List of governors of Louisiana

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Governor of Louisiana
Gouverneurs de Louisiane
Seal of Louisiana.svg
John Bel Edwards (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
John Bel Edwards

since January 11, 2016
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceLouisiana Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once[1]
PrecursorGovernor of Orleans Territory
Inaugural holderWilliam C. C. Claiborne
FormationApril 30, 1812
(207 years ago)
 (1812-04-30)
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Louisiana
SalaryUS$130,000 per year
(2013)[2]
WebsiteOfficial Website

The Governor of Louisiana is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Louisiana. The governor is the head of the executive branch of Louisiana's state government and is charged with enforcing state laws.

Governors[edit]

Governor of the Territory of Orleans[edit]

Louisiana was purchased by the United States from France in 1803.[3] On October 1, 1804, Orleans Territory was organized from the southern part of the Purchase, with the remainder being made the District of Louisiana and placed under the jurisdiction of Indiana Territory.[4] The District of Louisiana would later become Louisiana Territory, but after Orleans Territory became the state of Louisiana, Louisiana Territory was renamed Missouri Territory.[5]

Governor of the Territory of Orleans
Governor Term in office Appointed by
William C C Claiborne rectangleLAState.jpg William C. C. Claiborne December 20, 1803[a]

July 30, 1812
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison

Governors of the State of Louisiana[edit]

Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.[7] It seceded from the Union on January 26, 1861,[8] and was a founding member of the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861.[9] However, since substantial parts of the state remained in Union hands throughout the war, there were two lines of governors elected. Following the end of the American Civil War, Louisiana during Reconstruction was part of the Fifth Military District, which exerted some control over governor appointments and elections.[10] Louisiana was readmitted to the Union on July 9, 1868.[11]

The 1812 constitution established the office of governor, to serve for four years[12] starting from the fourth Monday after the election.[13]. In 1845, the start date was moved to the fourth Monday of the January after the election;[14] in 1864, it was moved to the second Monday of the January after the election;[15]; in 1879 it was moved to the first Monday after the General Assembly announced the election result;[16] and in 1974, it was set to the second Monday of the January following the election.[17]. Governors were not allowed to succeed themselves[18] until 1864, when the constitution held no term limits. The restriction on governors succeeding themselves was reintroduced in 1868,[19] removed again in 1879, and again added in 1898.[20] An amendment to the constitution passed in 1966 allowed governors to succeed themselves once before requiring a gap before they can be elected again.[citation needed]

In the event of a vacancy, the President of the Senate originally acted as governor.[21] The 1845 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor, to be elected at the same time and manner as the governor[22] and who would act as governor in the event of a vacancy.[23] The 1913 constitution established that the lieutenant governor would become governor in case of a vacancy.[24] The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on a ticket.[25]

Governors of the State of Louisiana[b]
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[c]
1 William C C Claiborne rectangleLAState.jpg   William C. C. Claiborne July 30, 1812[d]

December 17, 1816
(term limited)
Democratic-
Republican
1812 Office did not exist
2 Jacques Villere.jpg Jacques Villeré December 17, 1816[e]

December 18, 1820
(term limited)
Democratic-
Republican
1816
3 Governor Thomas B. Robertson.jpg Thomas B. Robertson December 18, 1820

November 15, 1824
(resigned)[f]
Democratic-
Republican
1820
4 Thibodaux.jpg Henry S. Thibodaux November 15, 1824

December 13, 1824
(successor took office)
Democratic-
Republican
President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
5 H.S.Johnson.jpg Henry Johnson December 13, 1824

December 15, 1828
(term limited)
Democratic-
Republican
1824
6 Pierre Derbigny.jpg Pierre Derbigny December 15, 1828

October 6, 1829
(died in office)
National
Republican
1828
7 ArmandBeauvais.jpg Armand Beauvais October 6, 1829

January 14, 1830
(senate term ended)[g]
National
Republican
President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
8 Jacques Dupré.jpg Jacques Dupré January 14, 1830

