Government spin-off is civilian goods which are the collateral result of military or governmental research. One prominent example of a type of government spin-off is technology that has been commercialized through NASA funding, research, licensing, facilities, or assistance. NASA spin-off technologies have been publicized by the agency in its Spinoff publication since 1976.
In some fields, such as computer hardware, private sector development has outpaced government and military research, and the government procures commercial off-the-shelf products for many applications.
- Jack Francis Williams; Robert John Stimson (2001). International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 426. ISBN 0-7623-0695-5.
- "Living Internet: Lawrence Roberts Manages The ARPANET Program". livinginternet.com. Retrieved 6 November 2008. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- ADAMS, GORDON (25 November 2013). "The future of the aerospace defense industry is not nearly as bad as the industry would have you believe". foreignpolicy.com. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
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