Government of Austria

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Austrian Government
Bundesregierung
Austria Bundesadler.svg
Overview
CountryRepublic of Austria
LeaderChancellor
Appointed byPresident
Ministries11
HeadquartersFederal Chancellery

The Government of Austria (German: Österreichische Bundesregierung, lit. 'Austrian Federal Government') is the executive cabinet of the Republic of Austria. It is composed of the Chancellor, who is head of government, the Vice-Chancellor, and the ministers.

Nomination[edit]

Since the 1929 reform of the Austrian Constitution, all members of the Federal Government are appointed by the Austrian Federal President.[1] As the Federal Government must maintain the confidence of parliament, the President must generally abide by the will of that body in his or her appointments. In practice, the leader of the strongest political party, who ran as a "chancellor candidate" in a parliamentary election, is usually asked to become Federal Chancellor, though there have been some exceptions. Ministers are proposed for nomination by the Chancellor, though the President is permitted to withhold his or her approval. Likewise, the President may dismiss the Chancellor and/or the whole government at any time. If this occurs, a new government must then be formed by the parties that control parliament.

Functioning[edit]

Cabinet room in the Austrian Chancellery

The government is convened for frequently scheduled meetings. When formally convened as such, the government is termed the Council of Ministers (German: Ministerrat), which is equivalent to the word "cabinet". The Chancellor presides over cabinet meetings as first among equals without decisional authority, regardless of his right of proposal concerning the appointment of the government's members by the President. The cabinet adopts resolutions in the presence of at least half of its members and, according to the ruling of the Austrian Constitutional Court, unanimously – in particular the introduction of bills to the National Council. Each federal minister is also responsible for his or her own ministry, and may be supported by one or more state secretaries, who also participate in the cabinet's meetings. State secretaries are not considered members of the government, and have no right to vote during cabinet meetings.

Current government[edit]

The current government of Austria is a coalition government formed by the center-right Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and the far-right Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). It was appointed on 18 December 2017 by President Alexander Van der Bellen.

Historical[edit]

First Republic[edit]

After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, on 30 October 1918 the provisional national assembly of German Austria elected a State Council (Staatsrat) executive, which itself appointed a state government with the Social Democratic politician Karl Renner as head of the State Chancellery. The Renner ministry was composed of representatives of the three main political parties—Social Democrats, the Christian Social Party (CS) and German Nationalists (Greater Germans)—according to the Proporz doctrine. As acting executive body it remained in office until the Constitutional Assembly of the Austrian First Republic on 15 March 1919 elected Renner's second cabinet, a coalition government of Social Democratic and Christian Social ministers.

State Chancellor Renner had signed the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, whereafter his cabinet retired en bloc. Re-elected by the Constitutional Assembly on 17 October 1919, his third cabinet was finally overturned with the break-up of the SPÖ-CS coalition on 7 July 1920. Renner was succeeded by the Christian Social politician Michael Mayr, who at the commencement of the Austria Constitution on 10 November 1920 became first Federal Chancellor of Austria. Mayr and his successors proceeded with the support of the Christian Social Party and the Greater German nationalists, while the Social Democrats remained in opposition.

From 5 March 1933 onwards, the Christian Social chancellor Engelbert Dollfuß continued to rule by suppressing the National Council parliament. In the course of the Austrian Civil War he brought down the opposition, and on 1 May 1934 implemented the authoritarian Federal State of Austria. All political parties were banned, except for the Fatherland's Front supporting Dollfuß' Austrofascist government. The Federal Government ceased at the Anschluss (the incorporation of Austria into Nazi Germany) on 13 March 1938.

Second Republic[edit]

On 27 April 1945 a provisional Austrian national unity government, again under State Chancellor Karl Renner, declared the Anschluss null and void. It prepared the elections to the Austrian National Council held on 25 November. On 20 December 1945, the Austrian Constitution was officially re-enacted, with ÖVP founder Leopold Figl forming the first post-war Federal Government.

List of cabinets since 1945:

