|Part of a series on|
Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods, services or constructions on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency. With 10 to 20% of GDP, government procurement accounts for a substantial part of the global economy.
To prevent fraud, waste, corruption, or local protectionism, the laws of most countries regulate government procurement to some extent. Laws usually require the procuring authority to issue public tenders if the value of the procurement exceeds a certain threshold.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Regulation by jurisdiction
- 2.1 American Samoa
- 2.2 Angola
- 2.3 Ascension Island
- 2.4 Australia
- 2.5 Bangladesh
- 2.6 Canada
- 2.7 Ethiopia
- 2.8 European Union
- 2.9 Fiji
- 2.10 Ghana
- 2.11 Guernsey
- 2.12 Guyana
- 2.13 Iceland
- 2.14 Isle of Man
- 2.15 Israel
- 2.16 Jersey
- 2.17 Kenya
- 2.18 Liberia
- 2.19 Maldives
- 2.20 Mexico
- 2.21 Peru
- 2.22 Russia
- 2.23 Rwanda
- 2.24 Singapore
- 2.25 South Africa
- 2.26 Ukraine
- 2.27 United States
- 2.28 Vatican City
- 2.29 Zambia
- 2.30 Zimbabwe
- 3 See also
- 4 References
Need for government procurement
Government procurement is necessary because governments cannot produce all the inputs for the goods they provide themselves. Governments usually provide public goods, e.g. national defense or public infrastructure. Public goods are non-rival and non-excludable.[further explanation needed] Therefore, it is very difficult to make individuals pay for using those goods. People tend to free-ride, meaning they use a public good but avoid paying for it. Consequently, private markets cannot provide public goods. Instead the government provides those goods and finances them by raising taxes from all citizens.
In addition to public goods, governments often also provide merit goods, such as education or health care. Merit goods are private goods which are rival and excludabel and can, therefore, be provided by private markets. Nevertheless, governments also provide merit goods because of reasons of equity and fairness and because they have positive externalities for society as a whole.
In order to provide public and merit goods, the government has to buy input factors from private companies, e.g. police cars, school buildings, uniforms etc. This process is called government or public procurement.
Government procurement involves a high risk of corruption because of the great size of financial turnover and the complexitiy of many procurement processes in which businesses interacht very closely with politicians and civil servants. Often the personal interests of the public officials are not the same as the interests of the public. Such a conflict of interest problem, known as the principal-agent-problem, increases the risk of corruption. According to OECD, the highest percentage of bribery cases occur in the area of public procurement to influence the awarding of public contracts. Corruption in public procurement causes inefficiencies and high costs to the public. In order to prevent corruption and to ensure transparency and competition among suppliers, public procurement is subject to legal regulation.
Government procurement regulations normally cover all public works, services and supply contracts entered into by a public authority. However, there may be exceptions. These most notably cover military acquisitions, which account for large parts of government expenditures. The GPA and EU procurement law allow of exceptions where public tendering would violate a country's essential security interests. Additionally, certain politically or economically sensitive sectors, such as public health, energy supply or public transport, may also be treated differently.
Regulation by jurisdiction
The Office of Procurement, based in Tafuna, is the central authority on procurement for the American Samoa Government (ASG), being responsible for the procurement of all construction, goods, and services including the management, control, warehousing, and sale of stores/inventory commodities contained in its warehouse.
Public procurement in Angola is governed by Law No. 20/10 of 7 September 2010, the Public Procurement Law, and Law No. 2/2011 on Public-Private Partnerships in Angola. The Public Procurement Law repealed Law No. 7/96 of 16 February 1996 and Decree No. 40/05 of 8 June 2005. Public expenditure, the provision of services, the leasing and acquisition of goods, and public works contracts regulated through the Public Procurement Law.
All goods required by the Ascension Island government are purchased through the Ascension Island Government (AIG) Stores, located just outside the Georgetown Pier. Goods are also for sale to the general public.
The Australian government's procurement activity is governed by the Commonwealth Procurement Rules and overseen by the Department of Finance. The rules were revised on 1 January 2018. The Procurement Coordinator is responsible for:
- providing external parties with an understanding of the Commonwealth Procurement Framework;
- handling of certain procurement-related complaints (although the Procurement Coordinator has no authority to compel a government department to reconsider the conduct or outcome of tender processes for which that department is responsible);
- monitoring issues related to Australian Government procurement; and
- reporting to the Minister for Finance on procurement matters where necessary.
The Senate Order for Entity Contracts of 20 June 2001 (amended 14 May 2015), also known as the Murray Motion, requires ministers to publish details of public contracts valued over AUS$100,000 on the internet and to table a letter detailing such contracts in the Senate.
On 1 December 2016 the House of Representatives and the Senate established a Joint Select Committee to inquire into and report on the Commonwealth Procurement Framework. The Committee reported in June 2017 recommending a series of amendments to the current Commonwealth Procurement Rules. The Australian government issued a response on 14 November 2017 accepting a number of the recommendations but rejecting others.