January 31, 1831
(not candidate for election)
National
Republican
President of
the Senate
acting as
Governor
9 AndreRoman.jpg Andre B. Roman January 31, 1831

February 2, 1835
National
Republican
1830
(special)[h]
10 EDWhiteSr.jpg Edward Douglass White Sr. February 2, 1835[32]

February 4, 1839
(term limited)
Whig 1834
9 AndreRoman.jpg Andre B. Roman February 4, 1839

January 30, 1843
(term limited)
Whig 1838
11 Alexandre Mouton jeune.jpg Alexandre Mouton January 30, 1843

February 12, 1846
(term limited)
Democratic 1842[i]
12 IsaacJohnson.jpg Isaac Johnson February 12, 1846[j]

January 28, 1850
(term limited)
Democratic 1846   Trasimond Landry
13 Joseph Marshall Walker - Gouverneur.jpg Joseph Marshall Walker January 28, 1850

January 18, 1853
(resigned)[k]
Democratic 1849[l] Jean Baptiste Plauché
14 Paul Octave Hébert.jpg Paul Octave Hébert January 18, 1853[m]

January 28, 1856
(term limited)
Democratic 1852 William W. Farmer
(died October 29, 1854)
Robert C. Wickliffe
15 RobertWickliffe.jpg Robert C. Wickliffe January 28, 1856[n]

January 23, 1860
(term limited)
Democratic 1855 Charles Homer Mouton
(resigned 1856)
William F. Griffin
16 ThomasOvertonMoore.jpg Thomas Overton Moore January 23, 1860

January 25, 1864
(term limited)
Democratic 1859[o] Henry M. Hyams
17 Gen. George F. Shepley - NARA - 528647.jpg George Foster Shepley June 2, 1862

March 4, 1864
(successor took office)
Military
(Union)[o][p]
Vacant
18 HWAllen.jpg Henry Watkins Allen January 25, 1864

June 2, 1865
(resigned)[q]
Democratic 1863
(Confederate)[o]
  Benjamin W. Pearce
19 Michael Hahn.jpg Michael Hahn March 4, 1864

March 4, 1865
(resigned)[r]
Republican 1864
(Union)[o]
James Madison Wells
20 James Madison Wells.jpg James Madison Wells March 4, 1865

June 3, 1867
(removed)[s]
Republican Lieutenant
Governor
acting as
Governor
Vacant
1865[o] Albert Voorhies[t]
21 Benjamin Franklin Flanders.jpg Benjamin Flanders June 6, 1867[u]

January 2, 1868
(resigned)[v]
Republican Provisional
governor
appointed by
military
occupation
Vacant
22 Joshua Baker.jpg Joshua Baker January 8, 1868[w]

June 27, 1868
(removed)[x]
Democratic Provisional
governor
appointed by
military
occupation
23 Henry Clay Warmoth.jpg Henry C. Warmoth June 27, 1868

December 9, 1872
(removed from office)[y]
Republican Provisional
governor
appointed by
military
occupation
[50]
Oscar Dunn
(died November 22, 1871)
1868
Vacant
P. B. S. Pinchback
(appointed December 6, 1871)
24 P. B. S. Pinchback - Brady-Handy.jpg P. B. S. Pinchback December 9, 1872

January 13, 1873
(successor took office)
Republican Lieutenant
Governor
acting as
Governor
Vacant
25 John McEnery.jpg John McEnery January 13, 1873

May 22, 1873
(removed)[z]
Democratic 1872[z] Davidson B. Penn
26 William P. Kellogg - Brady-Handy.jpg William Pitt Kellogg January 13, 1873

January 8, 1877
(term limited)
Republican Caesar Antoine
27 Stephen B. Packard - History of Iowa.jpg Stephen B. Packard January 8, 1877

April 25, 1877
(removed)[aa]
Republican 1876[aa][ab]
28 Francis T. Nicholls.jpg Francis T. Nicholls January 8, 1877

