List of Governors of Guam

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Governor of Guam
I Maga'låhen Guåhan
Governors Seal SILVER logo.png
Seal of the Governor
Governor Eddie Calvo.jpg
Incumbent
Eddie Baza Calvo

since January 3, 2011
StyleThe Honorable (formal)
ResidenceGovernment House (Agaña Heights)
SeatRicardo J. Bordallo Governor's Complex (Adelup)
Term length4 years (2 term limits)
Constituting instrumentOrganic Act of Guam
Inaugural holderCarlos Camacho
FormationJanuary 4, 1971
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Guam (Ray Tenorio)
Salary$90,000 (2013)[1]
WebsiteOffice of the Governor
Seal of Guam.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Guam

The Governor of Guam (Chamorro: I Maga'låhen Guåhan ) is the chief executive of the Government of Guam and the commander-in-chief of the Guam National Guard, whose responsibilities also include making the annual State of the Island (formerly the State of the Territory) addresses to the Guam Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that Guam's public laws are enforced. The position was created in 1968, through the passage of the Guam Elected Governors Act which took effect in 1970. Guam elected its first civilian governor in 1970 with the inauguration of former governor Carlos Camacho.

The current governor is Eddie Baza Calvo, a Republican who was inaugurated on January 3, 2011, and was once again re-elected to a 2nd term in 2014.

Powers and Duties[edit]

The governor has a duty to enforce Guam's public laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Guam Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to commute or grant pardons to criminal sentences, except in cases of treason and impeachment. The governor is given the power to control government budgeting and appoint many officials (including many judges).

Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is themselves head of the state executive Department. The governor may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, issuing symbolic proclamations or commencing the Liberation Day parade.

Governor Eddie Calvo and First Lady Christine Calvo, accompanied by Lt. Gen. Richard T. Tryon and his wife at a Friday Evening Parade at Marine Barracks Washington.

As the commander-in-chief of the Guam National Guard, the governor, as well as the president, may call on the Guard at a moment's notice to provide defense for the island, in a state of emergency.


The governor also delivers the annual State of the Island address (similar to the State of the State address in the US) to a special session of the Guam Legislature. The speech is given to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually, or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time", on the state or condition of the territory.

Seat and Residence[edit]

The Ricardo J. Bordallo Governor's Complex in Adelup, the seat of the Governor of Guam

Sitting along Route 1, the governor's seat of power is located in Adelup in the Ricardo J. Bordallo Governor's Complex, named after the island's 2nd and 4th governor, Ricardo Bordallo.

The Government House in Agaña Heights, the official residence of the Governor of Guam

The governor resides in his official residence at the Government House in Agaña Heights. The island's former Spanish and American military governors had resided in the Governor's Palace in the Plaza de España (Hagåtña) till its destruction in the shelling of Hagåtña during the reconquest of Guam in World War II.

The former Government House at Plaza de España in Hagåtña in 1930

Election Process[edit]

Eligibility[edit]

According to the Elective Governors Act:

"No person shall be eligible for election to the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor unless he is an eligible voter and has been for five consecutive years immediately preceding the election a citizen of the United States and a bona fide resident of Guam andill be, at the time of taking office, at least thirty years of age. The Governor shall maintain his official residence in Guam during his incumbency.[2]"

To be eligible, a candidate for Governor of Guam must:

  • an eligible voter of Guam
  • a United States citizen
  • at least thirty years of age.
  • has resided in Guam for five years, preceding the general election.

Election[edit]

According to the Elective Governor Acts of 1968, the Governor of Guam, together with the Lieutenant Governor, shall be elected by a majority of the votes cast by the people who are qualified to vote for the members of the Legislature of Guam. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen jointly, by the casting by each voter of a single vote applicable to both offices. The first election for Governor and Lieutenant Governor was held on November 3, 1970, with the election of Governor Carlos Camacho and Lt. Governor Kurt Moylan. Beginning in 1974, Guam's Governor and Lieutenant Governor is elected by direct vote, on the first Tuesday of November. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall hold office for a term of four years and until their successors are elected and qualified.

Inauguration[edit]

The Governor of Guam usually takes the oath of office on the first Monday of January. In past inaugurations, however, the governor-elect and lieutenant governor-elect would take the oath of office past midnight on Monday morning. Incumbent governor Eddie Baza Calvo and Lieutenant Governor Ray Tenorio in 2010 chose to be inaugurated one minute past midnight to prevent "a legal wrangle" on who was governor until his public inauguration.[3] Traditionally, the lieutenant governor-elect takes the oath first and delivers his inaugural remarks, followed then by the incoming governor-elect. As soon as the governor takes the oath of office, four ruffles and flourishes are played then followed by "The Stars and Stripes Forever". The newly inaugurated governor delivers his inaugural address, an opportunity for the new leader to state his goals for the next 4 years.

Oath of office[edit]

Pursuant to the Guam Organic Act, the governor's term of office begins at midnight on the first Monday of January of the year following the election. The day marks the beginning of the four-year term of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Guam. Before executing his/her powers as the Governor of Guam, he/she must take an oath of office:

I, (name), duly elected Governor of Guam, do solemnly swear, in the presence of the Almighty God, that I will well and faithfully support the Constitution of the United States, the laws of the United States applicable to Guam, and the laws of Guam, and that I will conscientiously and impartially discharge my duties as the Governor of Guam.