Infrastructure Australia has issued a national Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy and set of guidelines on behalf of the federal government, which apply to all PPP projects released in Australia.
From 1 July 2018, government departments in Western Australia will be required to award contracts to registered Aboriginal businesses, as the state government's Aboriginal Procurement Policy is adopted.
Public procurement in Canada is regulated on various governmental levels (federal, provincial, municipal). Most federal procurement is organized by the Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) agency and is governed by their Code of Conduct of Procurement in combination with principles laid out in the Federal Accountability Act and in the Financial Administration Act. Public procurement is guided by the principles of fairness, transparency, openness, and non-discrimination and complies with all international agreements that Canada is a member of (WTO Government Procurement Agreement [GPA], NAFTA, CETA, and various bilateral FTAs). Foreign suppliers from member nations to these agreements can bid on Canadian government procurements and are treated the same as domestic suppliers.
The principal statutory provisions regulating government procurement are:
- Department of Public Works and Government Services Act (1996)
- Financial Administration Act (1985) and the Government Contracts Regulations 
- Defence Production Act 1985 (consolidated version published 2011) 
- Federal Accountability Act, 2006 
In general, bids must be solicited by the procuring department unless estimated expenditure does not exceed $25,000, or $100,000 "where the contract is for the acquisition of architectural, engineering and other services required in respect of the planning, design, preparation or supervision of the construction, repair, renovation or restoration of a work". For contracts above $25,000, tenders are published on the transparent Government Electronic Tendering Service (GETS). A non-competitive procurement process is only used in certain special circumstances. One such area of exception are security-related procurements. In that case the Defence Production Act applies, which allows using a special process and favouring domestic suppliers in acquiring defence supplies and conducting defence.
Government procurement in Ethiopia is governed by the Ethiopian Federal Government Procurement and Property Administration Proclamation No.649/2009, which replaced the proclamation on Procedures of Public Procurement and Establishing its Supervisory Agency, Proclamation No. 430/2005. The Public Procurement and Property Administration Agency advises the federal government on "on all public procurement and property administration policies, principles and implementation" and provides "technical assistance to the regional governments and city administrations".
Government procurement in the European Union accounts for more than EUR 2.2 trillion, or 14% of the EU GDP. It has been regulated and harmonized by community law since the 1970s in order to guarantee transparency and non-discrimination of EU companies in government procurement in all member states. EU laws apply only to tenders that exceed certain thresholds in value. These thresholds vary depending on the area the contract is for and if the procurement is done by a central government or by other public authorities (e.g. municipal government). National laws are applied for tenders below these threshold values. Relevant EU Directives regarding government procurement currently in force are Directive 2009/81, Directive 2014/24, and Directive 2014/25.
There are five different procedures for public procurement:
- Open procedure: any company is allowed to submit a tender
- Restricted procedure: only companies that have been preselected are allowed to submit a tender
- Negotiated procedure: there are direct negotiations with at least three companies
- Competitive dialogue: if it is not possible to define technical specifications at the beginning, a competitive dialogue with at least three companies is started after which tenders can be submitted. This procedure is applied for complex procurements.
- Electronic auctions: companies that pass a pre-evaluation process can bid in electronic auctions for public contracts
The European Commission is working on further improving efficiency and transparency in government procurement in the EU with its current public procurement strategy.
Government procurement is regulated in Bulgaria and transparency is well developed: the Bulgarian public procurement portal reported in September 2016 that since the beginning of 2016, "a total of 15,105 contracts were signed on the basis of public procurement orders". At the beginning of 2015, the Bulgarian government announced a 130-kilometer extension to the barbed wire border fence along its border with Turkey in order to completely secure the land border. Prime Minister Boyko Borisov described the extension as "absolutely necessary" in order to prevent persons from illegally entering the European Union member state. The Bulgarian Parliament authorised amendments to procurement legislation to allow continued construction of the fence without launching a public procurement procedure "because of the need to safeguard national security".
The first public procurement law in Croatia based on the EU Procurement Directives was enacted in 2001, but a revised legal structure for public procurement was put in place with the Public Procurement Act of 2012, and this was superseded by the Public Procurement Act of 2016, effective 1 January 2017. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are governed by the Act on Public-Private Partnerships. Two key Croatian institutions are the Public Procurement Office and the Public Procurement Supervisory Commission, established in 2001, now (since 2013) the State Commission for Supervision of Public Procurement (DKOM). The State Commission is an independent quasi-judicial body with nine members appointed by the Croatian Parliament for a five-year term and accountable to the Croatian Parliament for its work. The High Administrative Court of the Republic of Croatia has jurisdiction over the State Commission in relation to disputes concerning procedure, but there is no right of appeal against Commission decisions.