January 14, 1880
(term limited)
Democratic Louis A. Wiltz
29 Louis Alfred Wiltz.jpg Louis A. Wiltz January 14, 1880[ac]

October 16, 1881
(died in office)
Democratic 1879 Samuel D. McEnery
30 Samuel Douglas McEnery.jpg Samuel D. McEnery October 16, 1881

May 21, 1888
(not candidate for election)
Democratic Lieutenant
Governor
acting as
Governor
William A. Robertson
(removed December 24, 1881)
George L. Walton
1884 Clay Knobloch
28 Francis T. Nicholls.jpg Francis T. Nicholls May 21, 1888[ad]

May 16, 1892
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1888 James Jeffries
31 Murphy James Foster.jpg Murphy J. Foster May 16, 1892[ae]

May 21, 1900
(term limited)
Democratic 1892 Charles Parlange
(resigned December 11, 1893)
Hiram R. Lott
(died June 2, 1895)
Robert H. Snyder
1896
32 William Wright Heard.jpg William Wright Heard May 21, 1900[af]

May 16, 1904
(term limited)
Democratic 1900 Albert Estopinal
33 Newton Crain Blanchard.jpg Newton C. Blanchard May 16, 1904[ag]

May 18, 1908
(term limited)
Democratic 1904 Jared Y. Sanders Sr.
34 Jared Young Sanders.jpg Jared Y. Sanders Sr. May 18, 1908[ah]

May 20, 1912
(term limited)
Democratic 1908 Paul M. Lambremont
35 Luther Egbert Hall - Gouverneur von Louisiana.jpg Luther E. Hall May 20, 1912[ai]

May 15, 1916
(term limited)
Democratic 1912 Thomas C. Barret
36 Ruffin Golson Pleasant.jpg Ruffin Pleasant May 15, 1916[aj]

May 17, 1920
(term limited)
Democratic 1916 Fernand Mouton
37 GovJohnParker.jpg John M. Parker May 17, 1920[ak]

May 19, 1924
(term limited)
Democratic 1920 Hewitt Bouanchaud
(resigned April 12, 1924)
Delos R. Johnson
38 GovFuqua.jpg Henry L. Fuqua May 19, 1924[al]

October 11, 1926
(died in office)
Democratic 1924 Oramel H. Simpson
39 GovOSimpson.jpg Oramel H. Simpson October 11, 1926

May 21, 1928
(lost election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Philip H. Gilbert
40 HueyPLong.jpg Huey Long May 21, 1928

January 25, 1932
(resigned)[am]
Democratic 1928 Paul N. Cyr
(removed March 4, 1931)[am]
Alvin Olin King
41 GovKing.jpg Alvin Olin King January 25, 1932

May 16, 1932
(successor took office)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
42 Oscar K. Allen.jpg Oscar K. Allen May 16, 1932

January 28, 1936
(died in office)
Democratic 1932 John B. Fournet
(resigned January 2, 1935)
James A. Noe
43 James Noe portrait.jpg James A. Noe January 28, 1936

May 12, 1936
(successor took office)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Vacant
44 Gov Richard Leche.jpg Richard W. Leche May 12, 1936

June 26, 1939
(resigned)[an]
Democratic 1936 Earl Long
45 Earl Long portrait.jpg Earl Long June 26, 1939

May 14, 1940
(lost election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
Coleman Lindsey
46 Sam H. Jones portrait.jpg Sam H. Jones May 14, 1940

May 9, 1944
(term limited)
Democratic 1940 Marc M. Mouton
47 GovernorJamesDavis.jpg Jimmie Davis May 9, 1944

May 11, 1948
(term limited)
Democratic 1944 J. Emile Verret
45 Earl Long portrait.jpg Earl Long May 11, 1948

May 13, 1952
(term limited)
Democratic 1948 Bill Dodd
48 Robert F. Kennon portrait.jpg Robert F. Kennon May 13, 1952

