Government of National Unity (South Africa)

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Between 27 April 1994 and 3 February 1997, South Africa was governed under the terms of the Interim Constitution of South Africa. Clause 88 of the interim Constitution required that any party holding twenty or more seats in the National Assembly could claim one or more cabinet portfolios and enter the government. This arrangement was known as the provision for a Government of National Unity (GNU).


In the election of 27 April 1994, the African National Congress obtained the majority of seats in the National Assembly, and thus could form the government on its own. The two chief parties who made use of the provision for a GNU were the National Party and the Inkatha Freedom Party, both of which obtained cabinet portfolios for their leaders and other members of parliament. President Nelson Mandela also invited other parties to join the cabinet, even though they did not obtain the minimum twenty seats in the National Assembly.

The aims of the GNU centred on correcting social and economic injustices left by the legacy of Apartheid. The main aim, however, was that of creating a final constitution. The constitution was essentially a two-step process. During the CODESA talks – started in 1991 – the NP (National Party) and ANC (African National Congress) agreed to create an interim constitution, which would be the basis for a final constitution. The final constitution was to be drawn up by the two chambers of parliament – the Senate and National Assembly.

However, it was important to the GNU that the opinions of ordinary South Africans be included into the constitution. From 1994 to 1996 the GNU organised large media campaigns. This was not easy, considering that they needed to reach 40 million people, most of whom were illiterate or didn't have television. Slogans such as "You’ve made your mark, now have your say" were used to gain public attention for the cause. Over 1.7 million written submissions were collected over the two years. These included opinions on matters ranging from the death penalty to abortion.

On 8 May 1996 the final Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly and one day later, second Deputy President of the Republic F. W. de Klerk announced the withdrawal of his National Party from the GNU, with effect from 30 June.

The requirement for the GNU lapsed at the end of the first Parliament in 1999. Even so, the Inkatha Freedom Party continued to hold seats in the government, as minority partners, until the elections of 2004.

Members of the Government of National Unity[edit]

Minister Portfolio Party Dates
Nelson Mandela President ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
F. W. de Klerk Deputy President NP 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Thabo Mbeki Deputy President ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Kraai van Niekerk Minister of Agriculture NP 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Ben Ngubane Minister of Arts and Culture IFP 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Pallo Jordan Minister of Communications ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Roelf Meyer Minister of Constitutional Development and Provincial Affairs NP 11 May 1994 – 1996
Chris Fismer 1996
Sipo Mzimela Minister of Correctional Services 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Joe Modise Minister of Defence ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Sibusiso Bengu Minister of Education IFP 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Dawie de Villiers Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism NP 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Derek Keys Minister of Finance NP 11 May 1994 – 1994
Chris Liebenberg Inde 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Alfred Nzo Minister of Foreign Affairs ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
John Mavuso Minister of Health 1996
Nkosazana Zuma Minister of Health ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Mangosuthu Buthelezi Minister of Home Affairs IFP 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Trevor Manuel Minister of Trade and Industry ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Mac Maharaj Minister of Transport ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Kader Asmal Minister of Water Affairs and Forestry ANC 11 May 1994 – 30 June 1996
Abe Williams Minister of Welfare and Population Development NP 11 May 1994 – 1996
Patrick McKenzie Minister of Welfare and Population Development NP 1996


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