the permission of the city council. The mayor stated that he refuses to stop meeting with groups, and that he would go to jail if given the choice between going to jail or not associating with the group. Nash said that the ordinances were not allowed under the U.S. Constitution and that Gould citizens are generally ignoring them. On Monday, July 18, 2011, Sonya Farley, a council member, said that the council plans to rewrite the ordinances in a manner that is constitutional. In August 2011 the city council repealed the ordinances.
Donna Terrell, a reporter at KLRT-TV Fox 16 News of Little Rock, Arkansas, said "You’ve got to be kidding me" when she heard about the ordinances. Terrell added that in communities "where everyone knows everyone" political conflict became very severe. Mark Hayes, the general counsel of the Arkansas Municipal League, said "I’ve seen some humdingers, but never any ordinance like this." Robbie Brown of The New York Times said that the ordinances are an indicator that Gould's politics had become "nasty". Brown added that legal scholars said that the law forbidding the formation of groups without the city council's permission was blatantly unconstitutional.
On July 28, 2011 a man assaulted Nash, who accused his assailant of being allied with his political opponents. On Wednesday August 20, 2011, the two men were arrested in connection with the assault. One individual was originally charged with a felony but in April 2012 the charges were downgraded to a misdemeanor, and the other individual had his criminal charges dismissed.
The Dumas Public School District serves Gould. Previously the Gould School District served Gould. In 2004 the Arkansas Legislature approved a law that forced school districts with fewer than 350 students apiece to consolidate with other districts. As a result, on July 1, 2004, the Gould district merged into the Dumas district. In the fall of 2005 the district planned to move all Gould students in grades 7-12 to the Dumas schools, and considered doing the same to the elementary school students from Gould.
Prior to the advent of court-mandated integration, separate schools were maintained for black students. When integration occurred, the backlash resulted in the establishment of Southeast Academy, a segregation academy, which opened in 1968 with 113 students.
- Cleo Miller - Retired running back for the Kansas City Chiefs and the Cleveland Browns, was born in Gould.
- Ozell Sutton - civil rights activist, was born near Gould on a plantation.
- "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Aug 22, 2018.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved March 24, 2018.
- Brown, Robbie. "Arkansas Town Draws a Line on Clubs." The New York Times. July 19, 2011. Retrieved on July 27, 2011.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Finding Aids to Collections in the Archive of Folk Culture ARKANSAS COLLECTIONS IN THE ARCHIVE OF FOLK CULTURE." Library of Congress. Retrieved on April 21, 2014. "Recorded at the Cumins state farm in Gould, Arkansas, by John A. Lomax, October 1934."
- "State Capitol Week in Review" (Archive) State of Arkansas. June 13, 2008. Retrieved on August 15, 2010. "Executions are carried out in the Cummins Unit, which is adjacent to Varner."
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Matthews, Gerard. "Gould City Council repeals unconstitutional ordinances." Arkansas Times. Wednesday August 10, 2011. Retrieved on April 21, 2014.
- Matthews, Gerard. "Things get ugly in Gould." Arkansas Times. Thursday July 28, 2011. Retrieved on April 21, 2014.
- Matthews, Gerard. "Two arrested for attack on Gould mayor." Arkansas Times. Wednesday August 10, 2011. Retrieved on April 21, 2014.
- Millar, Lindsey. "No jail time for men charged with assaulting Gould mayor." Arkansas Times. April 2, 2012. Retrieved on April 21, 2014.
- "Post Office™ Location - GOULD Archived 2011-05-19 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on March 6, 2011. "305 W JACKSON ST GOULD, AR 71643-9998"
- "Consolidation/Annexations of LEA's (1983-2010) Archived 2010-09-24 at the Wayback Machine." Arkansas Department of Education. Retrieved on March 6, 2011.
- "Dumas inherits Gould district’s deficit Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine." Arkansas News. May 11, 2005. Retrieved on March 7, 2011.
- "Integrated School Shunned". The Corpus Christ Caller-Times. 20 September 1968.
- "Gould, Arkansas Chapter 9 Petition" (PDF). PacerMonitor. PacerMonitor. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- http://www.nwaonline.com/adg/News/223888/[permanent dead link]
- NFL-Cleo Miller
- The Historymakers-Ozell Sutton