In line with traditional oath-takings, governors have traditionally palmed a Bible and have added, "So help me God!" at the end of their oaths. The Governor of Guam is sworn in by the Chief Justice of Guam.

Tenure and term limits[edit]

The Governor of Guam is only limited two terms as prescribed in the Elective Governors Act:

  • No person who has been elected Governor for two full successive terms shall again be eligible to hold that office until one full term has intervened.
  • The term of the elected Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall commence on the first Monday of January following the date of election.

However, a former governor can be re-elected once again only after a full term has passed.

History[edit]

Spanish–American War era[edit]

During the Spanish colonial period, Guam was ruled from the Philippines as part of the Spanish East Indies by the Governor-General of the Philippines.

American capture of the territory (1898)[edit]

Image Name Term start Term end
Henry Glass.jpg Henry Glass, Admiral June 12, 1898 June 22, 1898
No image.png Francisco Martínez Portusach June 22, 1898 December 12, 1898

Political instability (1898–1899)[edit]

Image Name Term start Term end Notes
No image.png José Sisto December 12, 1898 December 31, 1898 overthrew Portusach
No image.png Venancio Roberto December 31, 1898 January 2, 1899 overthrew Sisto
No image.png José Sisto January 2, 1899 February 1, 1899 put back in power by US Navy
Edward D. Taussig.jpg Edward D. Taussig February 1, 1899 February 13, 1899 re-asserted USN authority, put a local council in place
No image.png Don Joaquin Perez y Cruz February 13, 1899 April 20, 1899 local council
No image.png William Coe April 20, 1899 May 9, 1899 local council
No image.png Louis A. Kaiser May 9, 1899 August 7, 1899 local council

American Naval governors (1899–1941)[edit]

# Image Name Term start Term end
1 Richard Leary.jpg Richard Phillips Leary August 7, 1899 July 12, 1900
No image.png William Edwin Safford
Acting
June 12, 1900 July 19, 1900
2 Seaton Schroeder Admiral US Navy.jpg Seaton Schroeder July 12, 1900 January 25, 1903
No image.png William Swift
Acting
January 25, 1903 February 6, 1903
3 No image.png William Elbridge Sewell February 6, 1903 May 16, 1904
Frank Schofield.jpg Frank Herman Schofield
Acting
January 11, 1904 January 28, 1904
3 No image.png Raymond Stone
Acting
January 28, 1904 May 16, 1904
4 No image.png George Leland Dyer May 16, 1904 November 2, 1905
5 Luke McNamee.jpg Luke McNamee November 2, 1905 December 3, 1906
6 Captain Templin Potts.jpg Templin Morris Potts December 3, 1906 October 3, 1907
Luke McNamee.jpg Luke McNamee
Acting
October 3, 1907 December 28, 1907
7 No image.png Edward John Dorn December 28, 1907 November 5, 1910
8 No image.png Frank Freyer November 5, 1910 January 21, 1911
9 No image.png George Salisbury January 21, 1911 January 30, 1912
10 Robert E. Coontz.jpg Robert Edward Coontz January 30, 1912 September 23, 1913
11 No image.png Alfred Walton Hinds September 23, 1913 March 28, 1914
12 William John Maxwell circa 1915.jpg William John Maxwell March 28, 1914 April 29, 1916
William Cronan as a Cadet.png William P. Cronan
Acting
April 29, 1916 May 18, 1916
No image.png Edward E. Simpson
Acting
May 18, 1916 May 30, 1916
13 Roy Campbell Smith, ca 1910.jpg Roy Campbell Smith May 30, 1916 November 18, 1918
14 WIlliam Gilmer.jpg William Gilmer November 18, 1918 November 22, 1919
No image.png William A. Hodgman November 22, 1919 December 21, 1919
15 WIlliam Gilmer.jpg William Gilmer December 21, 1919 July 7, 1920
16 No image.png Ivan Wettengel July 7, 1920 February 27, 1921
17 James S. Spore.jpg James Sutherland Spore February 27, 1921 February 7, 1922
Adelbert Althouse.jpg Adelbert Althouse
Acting
February 7, 1922 December 8, 1922
No image.png John P. Miller
Acting
December 8, 1922 December 14, 1922
18 Adelbert Althouse.jpg Adelbert Althouse December 14, 1922 August 4, 1923
19 No image.png Henry Bertram Price August 4, 1923 August 26, 1924
20 No image.png Alfred Winsor Brown August 26, 1924 August 7, 1926
23 No image.png Lloyd Stowell Shapley August 7, 1926 June 11, 1929
24 Willis W. Bradley cropped.jpg Willis W. Bradley June 11, 1929 March 15, 1931
25 No image.png Edmund Root March 15, 1931 June 21, 1933
26 George A. Alexander.jpg George A. Alexander June 21, 1933 March 27, 1936
27 No image.png Benjamin McCandlish March 27, 1936 February 8, 1938
28 No image.png James Thomas Alexander February 8, 1938 April 20, 1940
29 George McMillin.png George McMillin April 20, 1940 December 10, 1941

