Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร; rtgs: Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) is the local government of Bangkok (also called Krung Thep Maha Nakhon in Thai), which includes the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand. The government is composed of two branches: the executive (or the Governor of Bangkok) and the legislative (or Bangkok Metropolitan Council). The administration's roles are to formulate and implement policies to manage Bangkok. Its purview includes transport services, urban planning, waste management, housing, roads and highways, security services, and the environment.
According to the Thailand Future Foundation, Bangkok employs a workforce of 97,000, including 3,200 municipal officers in Bangkok city, 200 in the city Law Enforcement Department, and 3,000 in district offices.
Governor of Bangkok
|Governor of Bangkok
Seal of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
|Term length||4 years renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||Chamnan Yaovabun|
The Governor of Bangkok (Thai: ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) is the head of the local government of Bangkok. The governor is also the chief executive of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). The governor is elected to a renewable term of four years, currently it is one of the two directly elected executive offices in the kingdom. The office is comparable to that of a city mayor.
The current incumbent is Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang. He was appointed by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha using Section 44 of the interim charter to replace Sukhumbhand Paribatra. The reason given for his ouster was "...because he was involved in many legal cases."
Powers and roles
The powers and role of the office of Governor of Bangkok in accordance with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2528, literally Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2528 (1985)) are as follows:
- Formulate and implement policies for the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
- Head the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.
- Appoint and remove deputy governors, advisors, board members, city officials, and public servants.
- Coordinate and carry out the orders of the Cabinet of Thailand, the Prime Minister of Thailand, and the Ministry of Interior.
- Oversee the smooth running of the various agencies and services of the city.
- The governor is also invested with the same powers as any other governor of a province of Thailand and any other mayor.
- The power to draw up legislation and bills for the city, to be considered in the Bangkok Metropolitan Council.
Since 1973 the city was administered by a single executive appointed by the cabinet from city civil servants. However soon it was determined that the executive office should a popularly elected office instead. The passage of the Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2518 (1975) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2518), created the Bangkok Metropolis to replace Bangkok Province and created an elected governor with a four year term.
The first election for the office was held on the 10 August 1975. Thamnoon Thien-ngern was elected the first elected Governor of Bangkok. Conflicts between the governor and the Bangkok Metropolitan Council, however, became so fierce that Thanin Kraivichien, the Prime Minister of Thailand removed him and reinstated the appointment system. Elections resumed with the passing of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985). Elections were held on 14 November 1985.
List of governors
|No.||Name||Term Start||Term Ends||Political Party|
|1||Chamnan Yaovabun||1 January 1973||22 October 1973||(Appointed)|
|2||At Visutyothaphiban||1 November 1973||4 June 1974||(Appointed)|
|3||Siri Santabutra||5 June 1974||9 March 1975||(Appointed)|
|4||Sai Hutacharoen||5 May 1975||9 August 1975||(Appointed)|
|5||Thammanoon Thien-ngern||10 August 1975||29 April 1977||Democrat Party|
|6||Chalor Thammasiri||29 April 1977||14 May 1979||(Appointed)|
|7||Chaowat Sudlapa||4 July 1979||16 April 1981||(Appointed)|
|8||Admiral Thiem Mokaranont||28 April 1981||1 November 1984||(Appointed)|
|9||Asa Meksavan||6 November 1984||13 November 1985||(Appointed)|
|10||Maj-Gen Chamlong Srimuang||14 November 1985||14 November 1989||Ruam Phalang Group|
|7 January 1990||22 January 1992||Palang Dharma Party|
|11||Captain Krisda Arunvongse na Ayudhya||19 April 1992||18 April 1996||Independent|
|12||Bhichit Rattakul||3 June 1996||22 July 2000||Independent|
|13||Samak Sundaravej||23 July 2000||28 August 2004||Citizens Party|
|14||Apirak Kosayodhin||29 August 2004||28 August 2008||Democrat Party|
|5 October 2008||19 November 2008|
|15||Mom Rajawongse Sukhumbhand Paribatra||11 January 2009||9 January 2013||Democrat Party|
|3 March 2013||18 October 2016|
|16||Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang||18 October 2016||Present||(Appointed)|
- Unless otherwise indicated, they were elected.
Bangkok Metropolitan Council
|Bangkok Metropolitan Council
Sapha Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Chairman of the Council
|3 March 2013|
|Bangkok City Hall|
The Bangkok Metropolitan Council or BMC (Thai: สภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the legislative branch of the administration. It is vested with primary legislative powers as well as the power to scrutinize and advise the governor. The council is headed by the Chairman of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: ประธานสภากรุงเทพมหานคร). The current Chairman is Capt. Kriangsak Lohachala since 2013.
The council is made up of 57 members elected from 57 constituencies (some constituencies elect more than one member) in Bangkok. They are elected to a four-year term. The last election was held on 30 April 2006.
The Council is divided into 11 general committees with 5-9 members appointed by the councillors themselves:
- Committee of Cleanliness and Environment
- Committee for Checking the Minutes of Sittings and for Considering Closure of the Minutes of the Secret Sittings
- Committee for the Affairs of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council
- Committee for the Public Works and Utilities
- Committee for Education and Culture
- Committee for Health
- Committee for Community Development and Social Welfare
- Committee for Local Administration and Orderliness
- Committee for Economics, Finance, and Follow-up of Budget Utilization
- Committee for Tourism and Sports
- Committee for Traffic, Transportation, and Drainage
Secretariat of the council
The Secretariat of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: สำนักงานเลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the executive agency of the council. The secretariat helps the council in all its roles including drafting of legislation, organisation of sessions, minutes and procedures of the council. The secretariat also helps members of the council by providing research and legal counsel. The secretariat is headed by the Secretary of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: เลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) The current secretary is Manit Tej-Apichok. The secretariat itself is divided into nine sections:
- General Administration Section
- Council and Committee Meetings Section
- Working Committees Section
- Legislation Section
- Legal Section
- Foreign Affairs Section
- Council Service Section
- Academic Section
- Secretary Section
- "General Responsibilities of BMA". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Sankam, Visarut (2015-10-31). "Research reveals ugly side to Bangkok life". The Nation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "งานแถลงผลการศึกษาเรื่อง"10 ข้อเท็จจริงชีวิตคนกรุงเทพ"". Thailand Future Foundation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Mokkhasen, Sasiwan (30 October 2016). "MEET BANGKOK’S NEW GOVERNOR: ASWIN KWANMUANG". Khaosod English. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Sukhumbhand says goodbye to Bangkokians". Bangkok Post. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "ด่วน! ใช้ม.44 ให้สุขุมพันธุ์และทีมรองฯพ้นจากตำแหน่ง ตั้งอัศวิน ขวัญเมือง เป็นผู้ว่าฯกทม.". matichon. 2016-10-18. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "BMA council chairman". The Secretariate of Bangkok Metropolitan Council. Retrieved 18 October 2016.