Under Croatian law, procurement procedures must be carried out by authorised representatives of the contracting authority, of whom at least one must hold a valid procurement certificate.
The Estonian Ministry of Finance is responsible for public procurement policy, drafting the law, providing supervision and consultancy, and maintains a central Public Procurement Register. The current legislation is the Public Procurement Act of 2017, which came into effect on 1 September 2017, and which operates in conjunction with the Public Information Act of 2000, which regulates the publication of "information concerning public procurements which are being organised or have been organised by the state or local governments". Disputes are handled by the Public Procurements Appeal Committee.
Defence procurement for the Defence Forces, Ministry of Defence, Defence League, Defence Resources Agency and Estonian War Museum is organised by the Estonian Centre for Defence Investment, whose purpose is "to carry out procurement activities through ... professional-quality procurement and to use dedicated funds sparingly and prudently". The Centre for Defence Investment was established by the decree of the Minister of Defence on 9 November 2015 and became operational on 1 January 2017.
In France, the Department of Legal Affairs (DAJ) of the Ministry for the Economy and Finance (French: Ministère de l'Économie et des Finances) is responsible for establishing regulations regarding public procurement. All currently relevant EU directives have been implemented into national law.
In Germany, the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (German: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, abbreviated BMWi) is responsible for defining laws and principles regarding public procurement. In 2016 Germany transposed the new EU Directives of 2014 into domestic law. Thereby, processes and contracts in public procurement have become easier and more flexible. The Act against Restraints of Competition - Part IV (German: Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen, abbreviated GWB) and the Ordinance on the Award of Public Contracts (German: Verordnung über die Vergabe öffentlicher Aufträge, abbreviated VgV) regulate procurement above EU thresholds. Detailed procedures are specified in further regulations, e.g. the Procurement Regulation for Public Works (German abbreviation: VOB), the Procurement Regulation for Public Supplies and Services (VOL), and the Procurement Regulation for Professional Services (VOF). For many contracts electronic procurement is made possible via an online platform.
For public procurement below the EU thresholds there are different regulations. At the federal level national budgetary law applies while the 16 federal German states and some municipalies have their own public procurement laws and regulations. This decentralized system reflects the political decentralization in Germany. However, sub-national level procurement regulations often take national regulations as examples and also ensure competition, non-discrimination, and transparency.
Government procurement in Ireland is governed by the European Communities (Award of Public Authorities' Contracts) Regulations 2006  and the European Communities (Public Authorities’ Contracts) (Review Procedures) Regulations 2010. Patrick O’Donovan TD is the Minister of State with special responsibility for Public Procurement.
Public procurement in Italy is primarily regulated by the Public Contracts Code which is administered by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport (Italian: Ministero delle infrastrutture e dei trasporti). The code was reformed in 2016 to implement the new EU directives of 2014 into domestic Italian law. In addition to the code, guidelines from the National Anti-Corruption Authority (Italian: Autorità Nazionale AntiCorruzione, abbreviated ANAC) and decrees from various ministries also apply to public procurement. Most public procurement on a national level is administered by the state-owned company Consip S.p.A. Larger regions have their own agencies for public purchasing. The five regions with special autonomy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige, Valle d’Aosta) can also establish regional legislation regarding public procurement.
In Luxembourg, the main policy body for public procurement is the Public Procurement Directorate within the Public Works Department of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Infrastructure (MDDI). This department is responsible for the regulatory framework, drafting relevant legislation and monitoring its implementation, and also for representing the Luxemburgish authorities in the field of public procurement. A Tender Commission with members drawn from contracting authorities, chambers of commerce and small business sectors undertakes a consultative role in relation to public procurement.
The EU 2014 Directives on public procurement and utilities procurement were implemented by the Law of 8 April 2018 on public procurement, which was published in the Luxembourg official Gazette (Mémorial: Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg) on 16 April 2018 and entered into force on 20 April 2018. Procurement in the defence and security sector is covered by the Law of 26 December 2012.
The EU Directive on public procurement is transposed into Maltese law by the Public Procurement Regulations, S.L.174.04, 28 October 2016. These regulations also create the Office of the Director of Contracts (Regulation 10), who is responsible generally for the regulation and administration of public procurement procedures in Malta, a General Contracts Committee, whose members are appointed by the Prime Minister (Regulation 64), a Departmental Contracts Committee for each contracting authority, and in each Ministry a Ministerial Procurement Unit (Regulation 79). Under regulation 80 a Public Contracts Review Board is established. The Commercial Sanctions Tribunal (Regulation 95) is appointed to hear and determine issues relating to the black listing of persons unsuitable for the award of a public contract or to act as a sub-contractor to a public sector contractor.
Spanish Law 30/2007 on public sector contracts (known as the "LCSP") was substantially amended by a new Law 2/2011 on Sustainable Economy ("LES") following an infringement procedure undertaken by the European Commission, which found that the LCSP "gave contracting authorities a wide, almost unlimited, power to modify essential terms of public contracts after award, in a manner which was not in line with the principles of equal treatment between bidders, non-discrimination and transparency set out in EU public procurement rules".