Japanese military governors (1941–1944)[edit]

Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office
Horii Tomitaro.jpg Tomitarō Horii
(1890–1942)
December 10, 1941 January 1942
Hayashi Hiromu January 1942 June 1942
Homura Teiichi June 1942 March 1944
Takeshi Takashina.jpg Takeshi Takashina
(1891–1944)
March 1944 July 28, 1944
Hideyoshi Obata.jpg Hideyoshi Obata
(1890–1944)
July 28, 1944 August 11, 1944

American military governors (1944–1949)[edit]

Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office
Roy Geiger.jpg Roy Stanley Geiger
(1885–1947)
July 21, 1944 August 10, 1944
Henry Louis Larsen, USMC.jpg Henry Louis Larsen
(1890–1962)
August 10, 1944 May 30, 1946
Charles A. Pownall.jpg Charles Alan Pownall
(1887–1975)
May 30, 1946 September 27, 1949

Appointed civilian governors (1949–1971)[edit]

# Governor
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Appointed by Acting Governor
1 Carlton Skinner.jpg   Carlton Skinner
(1913–2004)
September 17, 1949 April 22, 1953 Harry S. Truman Randall Herman
(February 20, 1953 – April 22, 1953)
2 No image.png   Ford Quint Elvidge
(1892–1980)
April 23, 1953 October 2, 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower William T. Corbett
(May 19, 1956 – October 2, 1956)
3 Richard Barrett Lowe.jpg   Richard Barrett Lowe
(1902–1972)
October 2, 1956 July 9, 1960 Marcellus Boss
(November 14, 1959 – August 22, 1960)
4 No image.png   Joseph Flores
(1900–1981)
July 9, 1960 May 20, 1961
5 No image.png   William Partlow Daniel
(1915–2006)
May 20, 1961 March 9, 1963 John F. Kennedy Manuel Flores Leon Guerrero
(January 20, 1963 – March 9, 1963)
6 ManuelLeonGuerrero.jpg   Manuel F. Leon Guerrero
(1914–1985)
March 9, 1963 July 20, 1969
Lyndon B. Johnson
7 Carlos G. Camacho.jpg   Carlos Camacho
(1924–1979)
July 20, 1969 January 4, 1971 Richard Nixon

Elected governors (1971–present)[edit]

  Democratic (3)       Republican (5)

Governor Served Party Elected Previous Office Lieutenant Governor
1 Carlos G. Camacho.jpg   Carlos Camacho
(1924–1979)
January 4, 1971

January 6, 1975
Republican 1970 Appointed Governor of Guam   Kurt S. Moylan
2   Ricardo Bordallo
(1927–1990)
January 6, 1975

January 1, 1979
Democratic 1974 Senator of the Guam Legislature   Rudolph G. Sablan
3   Paul McDonald Calvo
(1934–)
January 1, 1979

January 3, 1983
Republican 1978 Senator of the Guam Legislature   Joseph F. Ada
4   Ricardo Bordallo
(1927–1990)
January 3, 1983

January 5, 1987
Democratic 1982 Senator of the Guam Legislature   Edward Diego Reyes
5   Joseph F. Ada
(1943–)
January 3, 1987

January 2, 1995
Republican 1986
1990
Lieutenant Governor of Guam   Frank F. Blas
6   Carl T.C. Gutierrez
(1941–)
January 2, 1995

January 6, 2003
Democratic 1994
1998
Senator of the Guam Legislature   Madeleine Bordallo
7   Felix P. Camacho
(1957–)
January 6, 2003

January 3, 2011
Republican 2002
2006
Senator of the Guam Legislature   Kaleo Moylan
  Michael Cruz
8 Governor Eddie Calvo.jpg   Eddie J. Baza Calvo
(1961–)
January 3, 2011

Incumbent
Republican 2010
2014
Senator of the Guam Legislature   Ray Tenorio
9 Leon Guerrero-Tenorio 2018 (cropped).jpg   Lou Leon Guerrero
(?–)
January 7, 2019

Governor-elect
Democratic 2018 Senator of the Guam Legislature   Josh Tenorio

Living former governors[edit]

As of January 2017, four former governors were alive, the oldest being Paul McDonald Calvo (1979–1983, born 1934). The most recent governor to die was Ricardo Bordallo (1975–1979, 1983–1987), on January 31, 1990.

Name Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Paul McDonald Calvo
1979–1983
(1934-07-25) July 25, 1934 (age 84)
Joseph Franklin Ada
1987–1995
(1943-12-03) December 3, 1943 (age 74)
Carl Gutierrez
1995–2003
(1941-10-15) October 15, 1941 (age 77)
Felix Perez Camacho
2003–2011
(1957-10-30) October 30, 1957 (age 61)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/48/1422
  3. ^ https://pacificnewscenter.com/calvo-and-tenorio-actually-sworn-in-night-before-inauguration/

External links[edit]