May 8, 1956
(term limited)
Democratic 1952 C. E. "Cap" Barham
45 Earl Long portrait.jpg Earl Long May 8, 1956

May 10, 1960
(term limited)
Democratic 1956 Lether Frazar
47 GovernorJamesDavis.jpg Jimmie Davis May 10, 1960

May 12, 1964
(term limited)
Democratic 1959–60 Taddy Aycock
49 John McKeithen May 12, 1964

May 9, 1972
(term limited)
Democratic 1963–64
1967
50 Edwin Edwards.jpg Edwin Edwards May 9, 1972

March 10, 1980
(term limited)
Democratic 1971–72 Jimmy Fitzmorris
1975
51 Dave Treen.jpg Dave Treen March 10, 1980

March 12, 1984
(lost election)
Republican 1979 Bobby Freeman
50 Edwin Edwards.jpg Edwin Edwards March 12, 1984

March 14, 1988
(lost election)
Democratic 1983
52 Buddy Roemer Congress.jpg Buddy Roemer March 14, 1988

January 13, 1992
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1987 Paul Hardy
Republican
50 Edwin Edwards.jpg Edwin Edwards January 13, 1992

January 8, 1996
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1991 Melinda Schwegmann
53 GovFoster1 (cropped).JPG Mike Foster January 8, 1996

January 12, 2004
(term limited)
Republican 1995 Kathleen Blanco
1999
54 KBlancoChalmetteIce.jpg Kathleen Blanco January 12, 2004

January 14, 2008
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 2003 Mitch Landrieu
(resigned May 3, 2010)
55 U.S. Governor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal speaking at the 2011 Values Voter Summit in Washington, D.C (cropped).jpg Bobby Jindal January 14, 2008

January 11, 2016
(term limited)
Republican 2007
Scott Angelle
Jay Dardenne
(elected November 22, 2010)
2011
56 John Bel Edwards 2015.jpg John Bel Edwards January 11, 2016