The Swedish Competition Authority is responsible for oversight of government procurement in Sweden, having taken over this role from the Board for Public Procurement (Swedish: Nämnden för offentlig upphandling) when it was dissolved in 2007.
Government procurement in the UK is governed by the Public Contracts Regulations 2015, Part 3 of the Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015  and (in Scotland) the Public Contracts (Scotland) Regulations 2015  and 2016, which implement EU law and also contain rules known as the "Lord Young Rules" promoting access for small and medium enterprise (SMEs) to public sector contracts, based on Lord Young's Review Growing Your Business, published in 2013. In November 2016 an advisory panel of 24 entrepreneurs and business figures was formed to advise the government on purchasing goods and services from SMEs, and a campaign was launched to demonstrate that "government is open for business", with a target of increasing government spending with SMEs to 33% of all third-party public expenditure by 2020.
In Wales, two organisations - the National Procurement Service, established in 2013, and Value Wales - oversee Welsh public sector procurement. The role of Value Wales includes shaping procurement policy, monitoring procurement in practice, supporting, advising and developing procurement staff and ensuring compliance with procurement regulations. The Welsh government requires public sector bodies in Wales to include the delivery of social, economic and environmental benefits for the community as an integral consideration in procurement and for this purpose each public body in Wales must appoint a Community Benefits Champion.
In the light of the economic downturn of 2008 onwards, sometimes referred to as the "Great Recession", the UK government adopted a series of 10 "procurement for growth" principles intended to ensure that UK government procurement would "take account of supply chain opportunities for UK companies in policy and delivery planning".
Part 3 of the Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 allows the Minister for the Cabinet Office or relevant Secretary of State to impose further regulations on public bodies regarding how they undertake procurement. The Minister for the Cabinet Office is the minister with overall responsibility for procurement policy, which is delivered through the Crown Commercial Service, an executive agency sponsored by the Cabinet Office.
In Northern Ireland the Central Procurement Directorate within the Department of Finance (formerly the Department of Finance and Personnel) is responsible for procurement policy. A revised public procurement policy for Northern Ireland departments, agencies, non-departmental public bodies and public corporations was adopted on 16 May 2002; the latest version (version 11) was issued in August 2014. A Concordat on Public Procurement was agreed on 1 June 2001 by the UK Government and the Northern Ireland Executive for the handling of EU, international and policy issues on public procurement.
The Crown Commercial Service operates a Mystery Shopper scheme, whose remit is to provide a route for suppliers to raise concerns about public procurement practice in England, and publishes Procurement Policy Notes from time to time which advise procurement staff in the public sector of government policy developments and best practice in relation to procurement.
General transparency principles applicable to government procurement were published in March 2015 and updated in February 2017, stating that there is a presumption in favour of contractual information being made publicly available (except in matters of commercial confidentiality such as pricing, intellectual property and business plans). Tender opportunities advertised by public sector bodies in the UK are legally required to be published to the following sites:
- Contracts Finder for England for all tenders and contracts valued over £10,000 for central government and £25,000 for sub-central authorities and the NHS. According to OpenOpps, a tender publishing company, only 27% of all UK public sector tenders were published on Contracts Finder between 2015 and 2017.
- Public Contracts Scotland for Scotland
- Sell2Wales for Wales
- eSourcing NI for Northern Ireland, in use since May 2008.
The Public Contracts Regulations 2015 provide that public sector buyers must pay prime contractors within 30 days and must ensure that any subcontracts through the supply chain include a similar provision. In 2014-15 at least 33 NHS trusts paid fewer than half of their trade invoices on time, up from 23 in 2015-16 and 11 in 2014-15. Under the Better Payment Practice Code, they should pay at least 95% of non-NHS invoices within 30 days.
Under the draft agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU it is proposed that procurement procedures commenced under the EU regulations before the end of the transitional period should continue to be governed by the relevant regulations up to the issue of a contract award notice.
The Fiji Procurement Office was established under Section 4 of the Fiji Procurement Regulations 2010  and commenced operations on 1 August 2010. The establishment of the Office and the new Fiji Procurement Regulations were a direct result of the re-organisation of the Government Supplies Department by the Fijian government. The main functions of the Fiji Procurement Office are to regulate and administer the procurement of goods, service and works for the government. The Government Tender Board is "constituted with authority to approve all procurement of goods, services and works valued at FJ$30,001 and more".
Public procurement in Ghana is undertaken and overseen by the Public Procurement Authority of Ghana. The Public Procurement Board is the central body for policy formulation on procurement. The existing Public Procurement Act 2003 (Act 663) was amended by the Public Procurement (Amendment) Act 2016 (Act 914), which came into effect on 1 July 2016.