Governments of Austria
Name of Government Duration of Government Chancellor Vice-Chancellor Parties Involved Election
Renner April 27, 1945 – December 20, 1945 Karl Renner1 N/A ÖVP, SPÖ, KPÖ none
Figl I December 20, 1945 – November 8, 1949 Leopold Figl (ÖVP) Adolf Schärf (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ, KPÖ 1945
Figl II November 8, 1949 – October 28, 1952 Leopold Figl (ÖVP) Adolf Schärf (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ 1949
Figl III October 28, 1952 – April 2, 1953 Leopold Figl (ÖVP) Adolf Schärf (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ
Raab I April 2, 1953 – June 29, 1956 Julius Raab (ÖVP) Adolf Schärf (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ 1953
Raab II June 29, 1956 – July 16, 1959 Julius Raab (ÖVP) Adolf Schärf (SPÖ), Bruno Pittermann (SPÖ)² ÖVP, SPÖ 1956
Raab III July 16, 1959 – November 3, 1960 Julius Raab (ÖVP) Bruno Pittermann (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ 1959
Raab IV November 3, 1960 – April 11, 1961 Julius Raab (ÖVP) Bruno Pittermann (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ
Gorbach I April 11, 1961 – March 27, 1963 Alfons Gorbach (ÖVP) Bruno Pittermann (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ
Gorbach II March 27, 1963 – April 2, 1964 Alfons Gorbach (ÖVP) Bruno Pittermann (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ 1962
Klaus I April 2, 1964 – April 19, 1966 Josef Klaus (ÖVP) Bruno Pittermann (SPÖ) ÖVP, SPÖ
Klaus II April 19, 1966 – April 21, 1970 Josef Klaus (ÖVP) Fritz Bock (ÖVP), Hermann Withalm (ÖVP)³ ÖVP 1966
Kreisky I April 21, 1970 – November 4, 1971 Bruno Kreisky (SPÖ) Rudolf Häuser (SPÖ) SPÖ 1970
Kreisky II November 4, 1971 – October 28, 1975 Bruno Kreisky (SPÖ) Rudolf Häuser (SPÖ) SPÖ 1971
Kreisky III October 28, 1975 – June 5, 1979 Bruno Kreisky (SPÖ) Rudolf Häuser (SPÖ), Hannes Androsch (SPÖ)4 SPÖ 1975
Kreisky IV June 5, 1979 – May 24, 1983 Bruno Kreisky (SPÖ) Hannes Androsch (SPÖ), Fred Sinowatz (SPÖ)5 SPÖ 1979
Sinowatz May 24, 1983 – June 16, 1986 Fred Sinowatz (SPÖ) Norbert Steger (FPÖ) SPÖ, FPÖ 1983
Vranitzky I June 16, 1986 – January 21, 1987 Franz Vranitzky (SPÖ) Norbert Steger (FPÖ) SPÖ, FPÖ
Vranitzky II January 21, 1987 – December 17, 1990 Franz Vranitzky (SPÖ) Alois Mock (ÖVP), Josef Riegler (ÖVP)6 SPÖ, ÖVP 1986
Vranitzky III December 17, 1990 – November 29, 1994 Franz Vranitzky (SPÖ) Josef Riegler (ÖVP), Erhard Busek (ÖVP)7 SPÖ, ÖVP 1990
Vranitzky IV November 29, 1994 – March 12, 1996 Franz Vranitzky (SPÖ) Erhard Busek (ÖVP), Wolfgang Schüssel (ÖVP)8 SPÖ, ÖVP 1994
Vranitzky V March 12, 1996 – January 28, 1997 Franz Vranitzky (SPÖ) Wolfgang Schüssel (ÖVP) SPÖ, ÖVP 1995
Klima January 28, 1997 – February 4, 2000 Viktor Klima (SPÖ) Wolfgang Schüssel (ÖVP) SPÖ, ÖVP
Schüssel I February 4, 2000 – February 28, 2003 Wolfgang Schüssel (ÖVP) Susanne Riess-Passer (FPÖ) ÖVP, FPÖ 1999
Schüssel II February 28, 2003 – January 11, 2007 Wolfgang Schüssel (ÖVP) Herbert Haupt (FPÖ), Hubert Gorbach (FPÖ/BZÖ)9 ÖVP, FPÖ, BZÖ 2002
Gusenbauer January 11, 2007 – December 2, 2008 Alfred Gusenbauer (SPÖ) Wilhelm Molterer (ÖVP) SPÖ, ÖVP 2006
Faymann I December 2, 2008 – December 16, 2013 Werner Faymann (SPÖ) Josef Pröll (ÖVP), Michael Spindelegger (ÖVP)10 SPÖ, ÖVP 2008
Faymann II December 16, 2013 – May 17, 2016 Werner Faymann (SPÖ) Michael Spindelegger (ÖVP) SPÖ, ÖVP 2013
Kern May 18, 2016 – December 18, 2017 Christian Kern (SPÖ) Reinhold Mitterlehner (ÖVP), Wolfgang Brandstetter (ÖVP)11 SPÖ, ÖVP
Kurz December 18, 2017 – incumbent Sebastian Kurz (ÖVP) Heinz-Christian Strache (FPÖ) ÖVP, FPÖ 2017

Notes

1) Karl Renner acted only as a supervisor of the provisional government
2) As Adolf Schärf was elected as the President of Austria, Bruno Pittermann acted as the vice-chancellor from May 22, 1957.
3) From January 19, 1968 afterwards, Hermann Withalm acted as the vice-chancellor.
4) Rudolf Häuser acted as the vice-chancellor until September 30, 1976. From October 1, 1976, Hannes Androsch acted as the vice-chancellor.
5) Fred Sinowatz acted as the vice-chancellor from January 20, 1981.
6) Until April 24, 1989, Alois Mock acted as the vice-chancellor. From April 24, 1989, Josef Riegler acted as the vice-chancellor.
7) From July 2, 1991, Erhard Busek acted as the vice-chancellor.
8) From May 4, 1995, Wolfgang Schüssel acted as the vice-chancellor.
9) Until October 20, 2003, Herbert Haupt acted as the vice-chancellor. From October 21, 2003, Hubert Gorbach acted as the vice-chancellor. Until April 17, 2005, Gorbach's party affiliation was FPÖ, then BZÖ.
10) Until April 20, 2011, Josef Pröll acted as the vice-chancellor. From April 21, 2011, Michael Spindelegger acted as the vice-chancellor.
11) Until May 17, 2017, Reinhold Mitterlehner acted as the vice-chancellor. From May 17, 2017, Wolfgang Brandstetter acted as the vice-chancellor.
Traditional colours
Austrian People's Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP)
Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ), until 1991: Socialist Party of Austria
Communist Party of Austria (Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, KPÖ)
Freedom Party of Austria (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ)
Alliance for the Future of Austria (Bündnis Zukunft Österreich, BZÖ)
.
Source: Kanzler und Regierungen seit 1945. Federal Chancellery of Austria Web Site. Vienna, Federal Chancellery of Austria 2006. German English

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Article 70 of the Federal Constitutional Law