present[ao]
Democratic 2015 Billy Nungesser

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Claiborne received his commission on October 31, 1803, and proclaimed the acquisition of Louisiana in New Orleans on this date.[6]
  2. ^ Data is sourced from the National Governors Association, unless supplemental references are required.
  3. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  4. ^ Louisiana became a state on April 30, 1812, but Claiborne was not sworn in as state governor until July 30.[26]
  5. ^ Sources say Villeré took office on December 17; however, this was not a Monday, as specified in the constitution. It is not known why this occurred.[27]
  6. ^ Robertson resigned to take a joint seat on the United States District Court for both the Eastern and Western Districts of Louisiana.[28]
  7. ^ Sources disagree on why Beauvais' term ended; some say he lost his bid to be reelected as senate president,[29], while others say he resigned so that he could run for governor.[30]
  8. ^ Special election called due to the death of Pierre Derbigny and the succession crisis that followed.[31]
  9. ^ The 1845 constitution adjusted the election schedule, shortening this term to three years.
  10. ^ The 1845 constitution provided that the first governor elected under it "shall be duly installed in office during the first week of their session", explaining the off-schedule commencement date of Thursday, February 12.[33]
  11. ^ While all sources state Walker resigned due to objections to the 1852 constitution,[34][35][36] there is no mention made of Hébert taking office early; it's possible that Walker's resignation was a symbolic one of protest on his last day, or that it was so close to the end of the term that Hébert simply took office then. No known source elaborates.
  12. ^ The 1852 constitution adjusted the election schedule, shortening this term to three years.
  13. ^ The 1852 constitution provided that the first governor elected under it "shall be duly installed in office during the first week of the session", explaining the off-schedule commencement date of Tuesday, January 18.[37]
  14. ^ Most sources state Wickliffe took office on January 22[38] or January 30;[39] however, contemporary news coverage indicates it happened on Monday, January 28.[40]
  15. ^ a b c d e The area around New Orleans was captured by the Union on April 25, 1862. The control was enough that it operated within the United States as the legitimate state of Louisiana, electing members to the United States House of Representatives. With both governments being considered legitimate, both lines are included in all lists of governors. The schism ended when the Confederate governor fled and the whole state came under Union control.
  16. ^ Shepley was appointed military governor by General Benjamin Butler.[41]
  17. ^ Allen fled to Mexico to avoid capture following the American Civil War.[42]
  18. ^ Hahn resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; however, congressmen from the Confederate states were denied their seats in the 39th United States Congress.[43]
  19. ^ Wells was removed from office by General Philip Sheridan for failing to properly implement Reconstruction reforms.[44]
  20. ^ Represented the Democratic Party
  21. ^ Thomas J. Durant was appointed to replace Wells,[45] but declined the appointment.[46] Flanders was then appointed on June 6 by General Philip Sheridan.[46]
  22. ^ Flanders resigned due to Major General Winfield Scott Hancock's removing Radical Republicans that Flanders had appointed to positions in state government.[47]
  23. ^ Baker was appointed by General Winfield Scott Hancock on January 2 to replace Benjamin Flanders,[48] though he would not take the oath of office until January 8.[49]
  24. ^ Baker was removed from office by General Ulysses S. Grant.[50]
  25. ^ During the 1872 election, Warmoth endorsed John McEnery for governor, and the State Returning Board, which he appointed, declared McEnery the winner. However, a rival board declared William Pitt Kellogg the winner, and the legislature impeached Warmoth on charges related to the election. Impeached officials are suspended from office, so at this time, P. B. S. Pinchback filled the office. The term expired only 35 days later, at which point impeachment charges were dropped, as Warmoth was no longer governor.
  26. ^ a b The State Election Board certified McEnery as the winner of the 1872 election; however, a rival board declared Kellogg the winner, and the legislature went with that. Both McEnery and Kellogg declared victory and formed governments, and conflict culminated in the Battle of Liberty Place and the Colfax massacre. President Ulysses S. Grant issued a proclamation on May 22, 1873, declaring Kellogg the winner.[51][52]
  27. ^ a b Much like the 1872 election, this election was disputed. Both Packard and Nicholls declared victory and formed governments, until President Rutherford B. Hayes recognized Nicholls as governor in the Compromise of 1877.[53]
  28. ^ The 1879 constitution adjusted the election schedule, shortening this term to three years.
  29. ^ Sources say Wiltz took office on January 14; however, this was not a Monday, as specified in the constitution. It is not known why this occurred.[54]
  30. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Nicholls took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 21, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  31. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Foster took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 16, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  32. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Heard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 21, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  33. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Blanchard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 16, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  34. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Blanchard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 18, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  35. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Blanchard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 20, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  36. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Blanchard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 15, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  37. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Blanchard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 17, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  38. ^ Sources are not in agreement on when Blanchard took office; the constitutional start date would have been May 19, and several contemporary news sources say he was inaugurated that day.[citation needed]