Public procurement in Guyana is overseen by the Public Procurement Commission, appointed under the Public Procurement Commission Act 2003. Due to lengthy delay in identifying and agreeing commission members, the commission was not appointed until 2016.
Act No. 84/2007 on Public Procurement (2007) has three objectives:
- to ensure the equal treatment of companies during public procurement
- to encourage efficiency in public operations through active competition and
- to promote innovation and development in the public procurement of goods, labour and services. The law applies to "the Icelandic State, local authorities, their institutions and other public entities" and to "associations formed by one or more of such authorities".. An independent Public Procurement Complaints Commission has power to investigate complaints and may declare a contract "ineffective" if its award was not compliant with the legislation.
Isle of Man
In Israel, the Mandatory Tenders Law of 12 March 1992, 5752-1992 (as amended), governs government procurement procedures. Oversight of the legislation lies with the Ministry of Finance in conjunction with the Knesset Constitution, Law and Justice Committee. The government may, with the approval of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, direct that a state or a government corporation may not enter into a contract with a particular foreign country or with a particular foreign supplier for reasons of foreign policy.
Public procurement in Kenya is governed by the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal Act 2015.
Government procurement in Liberia is governed by the Public Procurement Act. The Public Procurement and Concessions Commission (PPCC) was established in 2005 to "regulate all forms of Public Procurement and Concessions and provide for institutional structures for public procurement and concessions". The PPCC operates an online Vendors' Register.
Procurement is decentralised, but the Ministry of Finance is required "to take part in the negotiations and signing of contracts over US $250,000" and such contracts must "be attested to by the Ministry of Justice".
Government procurement in the Maldives is subject to the Public Finance Law (Law No. 3/2006) and chapter 10 of the Public Finance Regulation. The approval of the National Tender Board is required before contracts in excess of MVR 2.5m can be awarded.
Public procurement is included in Article 134 of the Mexican Constitution. Article 134 is implemented by the Law of Public Sector Acquisitions, Leasing and Services ("Acquisition Law") and the Law of Public Works and Related Services ("Public Work Law"). At a local level, each of the 31 states and the Federal District has different public procurement laws.
Peruvian public procurement law was formerly set out in the Government Procurement Act (approved by Legislative Decree No. 1017) and the Regulation of the Government Procurement Act (approved by Supreme Decree No. 184-2008-EF), which were replaced by a new Government Procurement Act (Law N° 30225) in 2014. Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski resigned on 21 March 2018 following allegations that public works contracts had been corruptly awarded to Brazilian conglomerate Odebrecht.
Russian Federal Law N44-ФЗ of 05.04.2013 require all federal, regional and municipal government customers to publish all information about government tenders, auctions and other purchase procedures on special public government websites.
In Rwanda, the public procurement process is managed on daily basis by an autonomous organ, the Rwanda Public Procurement Authority (RPPA), which operates under the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MINECOFIN). Public procurement is regulated by the Law N°12/2007 of 27/03/2007 on public procurement  which was modified and complemented by the Law N°05/20013 of 13/02/2013. The law is implemented by a Ministerial Order N°001/14/10/TC of 19/02/2014 establishing Regulations on Public Procurement, Standard Bidding Documents and Standard Contracts.
Rwanda has a decentralized public procurement system whereby procuring entities (central government organs, local government entities, government projects, commissions, public institutions, parastatals, agencies or any other government entity charged by the Chief Budget Manager to manage public funds) have the power to conduct directly their public procurement process. The main mission of RPPA is (1) to process the establishment and improvement of public procurement legal framework, (2) provide public procurement legal advisory services, (3) conduct audit and monitoring of public procurement activities carried out by procuring entities(tender award and contract management) and (4) build the capacity of public officials involved in public procurement activities.
The public procurement system in Rwanda is governed by 6 fundamental principles namely (1) transparency, (2) competition,(3) economy, (4) efficiency, (5) fairness and (6) accountability. In the national system, bidders have the right to appeal against public procurement procedures they may think were not conducted appropriately. In that connection, the legal framework provides for the Independent Review Panels at National Level (National Independent Review Panel) and at District Level (Independent Review Panel at District Level). The Independent Review Panels are composed of members from the Private Sector, Civil Society and the Public Sector, and the members from the Public Sector cannot form the majority of members of the Panel. The Independent Review Panel at National Level is under the supervision of the Minister of Finance and Economic Planning whereas the Independent Review Panel at District Level is under the supervision of the District Council.
In order to make the procurement sector a profession in Rwanda, there is an Association of Procurement Professionals which was established by the Law N°011/2016 of 02/05/2016.
Rwanda introduced an e-procurement system in 2016. For more information about Rwanda's e-procurement system please visit www.umucyo.gov.rw; for more information about public procurement in Rwanda in general, please visit www.rppa.gov.rw.
