|勾漏方言 Ngaulau Yut|
|Native to||Southern China|
|6.9 million (1998)|
Pinghua groups in Guangxi and GuangdongGoulou, among other Yue and
Yulin dialect is representative, though Bobai is better known.
- Yulin dialect
- Guangning dialect
- Huaiji dialect
- Fengkai dialect
- Deqing dialect
- Yunan dialect
- Shanglin dialect
- Binyang dialect
- Tengxian dialect
Bobai dialect is widely cited as having the most tones of any variety of Chinese, though it actually only has six, the same as most Yue dialects. The reason for the claim is that Bobai makes a four-way tonal distinction in checked syllables, whereas most other Yue dialects have three. In Yulin dialect just to the north of Bobai, however, neither entering tone is split: there are just two entering tones, 7 and 8. Lee (1993) believes that Bobai is innovative in having split 8, whereas Yulin (along with several neighboring interior Yue dialects) is innovative in having merged a former split in 7: proto-Yue probably had 7a, 7b, and 8.
Many Yue varieties exhibit a "changed tone" with some semantic content. Such tones occur in the Yulin dialect, in checked syllables only, marking diminutives. In such cases, the final stop -p, -t or -k is changed to a homorganic nasal -m, -n or -ŋ, respectively, and the pitch contour is also altered. This seems to be a trace of a now-lost suffix similar to ér (兒, Middle Chinese nye) in other Chinese varieties.
- Gina Lee, 1993. Comparative, diachronic and experimental perspectives on the interaction between tone and the vowel in Standard Cantonese
- Ann Yue, 1979. The Teng-xian Dialect of Chinese: Its Phonology, Lexicon and Texts with Grammatical Notes. Computational Analysis of Asian and African Languages Monograph Series, No. 3
- Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Goulou". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Tan, Yutian (2011). "The origin and nature of high rising diminutive Tone Change in Siyi Dialect" (PDF). In Jing-Schmidt, Zhuo (ed.). Proceedings of the 23rd North American Conference on Chinese Lingusitics (NACCL-23), Volume 2. pp. 190–207.
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