  39. ^ a b Long was elected to the United States Senate for a term beginning March 4, 1931; however, he did not take the seat until January 25, 1932. This was in part to prevent Lieutenant Governor Cyr from replacing him as governor. When the senate term began, Cyr took the oath of office as governor and claimed the office; however, Long called this illegitimate, and said that by taking the oath of office of the governor, he had resigned from being lieutenant governor. This opened the way for the president pro tempore of the senate, Alvin Olin King, to become lieutenant governor, and ultimately succeed Long. Cyr continued to claim the office of governor on and off until 1932, but ultimately lacked recognition.[55][56]
  40. ^ Leche resigned due to a scandal involving mail fraud.[57]
  41. ^ Bel Edwards's first term expires January 13, 2020.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Louisiana Constitution of 1974" (PDF). Article IV, section 3. A person who has served as governor for more than one and one-half terms in two consecutive terms shall not be elected governor for the succeeding term.
  2. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  3. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K. (1976). Boundaries of the United States and the Several States: With Miscellaneous Geographic Information Concerning Areas, Altitudes, and Geographic Centers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 23–26. OCLC 69426475.
  4. ^ Stat. 283
  5. ^ Stat. 743
  6. ^ "Claiborne, Proclamation to the People of New Orleans, 1803". Humanities Texas. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  7. ^ Stat. 701
  8. ^ "Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States". University of Houston. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  9. ^ Constitution for the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America Archived August 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, accessed July 8, 2015
  10. ^ Bradley, Mark L. (2015). The Army and Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (PDF). United States Army Center of Military History. p. 31. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  11. ^ Act authorizing readmission on ratification of 14th amendment: 15 Stat. 73. Proclamation of Louisiana's ratification: 15 Stat. 704.
  12. ^ 1812 Const., art. III, § 2
  13. ^ 1812 Const., art. III, § 5
  14. ^ 1845 Const., art. 40
  15. ^ 1864 Const., art. 45
  16. ^ 1879 Const., art. 61
  17. ^ LA Const., art. IV, § 3
  18. ^ 1812 Const., art. III, § 3
  19. ^ 1868 Const., art. 50
  20. ^ 1898 Const., art. 63
  21. ^ 1812 Const., art III, § 17
  22. ^ 1845 Const., art. 38
  23. ^ 1845 Const., art. 43
  24. ^ 1913 Const., art. 66
  25. ^ "Joint election ticket for Louisiana governor, lt. governor rejected". The Times-Picayune. Associated Press. May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  26. ^ Brown, Everett Somerville (1920). The Constitutional History of the Louisiana Purchase, 1803-1812. University of California Press. p. 195. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  27. ^ "Jacques Philippe Villere". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  28. ^ "Thomas Bolling Robertson". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  29. ^ "Armand Beauvais". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  30. ^ "Armand Julie Beauvais". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  31. ^ "Andre Vienvenu Roman". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  32. ^ "Edward Douglass White". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  33. ^ 1845 Const., art. 153
  34. ^ "Joseph Marshall Walker". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  35. ^ "Joseph M. Walker". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  36. ^ White, J. T. (1900). The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. 10. p. 77. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  37. ^ 1852 Const., art. 153
  38. ^ Reeves, Miriam (1962). The Governors of Louisiana. Pelican Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 9781455605200. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  39. ^ "Robert Wickliffe". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  40. ^ "The Inauguration Ceremonies". Baton Rouge Daily Gazette and Comet. January 29, 1856. p. 2. Retrieved July 3, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  41. ^ "Gen. George F. Shepley". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  42. ^ "Henry Watkins Allen". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  43. ^ "Michael Hahn". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  44. ^ "James Madison Wells". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  45. ^ "The Governor Question". New Orleans Republican. June 4, 1867. p. 1. Retrieved July 3, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  46. ^ a b "Removal of Gov. Wells". New Orleans Republican. June 7, 1867. p. 1. Retrieved July 3, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ "Louisiana Governors 1861-1877". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  48. ^ "Joshua Baker". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  49. ^ McPherson, Edward (1868). A Political Manual for 1868. Philip & Solomons. p. 325. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  50. ^ a b "Important Military Order". New Orleans Republican. June 28, 1868. p. 1. Retrieved July 3, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  51. ^ "William Pitt Kellogg is officially named Governor of Louisiana by President Grant". University of Richmond. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  52. ^ "Statutes of the United States of America passed at the First Session of the Forty-Third Congress". United States Government Printing Office. p. 293. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  53. ^ Kelman, Ari (April 24, 2008). ""The Surrender Complete"". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  54. ^ "Editorial Correspondence". Louisiana Capitolian. January 17, 1880. p. 2. Retrieved July 4, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  55. ^ "Alvin Olin King". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  56. ^ "Alvin O. King". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  57. ^ "Richard W. Leche". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved July 4, 2019.

External links[edit]