Singapore's Ministry of Finance is responsible for the Government Procurement policy framework, which governs how government agencies undertake their procurement. In 2014, the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of Singapore criticised the state of government procurement in Singapore, identifying a number of irregularities in procurement procedures including:
- weak rationales invoked when waiving competitive processes;
- allowing some bidders to amend their tenders after tenders had closed;
- not disclosing evaluation criteria to bidders within tender documentation;
- improper procedures for tender evaluation;
- lax oversight and monitoring of outsourced projects.
GeBIZ is a Government-to-business (G2B) Public eProcurement business centre where suppliers can conduct electronic commerce with the Singaporean Government. All of the public sector's invitations for quotations and tenders (except for security-sensitive contracts) are posted on GeBIZ. Suppliers can search for government procurement opportunities, retrieve relevant procurement documentations and submit their bids online.
- When an organ of state in the national, provincial or local sphere of Government, or any other institution identified in national legislation, contracts for goods or services, it must do so in accordance with a system which is fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost effective.
The Public Finance Management Act 1999 also refers to the duty of the Accounting Officer of a Department to have and to maintain an appropriate procurement and supply system which is "fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost effective".
The Ministry of Economic Development and Trade (Ukraine) is an executive authority in charge of coordination of procurement of goods, works and services for public funds. The Law “On public procurement” is one of the core legislative bases of the procurement regulations. It made electronic public procurement procedures and use of e-procurement system Prozorro mandatory for all procuring entities after August 2016.
Government procurement by public authorities in the United States accounts for about USD 7 trillion annually. Federal procurement is governed by the Federal Acquisition Regulation. FedBizOpps  and USASpending.gov are websites where federal contracts are shown. Public announcements of awards has several exemptions, including contracts less than $3.5 million. Historically, the procurement data has been criticized for deficiencies leading to a number of reforms. In 2013, eight legacy databases were merged into a single system called "System for Award Management" (SAM), where companies interested in doing business with the federal government may register their interest.
Contracts are not posted online, although two agencies have explored the possibility.
In January 2014, the Office of Inspector General at NASA released a report criticizing the agency's lack of strategic sourcing. Because IT departments were spending autonomously, NASA spent $25.7 million on similar purchases.
The National Institute of Governmental Purchasing and the Federal Acquisition Institute are active in procurement certification and training. A specialized program in procurement law in the United States is located at The George Washington University Law School.
Purchasing is overseen by the Secretariat for the Economy, which is responsible for setting purchasing policies and procedures, while responsibility for expenditure is devolved to individual dicasteries and administrations.
Public procurement in Zambia is governed by the Public Procurement Act No. 12 of 2008 and the Public Procurement Regulations of 2011. Prior to 2008, public procurement was governed by the Zambia National Tender Board Act, Act No. 30 of 1982.
Zimbabwe established a public procurement law in 1999. The Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Act, 2017 repealed the Procurement Act of 1999 and abolished the State Procurement Board. On 9 January 2018, President Emmerson Mnangagwa appointed an eight member Procurement Regulatory Authority of Zimbabwe which replaced the Board. The legislation incorporates a "domestic preference" section empowering procuring entities to "give preference to bids from Zimbabwean or local suppliers and manufacturers" and provides for a Special Procurement Oversight Committee to be established to oversee "certain especially sensitive or especially valuable contracts".
- Best value procurement
- Contract awarding
- Open Contracting Data Standard
- Public eProcurement
- Standstill period
- Prieß, Hans-Joachim, ed. (2012). Public Procurement 2012: An overview of regulation in 40 jurisdictions worldwide (8. ed.). Getting the Deal Through. ISSN 1747-5910.
- Global Trade Negotiations Home Page at Harvard University, accessed 18 December 2006
- Mankiw, Nicholas Gregory (2011). Economics. Taylor, Mark P. 1958- (2. ed ed.). Andover: Cengage Learning. pp. 223–226. ISBN 9781844808700. OCLC 712588185.
- Stiglitz, Joseph (2000). Economics of the Public Sector (3rd ed ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 86–88. ISBN 0393966518. OCLC 39485400.
- "Preventing Corruption in Public Procurement" (PDF). OECD. 2016. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
- Prieß, Hans-Joachim; Harvey, Diana; Friton, Pascal. "Global Overview". Prieß (2012): 3–7.
- American Samoa Government, Office of Procurement
- Rodrigues, A. M. and Dias, N. M., The New Rules on Public Procurement, published June 2011, accessed 8 November 2016
- Ascension Island Government, Stores, accessed 7 March 2018
- Department of Finance, Procurement, accessed 8 June 2018
- Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, accessed 8 June 2018
- Procurement Coordinator, Complaints Handling Charter, 2 October 2014, accessed 10 June 2018
- Department of Finance, Procurement Coordinator, accessed 8 June 2018
- RMG-403: Meeting the Senate Order for Entity Contracts, published February 2017, accessed 8 June 2018
- Parliament of Australia, Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, accessed 10 June 2018
- ,Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our Future: List of Recommendations, June 2017, accessed 10 June 2018
- Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our Future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 14 November 2017
- DLA Piper, Public procurement in Australia, Real World website, accessed 8 June 2018
- Government of Western Australia, Department of Finance,Aboriginal Procurement Policy, accessed 5 May 2018
- "Your Guide to Public Private Partnership in Bangladesh" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "Code of Conduct for Procurement. Context and Purpose of the Code". Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2018-03-09. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- Government Contracts Regulations, accessed 23 May 2016
- Defence Production Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. D-1) (consolidated version of January 30, 2011)
- Public Works and Government Services Canada, Statutes and Regulations, accessed 23 May 2016
- Government Contracts Regulation 6b, accessed 23 May 2016
- Engagement, Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada, Acquisitions Branch, Office of Small and Medium Enterprises and Strategic. "The Procurement Process". buyandsell.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- Ethiopian Federal Government Procurement and Property Administration Proclamation, 9 September 2009, accessed 6 November 2011
- "Public Procurement - Growth - European Commission". Growth. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Rules & procedures". Your Europe - Business. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Rules & procedures". Your Europe - Business. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Public procurement strategy - Growth - European Commission". Growth. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- Stalzer, J., Austria: Imminent implementation of public procurement directives, accessed 14 March 2018
- International Comparative Legal Guide, Public Procurement 2018: Belgium, accessed 27 March 2018
- Sofia News Agency, 15,105 Public Procurement Contracts Signed So Far in 2016, accessed 1 October 2016
- "Bulgaria to extend fence at Turkish border to bar refugee influx". Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Parliament OKs Building of Border Fence Without Public Procurement". Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- European Commission, Public procurement – Study on administrative capacity in the EU: Croatia Country Profile
- Tematikon Project, Published new Public Procurement Act, accessed 23 May 2018
- DLA Piper, Public procurement, accessed 23 May 2018
- Madir, J. and Rimac, L.,Croatia: reforms to meet the terms of the EU acquis, accessed 12 May 2018
- State Commission for Supervision of Public Procurement, About us, accessed 23 May 2018
- Treasury of the Republic, Public Procurement, accessed 24 May 2018
- Zeman, M., New act no. 134/2016 Coll. on public procurement, Vozáb & Co., accessed 16 June 2018
- Ministry of Finance, E-Procurement Estonia: Procurement Register, accessed 14 June 2018
- Riigi Teataja, Public Procurement Act 2017, accessed 14 June 2018
- Riigi Teataja, Public Information Act 2000, section 28(1)(20)
- Defence Procurement, accessed 2 June 2018
- Centre for Defence Investment, accessed 2 June 2018
- "Commande publique". Le portail des ministères économiques et financiers (in French). Retrieved 2018-06-09.
- "Public Procurement". Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Public Procurement - Germany Country Profile" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- Government of Gibraltar, Procurement Office, accessed 5 July 2016
- S.I. No. 329 of 2006: European Communities (Award of Public Authorities’ Contracts) Regulations 2006
- Office of Government Procurement, OGP News, February 2018, accessed 2 April 2018
- "The new Public Procurement and Concession Contracts Code has entered into force | mit". www.mit.gov.it. Italian Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
- "Public procurement - Italy Country Profile" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
- European Commission, Public procurement – Study on administrative capacity in the EU: Luxembourg Country Profile, accessed 4 May 2018
- Elvinger Hoss Luxembourg Law, New Public Procurement Law, published 26 April 2018, accessed 4 May 2018
- Loi du 26 décembre 2012 sur les marchés publics de la défense et de la sécurité
- Public Procurement Regulations, S.L.174.04, 2016
- Ministry of Finance, Commercial Sanctions Tribunal, accessed 3 April 2018
- Public procurement: Spain amends its legislation on public sector contracts following infringement procedure, Brussels, IP/11/430, 6 April 2011, accessed 9 September 2016
- "Konkurrenslagsstiftningens historia" (in Swedish). The Swedish Competition Authority. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- "Konkurrensverket ny tillsynsmyndighet för offentlig upphandling" (in Swedish). The Swedish Competition Authority. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015, Part 3
- Public Contracts (Scotland) Regulations 2015
- Public Contracts (Scotland) Regulations 2016
- Local Government Association, 'Lord Young' reforms, accessed 11 September 2016
- Government is open for business, accessed 22 November 2016
- Government is open for business: new advisory panel, published 15 November 2016, accessed 22 November 2016
- Procurement in Wales, accessed 18 September 2016
- Welsh Government, Wales Procurement Policy Statement, revised 9 June 2015, accessed 18 January 2018
- Office of Government Commerce, The ten key procurement for growth principles, accessed 24 September 2016
- Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015, Reg. 39
- Crown Commercial Service, accessed 18 September 2016
- Introduction to the NI Public Procurement Policy document, accessed 19 September 2016
- Northern Ireland Public Procurement Policy, accessed 19 September 2016
- Concordat on Co-ordination of EU, International and Policy Issues on Public Procurement, accessed 19 September 2016
- Crown Commercial Service, Mystery Shopper: scope and remit, updated 28 January 2016, accessed 15 September 2016
- Crown Commercial Service, Procurement Policy Notes
- Crown Commercial Service, The Transparency of Suppliers and Government to the Public, PPN 01/17, published February 2017
- Makgill, I., Only 27% of public sector tenders are on Contracts Finder, published 6 June 2017
- eSourcing NI, Project: project_5 - DEL - Skills Monitoring Survey 2008, accessed 2 February 2018
- "One in four hospital trusts routinely pay suppliers late". Health Service Journal. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- European Commission, Draft Withdrawal Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, TF50 (2018) 33 – Commission to EU 27, 28 February 2018, accessed 31 March 2018
- Procurement Regulations 2010 (www.finance.gov.fj/legislation.html?download=199)
- Ministry of Economy, Fiji Procurement Office, accessed 28 February 2018
- Public Procurement Authority of Ghana
- Public Notice: Passage of the Public Procurement (Amendment) Act 2016 (Act 914), accessed 15 September 2016
- Channel Islands Procurement Portal, accessed 30 January 2018
- After 14 years, Guyana establishes procurement commission, "Supply Management", 12 August 2016, accessed 1 October 2016
- Act No. 84/2007 on Public Procurement, Article 1
- Act No. 84/2007 on Public Procurement, Article 3
- Act No. 84/2007 on Public Procurement, Articles 91-100
- Isle of Man Government Procurement Policy, accessed 18 January 2018
- Mandatory Tenders Law, 5752-1992: Complete up-to-date version, accessed 11 March 2018
- Public Procurement and Concessions Commission, Frequently Asked Questions about PPCC, accessed 29 April 2018
- PPCC eProcurement Platform: Vendors Register
- World Bank, Public Procurement in the Maldives, accessed 26 April 2018
- European Commission, Market Access Database - Mexico, published (updates) 21 February 2017, accessed 22 April 2018
- OECD Competition Committee,Laws and Government Procurement Practices in Peru, Report to Council on the Bid-Rigging Recommendation, Contribution from Peru elaborated by Jean Sanchez and Yamilet Gallardo, members of the Economic Studies Management of Indecopi, the National Institute for the Defense of Free Competition and the Protection of Intellectual Property, accessed 24 March 2018
- Indecopi, About Indecopi
- Rochabrun, M. and Casey, N., Peru’s President Offers Resignation Over Vote-Buying Scandal, New York Times, 21 March 2018, accessed 24 March 2018
- Law N°25/2011 of 30/06/2011 establishing the Rwanda Public Procurement Authority (RPPA) and determining its mission, organization and Functioning
- Published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, N°8 of 15/04/2007
- Published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, N°16 of 22/04/2013
- Published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, N°10 of 10/03/2014
- Rwanda Public Procurement Authority
- Article 4 of the Law N°12/2007 of 27/03/2207 on public procurement as modified and complemented to date
- Article 14 of the Law N°05/2013 OF 13/02/2013 modifying and complementing the Law N°12/2007 of 27/03/2007 on public procurement
- Published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, N°21 of 23/05/2016
- Ministry of Finance, Government Procurement, accessed 16 April 2018
- Green, W., Public procurement in Singapore ‘prone to lapses’, Supply Management, 15 April 2014, accessed 7 April 2018
- KwaZulu Natal Provincial Treasury, Guideline for Bid Committee Members: Practice Note Number: SCM-03 of 2006, 22 February 2006, accessed 4 December 2017
- "Web Portal on Public Procurement of Ukraine". tender.me.gov.ua.
- "Public Procurement Roadmap - Ukraine" (PDF). ukraine.nlembassy.org.
- Update on FedBizOpps data. Sunlight Foundation.
- Halchin LE. (2013). Transforming Government Acquisition Systems: Overview and Selected Issues. Congressional Research Service.
- General Services Administration, System for Award Management
- Martin, Paul. "NASA's Strategic Sourcing Program" (PDF). NASA Office of Audits. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Busch, Jason. "NASA, or Need Another Sourcing Act: IT Security Spending Horror Stories". Spend Matters. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Holy See Press Office, New Economic Framework for the Holy See, published 9 July 2014, accessed 2 June 2018
- Public Procurement System in Zambia, accessed 11 January 2017
- World Bank, Zimbabwe Begins Public Procurement Modernization, 13 May 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Zimbabwe Legal Information Institute, Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Act (Chapter 22:23)
- Republic of Ghana Public Procurement Authority, Electronic Vol. 9, Issue 1 Bulletin Jan — Feb 2018, accessed 22 February 2018